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SELU - PSYC 416 - Study Guide - Final

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SELU - PSYC 416 - Study Guide - Final

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background image 1The Behavioral/Social Learning Approach I. Intro and history a. John Watson – father and founder of behaviorism; his father was a drunk,  gambler, and a cheater b. Skinner i. Radical behaviorism ­ did not deny the existence of internal mental 
events, argued that we do not know the causes of many of our behaviors 
even though we think we do
II. Classical conditioning ­ learning resulting from pairing a conditioned stimulus with an 
unconditioned stimulus
a. definitions  i. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) ­ stimulus that can elicit an 
unconditioned response the first time it is presented (without previous 
conditioning) 
ii. Unconditioned response (UCR) – an unlearned reaction to a UCS that 
occurs without previous conditioning 
iii. Conditioned stimulus (CS) ­ the previously neutral stimulus that is 
repeatedly paired with the UCS, and through conditioning, acquires the 
ability to evoke a CR  iv. Conditioned response (CR) – learned reaction to the CS that occurs 
because of previous conditioning 
b. Second­order conditioning (also called higher­order) – once the new S­R 
association is established, it can be used to condition another S­R response
c. how present the CS is important? i. delayed conditioning/ short ­ delayed ­ CS always presented before the 
UCS, but they overlap slightly
d. Extinction ­ the gradual weakening and suppression of a CR when presented in 
the absence of the UCS; 
e. Stimulus generalization ­ tendency for stimuli similar to the original CS to elicit 
the CR;
i. Conditioning fear in humans f. Stimulus discrimination ­ learned response to a specific stimulus, but not to 
other stimuli
III. Operant conditioning ­ learning resulting from the response an organism receives 
following a behavior
a. Early work of E.L. Thorndike i. Law of exercise ­ stimulus response connections are strengthened by 
practice/ repetition 
ii. Law of effect ­ rewarding or satisfying consequences strengthen 
responses, while punishing consequences weaken responses 
background image b. Reinforcement – consequence that increases the frequency of a behavior c. Punishment ­ consequence that decreases the frequency of a behavior d. Extinction in operant conditioning gradual weakening of a response because it is 
no longer followed by a consequence
e. Positive reinforcement ­ provide a reinforcer after a behavior to increase the 
behavior
i. Reinforcer ­ any event that strengthens the behavior or frequency of 
behavior that precedes it 
1. Primary reinforcers ­ are inherently reinforcing because they  satisfy a biological need (food, water, sex)  2. Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers – acquire reinforcing value  because they have been associated with a primary reinforcer (gold  stars, money)  ii. Noncontingent reinforcement – response is strengthened but the 
reinforcement is not a result of the response 
iii. Schedules of reinforcement – rules determining when and how 
reinforcements will be delivered 
1. Based on time (interval) or number of behaviors (ratio) 2. Fixed or variable schedule f. Negative reinforcement ­ remove or lessen an unpleasant stimulus after a 
behavior to increase the behavior
g. Punishment (positive punishment)­ an unpleasant stimulus presented after the 
behavior
h. Extinction (negative punishment/ omission training)­ the removal of something 
pleasurable after a behavior occurs 
i. Shaping ­ reinforcing successive approximations to a goal  j. Generalization ­ the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the one used in 
initial conditioning
k. Discrimination ­ a learned tendency to respond only to stimuli that result in 
reinforcement and not to similar, but unrewarded, stimuli
IV. Social Learning Theory a. Behavior­environment­behavior interactions ­ environment influences 
behavior, but behavior also determines what type of environment we may be in 
which then influences behavior and so on
b. Julian Rotter ­ added unobservable components and argued that human behavior  is much more complex than for lower animals i. Behavior potential ­ likelihood of a given behavior occurring in a 
particular situation
ii. Strength determined by  1. Expectancies ­ estimates of what will happen
background image a. In new situations we use  generalized expectancies ­  beliefs we hold about how often our actions typically lead  to reinforcements or punishments b. Can place ourselves on a continuum of  locus of control  based on generalized expectancies­  c. Internal locus of control ­ most of what happens is based 
on our own actions or inactions
d. External locus of control ­ much of what happens to us is 
based on forces outside of our control
2. Reinforcement value ­ the degree to which we prefer one 
reinforcer over another
V. Social Cognitive Theory ­ Albert Bandura a. Reciprocal determinism­ the notion that external determinants of behavior, 
internal determinants, and behavior all influence each other
b. Self­regulation ­ the ability to develop and apply rewards and punishments for 
internal standards of behavior 
VI. Observational Learning ­ the acquisition of new information, concepts, or forms of 
behavior through exposure to others and the consequences they experience
a. Albert Bandura and the Bobo doll experiment
b.
Model – people we observe and imitate  VII. Explaining psychological disorders a. Mower’s 2 process theory  i. Classically condition fear to the CS ii. Operant conditioning 1. Escape – (negative reinforcement)
2. Avoidance – 
(CC and reduces internal fear =neg. reinforcement) VIII. Behavior modification/Classical Conditioning procedures a. Systematic Desensitization: ­ involves pairing relaxation with hierarchically­
arranged anxiety­evoking events 
i. There are four stages to the systematic desensitization process: 1. Relaxation Training: 2. Constructing the Anxiety Hierarchy: 3. Desensitization in Imagination: 4. In Vivo Desensitization: b. Flooding ­ the client is exposed to a high anxiety­arousing stimulus for a 
prolonged period of time
c. Aversive counterconditioning ­ pairs the target behavior or a stimulus associated
with it (CS) with a stimulus (US) that naturally evokes an unpleasant response.
IX. Behavior modificat1ion/ Operant conditioning procedures

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School: Southeastern Louisiana University
Department: OTHER
Course: Personality
Professor: Paula Varnado-Sullivan
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: personality and Psychology
Name: PSYC 416 Study Guide
Description: This is what will be covered for the final exam as well as the chapters that include text only question, so don't forget to read those. Good Luck!
Uploaded: 11/15/2017
8 Pages 33 Views 26 Unlocks
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