By: Dania Viola 1 Introduction To Society - Study Guide (SOCI203)
Midterm #2 — Focusing on Lectures #5-#8
**We’re being given 4 questions, of we only have to answer 3 of them
Use these points to formulate structured paragraphs for your final answers (each 300 words max) to create a proper response and receive full marks!!!
All the information in this study guide is taken from the guideline/pointers we received from our TA last class, therefore these will help you create a good response with the information they’re looking for. We also discuss several other topics like What is the only water soluble vitamin that can be stored in large amounts in the human body?
1) Martin French
Question: According to Professor French, what four features of Harriet Martineau’s writings contra the Contagious Disease Acts make it an exemplar of proto feminist work written from a sociological perspective? (Stronger answers will use examples from the Martineau writings.) 300 words
***MUST MENTION THESE 4 THINGS AND PROVIDE EXAMPLES OF EACH TO SHOW YOU UNDERSTAND***
- Contagious Diseases Act 1866: applied to garrison towns; towns where the military was stationed; meant to protect the sexual health of soldiers as they were seen as the most important since they were fighting for countries
- Contagious Diseases Act 1869: extended the laws reach; parliament passed these laws in this year to regulate prostitution Don't forget about the age old question of How much variety will the repetitive process need to be able to be handled?
- 1) It draws lines of solidarity between women of all classes
• situations of injustice
• only women of certain classes had to get these exams done to them
• these exams were done every other month throughout their lives in order to regulate prostitution If you want to learn more check out What are the charges of an ion formed from a type i metal?
By: Dania Viola 2 • women say they would rather be arrested than have men surgeons examining them as they were humiliating and painful ; women said it was worse than being with 20 guys • EXAMPLE FROM TEXT: “…a bill was carried through Parliament, by trick and under a misleading title […] by which the personal violation of hundreds of thousands of Englishwomen is not only permitted, but rendered inevitable” (Martineau, cited in Yates 1985: 246-247).
- 2) It ground the substance of her argument in an interpretation of empirical evidence - physicians would report on this
• EXAMPLE FROM TEXT: “After years of more recent observation and inquiry, qualified persons are satisfied that there was much exaggeration…” (Martineau, cited in Yates 1985: 253)
- underline justifications weren’t true
- Harriet was grounding the substances of her arguments
- 3) It appeals to a notion of bodily control and liberty
- a notion of personhood
• EXAMPLE FROM TEXT: “The “utter loss of the sacredness of person” (Martineau, cited in Yates 1985: 253); and “personal violation under the sanction of law and the agency of the police” (Martineau, cited in Yates 1985: 254).
- 4) It effectively claims that the personal is political If you want to learn more check out How is biochemistry important to understanding life processes?
- examining women is very private/political
- if you were unchecked, the CDA will check you; it’s the law
• men were left untouched even though they were also capable of spreading sexual diseases
• this extended the power of the police over all women of England
• Here Martineau mobilizes the ‘political capital’ of women of England
• my body is a profoundly personal, and therefore private “object” VS my body is a sit of contestation, politics and power, and therefore a public “object”
By: Dania Viola 3 2) Satoshi Ikeda
Question: In the Great Transformation, Karl Polanyi is deconstructing the liberal argument according to which the market economies are the automatic outgrowth of the natural propensity of individuals to do commerce. Summarise Polanyi’s arguments in order to explain his perspective (300 words).
**NO NEED TO EXPLAIN ALL DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRADE JUST FOCUS ON IDEA OF LONG DISTANCE TRADE AS THE STARTING POINT FOR MARKET ECONOMIES AND OPPOSE IT TO THE IDEA THAT ECONOMIES DEVELOPED NATURALLY** If you want to learn more check out What happens to kinetic energy when an object slows down?
- Liberal economists argue that market economies developed naturally, from human’s tendency to do commerce, to seek profit
- local trade and long distance trade (or external trade) were two completely different things, they weren’t competitive trades If you want to learn more check out What are the colors of the clouds?
- state intervention destroyed the barrier between local and external trade - external trade infiltrated local trade
- this made room for competitive, national markets and eventually a free-market to grow - market economy: has state intervention and it needs people to regulate it • they are politically constructed
• they appeared because of state intervention
- free markets evolved over time and created international markets, wasn’t always like this - merchants meet in the middle and then continue on their journey
- internal and external trades exist in non-economic communities
- local market goods only get sold in local markets to local people and peasants • even nearby provinces don’t sell with each other ; only with people in their province - International market goods are only sold internationally, never internally • regulations of what can be sold and at what price for it to be a fair market
• p.66, “Trade was limited to organized townships which carried it on either locally, as neighbourhood trade, or as long-distance trade — the two were strictly separated, and
By: Dania Viola 4 neither was allowed to infiltrate into the countryside indiscriminately. Such a permanent severance of local trade and long-distance trade within the organization of the town must come as another shock to the evolutionist, with whom things always seem so easily to grow into one another.”
