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UCLA - CHICANO 10 - Study Guide - Midterm

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UCLA - CHICANO 10 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image Chicanx  Studies 10A, Fall 2017    Study  Guide for Midterm Exam        MIDTERM FORMAT: 
Three​ ​sections: 
1st​ ​section​:​ ​definition,​ ​significance,​ ​and​ ​give​ ​an​ ​example​ ​from​ ​class​ ​or​ ​book​ ​only.​ ​One 
paragraph,​ ​think​ ​big​ ​picture​ ​don't​ ​worry​ ​as​ ​much​ ​on​ ​tiny​ ​details 
2nd​ ​section​:​ ​direct,​ ​fact​ ​based​ ​questions,​ ​not​ ​opinion​ ​but​ ​what​ ​we've​ ​written,​ ​two 
paragraphs 
3rd​ ​section​:​ ​essay,​ ​not​ ​specific​ ​but​ ​you’ll​ ​know​ ​if​ ​you​ ​are​ ​done​ ​or​ ​not​ ​b/c​ ​there​ ​are 
steps 
For essay question:   - 5-7 paragraphs 
- Example:
 give you a section and ask what you would say in the scenario, 
draw from specific readings, draw examples from very specific examples, 
this
 is all to support your argument opinions  
 
 
 
Key
 Terms and Concepts for Definition:  
 
Intersectionality 
Factors​ ​that​ ​make​ ​you​ ​who​ ​you​ ​are  A​ ​way​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​related​ ​systems​ ​of​ ​oppression.​ ​A​ ​way​ ​of​ ​seeing​ ​power​ ​as 
multi-dimensional 
Multiple oppressions (race, ethnicity, gender, age, culture, class, 
education)
 can interrelate, like an intersection of multiple forms of 
discrimination 
These​ ​affect​ ​your​ ​place​ ​in​ ​society​ ​and​ ​how​ ​you​ ​are​ ​perceived​ ​in​ ​society  Chicana Power! for intersectionality:  Blackwell​ ​shows​ ​the​ ​ways​ ​in​ ​which​ ​Chicanas​ ​were​ ​marginalized.​ ​Instead 
of​ ​working​ ​with​ ​Chicanas,​ ​Chicanos​ ​preferred​ ​that​ ​the​ ​Chicana​ ​​remained 
in
 her place as a woman, and to not leave the kitchen​​ ​(gender)​ ​and​ ​to 
remain​ ​as​ ​child-bearers.​ ​The​ ​Chicana​ ​movement​ ​was​ ​labeled​ ​as​ ​“lesbian” 
and​ ​“white”​ ​by​ ​those​ ​who​ ​oppose​ ​it​ ​from​ ​non-Chicana​ ​and​ ​Chicana 
perspectives​ ​alike.  
Blackwell​ ​also​ ​reveals​ ​the​ ​​historical dominance of men in the fields of 
Chicanx
 history and studies ​​(cultural).​ ​The​ ​stereotypes​ ​of​ ​Chicanas​ ​as 
 
background image race​ ​traitors,​ ​sell-outs,​ ​and​ ​white-women​ ​wannabes​ ​kept​ ​many​ ​away 
from​ ​these​ ​fields​ ​of​ ​study.​ ​And​ ​feminism​ ​was​ ​seen​ ​antagonistic​ ​to​ ​the 
Chicano​ ​culture​ ​and​ ​a​ ​white-woman’s​ ​movement 
So​ ​Blackwell​ ​reveals​ ​that​ ​Chicanas​ ​had​ ​suffered​ ​from​ ​their​ ​gender, 
sexual,​ ​cultural,​ ​and​ ​racial​ ​identity 
 
