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Get Full Access to Texas A&M - VTPP 434 - Study Guide - Final
Get Full Access to Texas A&M - VTPP 434 - Study Guide - Final

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TEXAS A&M / OTHER / VTPP 434 / What is the formula for nernst equation?

What is the formula for nernst equation? Description

Description: These notes cover the whole section that will be covered on the test. Including some questions as well.
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.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-1}.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-7}.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_4y15qrsp3q7r-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-3 0}.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-6}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-6 0}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-8}ul.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-4 0}ul.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-4}ol.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-8 0}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-7 0}ul.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-1 0}ul.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xbrak1a3pun-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xbrak1a3pun-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-3}.lst-kix_xbrak1a3pun-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xbrak1a3pun-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xbrak1a3pun-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-0 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-0,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-1 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-1,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-2 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-2,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-0 0}.lst-kix_xbrak1a3pun-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xbrak1a3pun-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-0}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-8,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-6,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-1}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-4,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-1}.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-3 0}.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-2}.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_xbrak1a3pun-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-2}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-7}.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-8 0}.lst-kix_ov2m1fys8arb-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ov2m1fys8arb-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-2,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-3}ul.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-5}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4y15qrsp3q7r-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4y15qrsp3q7r-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4y15qrsp3q7r-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4y15qrsp3q7r-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aweyp6qxqecx-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_houoi67mnwm2-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-5 0}.lst-kix_4y15qrsp3q7r-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wxq4r7ahhm7-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_wxq4r7ahhm7-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-6 0}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fjqa4k1kcxss-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wxq4r7ahhm7-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wxq4r7ahhm7-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wxq4r7ahhm7-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6t0toggdktbw-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-6}ul.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-7 0}ol.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-0 0}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-0}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-8}ul.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-1 0}.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kh4tk26zf9tm-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-6 0}.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_djki1xbjq92h-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-2}ul.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_prrhpgx46vkt-4}ul.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-2 0}ul.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-8 0}.lst-kix_ov2m1fys8arb-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ov2m1fys8arb-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-6}.lst-kix_ov2m1fys8arb-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ov2m1fys8arb-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ov2m1fys8arb-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-1 0}.lst-kix_41060hh9h2cc-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hd3uqkldtydn-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1twxpr3malsy-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_28t9za35y7v7-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7ibfh4os5uge-7}ul.lst-kix_llo05cgr6udx-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zao6xz6n1mau-7,lower-roman) ". 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Nerst Potential

• Rigid box - volume doesn’t change

• Permeable to C1-, Na+
• Voltmeter - no charge b/c moving charges neg./pos. are at same rate cancel out.

We also discuss several other topics like Who is martin french?

Don't forget about the age old question of What type of fat is found in food and stored in the body?

If you want to learn more check out How much variety will the repetitive process need to be able to be handled?

• Selective permeable only to specific ions
• Permeable for C1-, not Na+
• Voltmeter negative potential
• Force 2 = Force 1

↑                 ↑If you want to learn more check out Do metals lose electrons to have a positive charge?

potential      potential

↘               ↙

Nernst Potential

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Nernst Equation

ion = log If you want to learn more check out Do longitudinal waves have compression?

↑         ↑

mV       charge of ion

• Ion should be able cross the barrier
• Applies to a single ion

Goldman-Hodgkin-katz (Gltk) Equation

Vm = 61 log Pk[k+]out + Pna [Na+]out + Pa [C1-]in

Pk[k+]in + Pna [Na+]in + Pa [C1-]out

More permeable

*O - nonmovement                                        *inverted

*1- freely movement                                        *Z charge

Resting membrane potential

Points to note

• NA+ k+ pumps. 3 Na+ out for every two k+ ions into the cell
• Cell membrane impermeable to large A- ions (found in ICF)
• Greater leak channels for  k+ compared to NA+

Neuron - positive / negative; inside / outside

• Greater positive outside
• Greater negative inside - -70mV cell membrane potential inside
• More Na+ ions outside

Na+ 15 mM ICF        single ion voltage - +60mV

145 mM ECF

• More k+ ions inside

k+ 150 mM ICF        single ion voltage - -90 mV

5 mM ECF

• Leak channels - diffuse or leak
• More permeable to k+, than Na+

Neuron = 1 cell

Branches - dendrites → input end

• Come together to form the “”cell body of the neurons”
• Nucleus-found in “cell body of the neuron”

• Decrease in strength as they spread out from the point of origin
• Mechanical grated will open
• Let Na+ pass through ECF → ICF

Action Potential

• Axon hillock - voltage Na+ gated channels
• Action potential will die at Axon hillock, it strong enough

1. At resting membrane potential, the activation gate closes the channel

1. Depolarizing stimulus arrives at the channel.

Activation gate opens

• Opens so slowly that it is closed

(c) with activation gate open, Na+ enters the cell

• Reaches threshold
• Inactivation gate is slowly closing that it is still open

(d) inactivation gate closes and Na+ closes and Na+ entry stops.

(e) during repolarization caused by k+ leaving the cell, the two gates reset to their original positions

Phase -

1. Resting membrane potential
2. Depolarizing stimulus
3. Membrane depolarizes to threshold. Voltage-gated Na+ and k+ channels begin to open.
4. Rapid Na+ entry depolarizes cell
5. Na+ channels close and slower k+ channels open
6. K+ moves from cell to extracellular fluid
7. K+ channels remain open /  additional k+ leaves cell, hyperpolarizing it.
8. Voltage-gated k+ channels close, less k+ leaks out of the cell

Action Potential

1. Triggered by depolarization
2. Threshold level of depolarization must be reach to trigger an action potential
3. All are none events
4. Propagates w/out decrement throughout a neuron
5. After a neuronal region fires an action potential, there is a brief period when it is possible to trigger another action potential

Refractory Period

• Prevents backward axon conduction
• Absolute refractory period
• After triggered to open, voltage gated Na+ channels will not respond to another stimulus until resting membrane potential is restored
• Relative refractory period
• Follows an absolute refractory period
• Some voltage gated Na+ channels still not re-set, some k+ will open
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