- there’s no natural evolution in this
- regulations of what can be sold and at what price for it to be a fair market - local production doesn’t exist much anymore, now it’s more the national means of production - MAIN ARGUMENT against classical economic theories
• idea that we need capital (money) — if we don't buy and sell our good we won’t have money
• with supply and demand people can regulate economy on their own
- *** MENTION HIS MAIN ARGUMENT WHILE STATING ALL THIS ABOVE IN YOUR RESPONSE ***
3) Katja Neves
Question: Use Marx’s concepts of the metabolic rift and alienation to explain how socio economic and ecological issues are two sides of the same coin.
**YOU HAVE TO MAKE AN ANALOGY BETWEEN WHAT CAPITALISM DOES TO PEOPLE AND WHAT IS DOES TO NATURE: ON ONE HAND, THE ESTRANGEMENT OF HUMANS FROM THEMSELVES, ON THE OTHER HAND, ESTRANGEMENT OF HUMANS FROM NATURE
2 PART ANSWER:
- 1) under capitalism, humans are alienated from their labour and from their nature as human beings
- labour as a source of private property
• Agriculture used to be a family thing where each family had a job to do ; they do something for someone they knew and they would return the favour = a social endeavour
By: Dania Viola 5 - Farmers become salaried workers
• they’re just a unit now; people that can make things for people in a timely manner • nobody really cares who they are anymore
• it’s very dehumanizing = you don't have a say in what you do
• working in very horrible conditions, NOT being payed minimum wage but instead being payed what they’re worth per hour
- Consumer alienation from production
• No relation to the human aspects of production
• No relation to animals
- 2) seen in the notion of the metabolic rift, capitalism estranges humans from nature, separating them from natural resources that are overexploited (ex: the soil is overused) - chemical fertilizers = pollution ; using fertilizers gives a little boost at first (increases output) but using it too much will kill the soil (decreasing output)
- Iron fertilizers are a rift on output as things aren’t being replaced — soils are living organisms, and adding chemicals kills their organisms which decrease output
- what makes these two processes similar or comparable
• read pages 378-383 of the Foster reading to get your own key concepts that you can explain to your knowledge for this question
- define concepts like alienation and metabolic rift
➡ALIENATION: a condition of workers in a capitalist economy, resulting from a lack of identity with the products of their labor and a sense of being controlled or exploited ➡METABOLIC RIFT: an irreparable rift in the interdependent process of social metabolism
By: Dania Viola 6
4) Chris Hurl
Question: C. Wright Mills defines the ruling class as it existed in the USA at the end of the 1950s as the power elite. Please explain as completely as possible the way he justifies this notion (300 words).
**FOCUS YOUR ANSWER ON WHAT MAKES THE AMERICAN ELITE AT THE TIME SPECIAL, HOW IS IT A POWER ELITE? : ELITE ARE WHAT THEY ARE BECAUSE OF THEIR ROLES IN THE INSTITUTIONS THEY HOLD POSITIONS IN — WITHOUT THESE ROLES THEY ARE NOTHING
- Power Elite: describes 1950 America and who was in control
- power is graduated in institutions; acquiring wealth, or being celebrated is accessed through the positions you hold, in institutions
- f they didn’t have these roles/positions they wouldn’t have the most and they wouldn't be wealthy, they would be nothing
• Their decisions have enormous consequences not only for the U.S population but for the entire world ; whether they do or don’t make the decisions
• Power structures: military, big corporations and the government
- The Big Three: Economic, Political and Military ; they rule everything - Economic: “two or three hundred giant corporations” have replaced the traditional agrarian and craft economy
- Political: A strong federal political order had inherited power from a “decentralized set of several dozen states”
- Military: formerly an object of “distrust fed by state militia” had become an entity • power con centralized by in these three domains; they’re interlocked/interconnected • especially in the 1950s; Cold War
- The elite is seen as a compact social group
By: Dania Viola 7 • p. 75, “Families and churches and schools adapt to modern life; governments and armies and corporations shape it; and, as they do so, they turn these lesser institutions into means for their ends” ; talk of being drafted, comparing it to the old Big Three
• there was a historical shift that made The Big Three become enlarged, administrative and centralized — they are therefore now increasingly interlinked
• because of this they have enlarged and become administrative and centralized - when military does something and fails, economy falls too; always linked to other two of The Big Three
• if the economy fails like it did in 2008, everything else fails/goes down with it - THEN: Power presumed to be national, based on one’s position within specific national institutions. Power defined by one’s position at the top of the pyramid
- NOW: Emergence of complex transnational avenues for the circulation of capital, transactions and data