Racial Capitalism 
The​ ​argument​ ​that​ ​capitalism​ ​is​ ​organized​ ​around​ ​racism…​ ​The​ ​​process of 
deriving
 social or economic value from the racial identity of another person 
Depends​ ​on​ ​manipulation​ ​of​ ​racial​ ​outsiders  Promotes racism as false competition and false superiority  Oppression​ ​of​ ​other​ ​races  Ex:​ ​Black​ ​and​ ​brown​ ​communities​ ​put​ ​in​ ​poor​ ​housing​ ​areas  This​ ​was​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Federal​ ​Housing​ ​Act   Capitalism​ ​and​ ​racism​ ​evolved​ ​from​ ​feudalism   Produced​ ​a​ ​modern​ ​world​ ​system​ ​of​ ​"racial​ ​capitalism"​ ​dependent​ ​on​ ​slavery 
violence​ ​imperialism​ ​and​ ​genocide 
Possessive Investment in Whiteness  During​ ​the​ ​Stono​ ​Rebellion,​ ​colonial​ ​authorities​ ​offered​ ​Native​ ​Americans 
a​ ​bounty​ ​for​ ​every​ ​rebellious​ ​slave​ ​they​ ​captured​ ​or​ ​killed 
Federal​ ​Housing​ ​Act​ ​(pg.​ ​5)​ ​channeling​ ​loans​ ​towards​ ​white​ ​communities 
and​ ​away​ ​from​ ​color​ ​communities. 
Black and Brown Blacks were seen as the guardians of white supremacy, while they 
struggled
 to fight for white approval​​ ​(the​ ​whites​ ​took​ ​advantage​ ​of​ ​the 
fact​ ​that​ ​the​ ​Buffalo​ ​Soldiers​ ​would​ ​fight​ ​for​ ​them​ ​against​ ​Native 
Americans​ ​and​ ​Mexicans​ ​because​ ​they​ ​were​ ​seeking​ ​for​ ​white​ ​approval) 
■ The  Buffalo soldiers:​​ ​​ regiments​ ​of​ ​African-American​ ​men​ ​that  served​ ​on​ ​the​ ​western​ ​frontier,​ ​battling​ ​Indians​ ​and​ ​protecting 
settlers.​ ​The​ ​buffalo​ ​soldiers​ ​included​ ​two​ ​regiments​ ​of​ ​all-black 
cavalry. 
  Bracero Program(1942-1964)​:​ ​The​ ​US​ ​has​ ​had​ ​a​ ​history​ ​of​ ​tensions​ ​with 
Mexico​ ​and​ ​it’s​ ​people;​ ​​but when the country found itself in a labor crisis for 
agriculture,
 the solution was to incorporate Mexican workers and offer 
income,
 not wealth, in order to deal with the labor shortage​.​ ​The​ ​capital​ ​that 
was​ ​being​ ​sold​ ​as​ ​an​ ​opportunity​ ​for​ ​Mexican​ ​laborers​ ​was​ ​​in fact an 
opportunity
 for the US to benefit from the workers​​ ​as​ ​well​ ​if​ ​not​ ​more. 
Story​ ​of​ ​Henry​ ​Flipper  Flipper​ ​constantly​ ​identified​ ​himself​ ​as​ ​a​ ​US​ ​citizen   
background image Never​ ​turned​ ​back​ ​on​ ​US​ ​for​ ​Mexico  Tried​ ​to​ ​benefit​ ​from​ ​white​ ​supremacy,​ ​but​ ​ended​ ​up​ ​poor  “Had​ ​Flipper​ ​not​ ​been​ ​a​ ​negro​ ​he​ ​could​ ​have​ ​benefitted 
handsomely​ ​from​ ​the​ ​white​ ​supremacist​ ​cause​ ​he​ ​served​ ​so 
well”​ ​pg.​ ​40 
 
