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THE U / Biology / BIOL 1210 / Are haploid and diploid the same?

Are haploid and diploid the same?

Are haploid and diploid the same?

Description

School: University of Utah
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Biology
Professor: Renee dawson
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: DNA, replication, RNA, Biology, and Photosynthesis
Cost: 50
Name: Biology 1210 Exam 2 Review
Description: Review for Exam 2 covering chapters 7-12. Chapters 10-12 will have more information on Saturday . Chapters 11 & 12 will only be covered lightly.
Uploaded: 11/16/2017
4 Pages 170 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


Biology 1210: Exam 2 Review


In biology, is haploid and diploid are the same?



Dr. Dawson

Organized by James Carrington

Logistics: The exam is split over two days on Monday November 20 and Tuesday November 21.  The first half of the exam will cover chapters 7-9 and will be heavy on chapters 8-9. The second  half of the exam will cover chapters 10-12 and will be heavy on chapter 10. The exam is worth  100 points, 50 points are awarded for each half.

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis 

Photosynthesis consists of the light reactions and the Calvin Cycle.

The light reaction is similar to the electron transport chain that occurs in the mitochondria. The Calvin Cycle assembles sugar molecules from CO2.

The net reaction of photosynthesis is CO2 + H2O + Light ???? Glucose + O2. This reaction should  be memorized.


What is the purpose of mitosis?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the incorporation process?

See figure 6.13 in the textbook and memorize this cycle including inputs and outputs of  photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

Chapter 8: Mitosis 

The purpose of mitosis is to make identical cells.

The following are a list of key terms with definitions to understand:

• G1 Phase: Growth phase, most cellular work is done during this phase. • S Phase: Synthesis phase, DNA is replicated.

• G2 Phase: Growth phase for microtubules.

• M Phase: Mitosis, cell replication.

• C Phase: Cytokinesis, cell division.

• Histones: The positive proteins that DNA molecules wrap around.


Photosynthesis consists of the light reactions and what?



• Nucleosomes: A combination of DNA and histones. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the purpose of self-management and responsibility for an action?

• Chromatin: Coiled DNA, exists during interphase, is not a visible chromosome. • Telomere: The ends of linear molecules, they help keep molecules such as DNA from  breaking down.

• Genome: A copy of genetic information, sometimes represented by n. • Haploid: One genome in a cell.

• Diploid: Two genomes in a cell.

• Homologous chromosomes: Two chromosomes that code for the same genes but may  have different alleles. We also discuss several other topics like What foods are high in thermic effect?

• Sister Chromatid: Two identical DNA copies, typically held together by a centromere. Mitosis consists of several steps.

Prophase is when the chromosomes coil, the nuclear membrane breaks down, and the mitotic  spindle fibers form and attach to the centromeres of the chromosome.

Metaphase is the point at which the chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell.

Anaphase is when the mitotic spindle fibers shorten on the chromosomes and pull the sister  chromatids apart.

Telophase is when the mitotic spindle disappears and the nuclear membrane reforms. The  chromosomes also uncoil.

Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm.

Chapter 8: Meiosis 

The purpose of Meiosis is to make gametes (form diploid cells from haploid cells).

The purpose of Meiosis I is to separate homologs. This process also allows crossing over to  occur.

The purpose of Meiosis II is to separate sister chromatids. This process is very similar to  Mitosis.

Meiosis consists of several steps.

Prophase I is when homologous chromosomes pair up and crossover occurs. The nuclear  membrane also dissolves and the chromosomes coil.

Metaphase I is when the homologs (another term for homologous chromosomes) light up in the  middle.

Anaphase I is when homologs are separated.

Telophase I the nuclear membrane reforms and chromosomes uncoil.  We also discuss several other topics like Why is scale important in ecology?

After Cytokinesis I two haploid cells are made.

Prophase II is the same as prophase of mitosis.

Metaphase II is the same as metaphase of mitosis.

Anaphase II is the same as anaphase of mitosis.

Telophase II is the same as telophase of mitosis.  

After Cytokinesis II there is a total of four unique haploid cells from the one parent diploid cell.

Chapter 9 Mendel and Genetics 

The following terms should be understand well in order to perform well on the exam: • Allele: Sometimes contain alternative forms of a gene. Often displayed as a written as a  capital or lowercase letter, the same letters represent alleles of the same gene. • Phenotype: The expression of genes, visible.

• Genotype: The genetic information in an organism, not always apparent on the outside. • Homozygous Dominant: Two dominant alleles (e.g. AA). Dominant alleles take  precedent in physical expressions. We also discuss several other topics like How does environmental health begin?

• Heterozygous: One dominant and one recessive allele (e.g. Aa).

• Homozygous recessive: Two recessive alleles (e.g. aa). Recessive alleles are only  expressed when a dominant allele is absent.

• Monohybrid Cross: Testing on offspring with parents monitoring one characteristic. • Dihybrid Cross: Testing on offspring with parents monitoring two characteristics.

Mendel’s First Law is the Law of Segregation. It is based on the premise that (1) parents have  diploid cells, (2) alleles separate during meiosis, and (3) gametes combine at random. If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of addiction?

Mende’s Second Law is the Law of Independent Assortment. For this law think of dihybrid  crosses. Mendel’s Second Law states that genes are inherited independently. This is made  possible because genes can be located on different chromosomes or because crossing over  occurs. Linked genes are an exception to Mendel’s Second Law.

The following terms are variations on Mendel’s Laws:

• Chromosomal Linkage

• Sex Linkage

• Incomplete Dominance

• Codominance

Chapter 10 DNA Replication 

Nucleotides are the monomers of DNA and RNA

RNA can function as an enzyme, DNA cannot.

RNA carries information for coding proteins, DNA maintains this information. New strands are made 5’ to 3’. They are read 3’ to 5’.

5’ carbon is bonded to the phosphate group.

3’ carbon is bonded to OH.

2’ carbon is bonded to OH only in RNA.

1’ carbon is bonded to nitrogenous base.

Bases in DNA include ATGC. Bases in RNA include AUGC.

Know how to draw a replication bubble and label leading and lagging strand. *Picture posted on Saturday with more detail.

The central dogma is the process in which DNA is transcribed to RNA and then translated to  proteins.

There are multiple types of RNA including mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA.

RNA Polymerase is the enzyme (catalyst) that helps RNA be made from DNA.

*More info on chapter 10 posted Saturday. This part of the exam will not be until Tuesday, so  study chapters 7-9 first.

Chapters 11 & 12 

*Notes will be posted on Saturday. This chapters will not be covered in much depth. The will  be a basic review. Chapter 11 builds on chapter 10. Chapter 12 has not been covered in class.  The homework and readings for chapter 12 are due on Sunday.

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