Wealth vs. Income 
Most​ ​of​ ​the​ ​time​ ​wealth​ ​is​ ​inherited;​ ​however,​ ​you​ ​can​ ​also​ ​achieve​ ​wealth. 
Formula​ ​for​ ​wealth:​ ​your​ ​assets​ ​against​ ​your​ ​debts/liabilities.​ ​Income​ ​differs 
from​ ​wealth​ ​because​ ​income​ ​is​ ​always​ ​earned.​ ​Wealth​ ​is​ ​synonymous​ ​with 
stability​ ​(you​ ​don’t​ ​have​ ​to​ ​rely​ ​on​ ​your​ ​income​ ​because​ ​you​ ​have​ ​something​ ​to 
fall​ ​back​ ​on) 
Income is the money received on a regular basis​.​ ​​Wealth is the value of 
what
 you own minus what you owe​.​ ​Wealth​ ​is​ ​influenced​ ​by​ ​the​ ​net​ ​worth​ ​of 
our​ ​parents,​ ​grandparents,​ ​and​ ​earlier​ ​generations 
Even​ ​for​ ​people​ ​who​ ​don’t​ ​inherit​ ​money​ ​after​ ​their​ ​parents’​ ​death,​ ​family’s 
education​ ​and​ ​social​ ​contacts​ ​and​ ​financial​ ​help​ ​from​ ​living​ ​relatives​ ​makes​ ​a 
difference 
Illuminates​ ​the​ ​wealth​ ​of​ ​whites​ ​over​ ​minorities  Wealth - things that are passed down generationally, like cars, trust funds, 
houses,
 and inheritances 
Income​ ​-​ ​weekly​ ​money​ ​acquired  Ex:​ ​Paycheck  Transgenerational​ ​wealth  The working class relies on income and not wealth   
Hegemony 
When the ruling class of a culturally diverse society dominates and 
manipulates
 the culture of that society (the beliefs, explanations, 
perceptions
 and values) so that their worldview becomes the accepted 
cultural
 norm and dominant ideology​.​ ​This​ ​makes​ ​the​ ​status​ ​quo​ ​seem 
natural,​ ​inevitable​ ​and​ ​beneficial​ ​to​ ​everyone​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​a​ ​fake​ ​social​ ​construct 
that​ ​only​ ​benefits​ ​the​ ​ruling​ ​class.​ ​​Acts of lower class resistance are 
significant
 because they challenge the construction of hegemony 
The invisible power of dominance​.​ ​​People don’t question these power 
sources
​​ ​​because they are​​ ​normalized​ ​and​ ​​accepted​.​ ​Hegemony​ ​is​ ​not​ ​limited 
to​ ​race,​ ​it​ ​can​ ​be​ ​seen​ ​in​ ​wealth,​ ​politics,​ ​and​ ​space​ ​as​ ​well.​ ​For​ ​example, 
hetero-normalization​ ​is​ ​the​ ​standard​ ​and​ ​trans/queer​ ​individuals​ ​are​ ​considered 
different​ ​and​ ​noteworthy. 
 
background image In​ ​other​ ​words:​ ​it​ ​is​ ​the​ ​naturalization​ ​of​ ​the​ ​social​ ​order;​ ​power​ ​structures​ ​exist 
and​ ​we​ ​assume​ ​they​ ​are​ ​supposed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​that​ ​way​ ​because​ ​they​ ​are​ ​so 
normalized;​ ​it​ ​​also relates to wealth/gender identity (ex: seeing a boy and 
girl
 couple does not stand out to you, but seeing a gay couple does) 
Power​ ​-​ ​being​ ​white​ ​makes​ ​them​ ​powerful​ ​because​ ​it's​ ​what​ ​others​ ​want​ ​to​ ​be   The​ ​idealistic​ ​way​ ​of​ ​wanting​ ​to​ ​have​ ​“blonde​ ​hair”,​ ​“blue​ ​eyes”  Ex: Youtube video (A Girl Like Me)- the child choosing white dolls… white 
doll
 is “pretty”, “nice”, “good”; while black doll is “bad”   
Ex:​ ​bleaching​ ​skin​ ​to​ ​contain​ ​this​ ​white​ ​hegemony   
Whiteness 
Whiteness is a structured advantage that produces unfair gains and 
unearned
 rewards for whites, while imposing impediments to asset 
accumulation,
 employment, housing, and health care for minorities 
This​ ​term​ ​is​ ​specifically​ ​referring​ ​to​ ​someone​ ​of​ ​European​ ​descent;​ ​​in society it 
does
 not have to be explained because it is implied​, (doesn't​ ​have​ ​to​ ​say​ ​its 
name)​ ​as​ ​explained​ ​in​ ​“Possessive​ ​Investment​ ​in​ ​Whiteness” 
George Lipsitz’s ​​Possessive Investment in Whiteness​:  The​ ​power​ ​of​ ​whiteness​ ​depends​ ​not​ ​only​ ​on​ ​white​ ​hegemony​ ​over 
separate​ ​groups​ ​but​ ​on​ ​manipulation​ ​of​ ​racial​ ​outsiders,​ ​to​ ​fight​ ​against 
one​ ​another,​ ​to​ ​compete​ ​with​ ​each​ ​other​ ​for​ ​white​ ​approval,​ ​and​ ​to​ ​seek 
the​ ​rewards​ ​and​ ​privileges​ ​of​ ​whiteness​ ​for​ ​themselves​ ​at​ ​the​ ​expense​ ​of 
other​ ​racialized​ ​populations 
History shows that white people were innately superior because they 
were
 given more life chances and advantages, such as better 
houses,
 schools, jobs, etc. This created the lure of whiteness 
(wanting
 to claim whiteness to gain the same advantages) 
Whiteness​ ​never​ ​has​ ​to​ ​speak​ ​its​ ​name;​ ​​people just know that white is 
better 
Some​ ​Native​ ​Americans​ ​held​ ​slaves​ ​in​ ​part​ ​because​ ​they​ ​saw​ ​slave 
owners​ ​as​ ​more​ ​civilized 
Gerald Horne’s ​​Black and Brown African Americans fought under the Buffalo Soldier divisions in order 
to
 receive privileges (like higher pay) that were exclusive to white 
people
​​ ​in​ ​the​ ​early​ ​20th​ ​century 
Something​ ​that​ ​is​ ​present​ ​but​ ​you​ ​cannot​ ​see​ ​it  Anyone​ ​who​ ​looks​ ​can​ ​benefit​ ​from​ ​it  The​ ​norm​ ​or​ ​standard   
background image “Whiteness​ ​is,​ ​however,​ ​a​ ​social​ ​fact,​ ​an​ ​identity​ ​created​ ​and​ ​continued​ ​with 
all-too-real​ ​consequences​ ​for​ ​the​ ​distribution​ ​of​ ​wealth,​ ​prestige,​ ​and 
opportunity.” 
 
 
Systemic Racism 
Ranges​ ​from​ ​political,​ ​economical,​ ​social,​ ​education,​ ​religious,​ ​to​ ​familial​ ​power  Includes​ ​the​ ​complex​ ​array​ ​of​ ​practices,​ ​the​ ​​unjustly gained​​ ​political-economic 
power​ ​of​ ​whites,​ ​the​ ​continuing​ ​​economic and other resource inequalities 
along racial lines in the organizational and institutional context​,​ ​and​ ​the 
white​ ​racist​ ​ideologies​ ​and​ ​attitudes​ ​created​ ​to​ ​maintain​ ​and​ ​rationalize​ ​white 
privilege​ ​and​ ​power 
● Systemic ​ ​here​ ​means​ ​that​ ​the​ ​core​ ​racist​ ​realities​ ​are​ ​manifested​ ​in​ ​each​ ​of​ ​society’s  major ​ ​parts...​ ​each​ ​major​ ​part​ ​of​ ​US​ ​society​ ​–​ ​the​ ​economy,​ ​politics,​ ​education,​ ​religion,  the ​ ​family​ ​–​ ​reflects​ ​the​ ​fundamental​ ​reality​ ​of​ ​systemic​ ​racism  Ex:​ ​if​ ​you’re​ ​low​ ​income​ ​you're​ ​placed​ ​in​ ​areas​ ​with​ ​factories​ ​and​ ​the​ ​govt 
doesn't​ ​do​ ​anything 
Possessive Investment in Whiteness​:  During the New Deal Era, the Federal Housing Act of ​​1934’s overly  racist categories​​ ​​channeled almost all of the housing loan money  toward whites and away from communities of color​.​ ​​Trade unions 
gave
 private medical insurance, pensions, and job security largely to 
the
 white workers​​ ​who​ ​formed​ ​the​ ​overwhelming​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​the 
unionized​ ​work​ ​force​ ​in​ ​mass​ ​production​ ​industries;​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​fighting 
for​ ​full​ ​employment,​ ​medical​ ​care,​ ​and​ ​old-age​ ​pensions​ ​for​ ​all 
Corporations systematically target Native American reservations 
when
 looking for locations for hazardous waste incinerators, solid 
waste
 landfills, and nuclear waste storage facilities 
Ex:​ ​housing​ ​and​ ​education,​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​political​ ​representation  Racism​ ​embedded​ ​in​ ​the​ ​system  Chavez​ ​Ravine!  Levittown​ ​Subsidized​ ​Housing   
Difference between prejudice and racism 
Prejudice - preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual 
experience 
An​ ​idea​ ​or​ ​opinion​ ​that​ ​is​ ​not​ ​based​ ​on​ ​fact  Inherited​ ​bias​ ​of​ ​someone​ ​or​ ​something,​ ​can​ ​be​ ​confused​ ​with 
stereotypes,​ ​not​ ​because​ ​of​ ​personal​ ​experience 
 

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School: University of California - Los Angeles
Department: Chicana and Chicano Studies
Course: Introduction to Chicana/CHICANO Studies: History and Culture
Professor: R.c. Romero
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Chicano Studies and midterm
Name: Chicano 10A Midterm Study Guide
Description: This is a overview of the study guide with answers!
Uploaded: 11/15/2017
22 Pages 114 Views 91 Unlocks
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