Appreciate Inquiry Model
• A facilitated approach to organizational planning and change that asks “what is working well around here and how do we build on it?” **EXAM
• Successful tool that contributes to team building and discovers, expands and sustains the best of what an organization can offer, allows continuity with what has worked well in the past.
Positive questions are asked that generate images of possibility, threats are not ignored, but rather reframed, seen through lens of possibility.
• The process does not always unfold by itself, sometimes it needs the skill of the facilitator to frame, shape and embellish the images created by group members into affirming and generative ones.
• Can be used at all levels of human system change: self, others, teams, organizations, communities.
• More of a focus on positives
*Tribe Story: If someone is caught stealing in the tribe, everyone surrounds him and says positive aspects of that person or positive things they have done. Once everyone in the tribe has spoken to him, they welcome him back into the tribe as an older, wiser member. The point of the story is to constantly acknowledge one’s contributions so you tend to do those positive things instead of the negative ones. Don't forget about the age old question of Why is energy balance important?
**Pygmalion effect – EXAM: Background: Pygmalion created a sculpture of a woman, he put into the sculpture all the attributes that he loved, so he couldn’t help but fall in love.
So, we invest in the new system all the things we liked about the old system – so we can’t help but fall in love with the new system (has all the pos. attributes we love). As a result, we are more involved in this new system because we created it, we created something that resonates and concerns us.
Don't forget about the age old question of What determines if you have a boy or a girl?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the ways to improve fluid intelligence?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the pathological traits?
Two contrasting approaches:
• Problem solving: what’s wrong? What’s the problem? - focus on the negative – Problem-oriented
• Appreciative Inquiry: What are the strengths, how can we build on it? – Success oriented
*Assumptions of appreciative Inquiry:
1. In every society, organizations, or groups, something works (must have positive characteristics)
2. What we focus on becomes our reality. (if you focus on problems and negativity, that is what you’ll get, same with positive) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the categories for the power of congress?
3. People have more confidence and comfort to journey to the future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past.
4. If we carry parts of the past forward, they should be what is best about the past. (Hope - they move forward easily if they see hope for the future.
Fear, in contrary, stops them)
5. **The language we use creates our reality (language helps you define how you see things.)
*Power of positive questions:
• Negative questions bring out: Blame, fatigue and defensiveness
• Positive questions bring out: Passions, skills, knowledge, experience and success. (Excites and inspires people to produce positive change)
**“Organizations grow in the direction of the questions they repeatedly ask.” **EXAM - David Cooperrider
We can simply build a new system on questions like What works? What is left behind? How am I contributing? We also discuss several other topics like What are the effects of theories?
**4-D Model: Know in Order** EXAM
Most common Appreciative Inquiry model uses a cycle of 4 processes (Discover, Dream, Design, Destiny) & Choose the positive as the focus of inquiry
• Discover: Inquiry about existing strengths (sharing stories, exploring the moment of excellence) and Probing questions (What skills helped you? what was the key to success?) – What was best? Appreciating
• Dream: Exploring new possibilities, sharing dreams, creating a vision (image of ideal future that is grounded in organization’s reality). -
how the new system might look. – What might be? Envisioning
• Design: Members agree on short/long-term goals to achieve their dreams, Allow members to take ownership of their plans & find their place within it (collective engagement) – What should be? Co-constructing
• Destiny/ delivery: Execution stage of product/design, strategies and plans are put in place to meet desired goals. Roles and responsibilities are assigned. Involves
Monitoring, Evaluation + feedback. – What will be? Innovating
(just methods that you can use to intervene within a system)
*Strategic planning: where are we going? How are we going to get there? When do we want to get there? How do we know when we get there?
long-term planning, objectives for the 3-5 years, statements of missions, visions, values, goals. (we’re going to focus on traditional strategic planning approach vs. future search approach?) 3 characteristics - EXAM
- *Traditional Strategic Planning: *9 main characteristics – EXAM
- Future search: form of strategic planning, a way to statistically intervene within a system. Re design of the system. *4 main characteristics
1. Do not confuse traditional strategic planning with future research
2. Moves from top-down (the boss says what we need and takes decisions without asking for others opinion)
4. Seldom includes the people who know the work
5. Assumes statistic/stable social environment.
6. Will often ignore long-term issues
7. “Taylorism is alive and well” – Ignores workmen, leaves planning to engineers 8. Requires executives to ‘sell’ the plan
9. Result: low energy, low buy-in by those implementing the plan (Pygmalion effect) FUTURE SEARCH:
• *4 main characteristics - EXAM
1. It assumes a fast-paced turbulent environment (environment that is constantly changing, unpredictable)
2. Participative event involving multiple levels of a system (Involves a lot of people to make it happen, multiple levels of a system.)
3. Enables a large group to collectively create a strategic plan
4. Learn more than any one person can discover alone. (Different demographics are ideal. Works better when we work as a team rather than alone)
• The plan is … designed, owned, and will be implemented by the participants, it results in generating excitement, energy and purposeful behavior.
4 CORE PRINCIPLES OF FUTURE SEARCH:
1. Whole system in the room: get a *deep slice of the organization = getting the right people in the room (from every level). Stakeholders who “are in” (*AREIN- Authority Can act on their own, Resources – Time, Money Influence, Expertise – Recognized experts in diff. aspects of the company, Information - Historical knowledge about company not expert knowledge, Need - people that are affected by the outcome) EXAM*
How does a person get authority? -> *Snowballing = talking around, getting to know people, making a list of names of representatives based on the names that come up the most
2. Global context for local action: get everyone talking about the same world, look at the whole before seeking to fix any part, **all perceptions are valid, Open systems theory in action, explore trends happening the environment, where do we fall in the puzzle of this political problems.
3. *Focus on future and common ground, not problem and conflicts: disagreement will happen, but we need to focus on our common ground to create something better at the end.
**Can you live with that? + Are you prepared to take action with your behavior?** EXAM
Have to be answered honestly and in the affirmative by all parties before moving forward.
4. Self-management and responsibility for action: no long speeches are given, no exercises, instruments or games based on external diagnoses of what the group needs. (let the method be and it will cause positive change) We don't want to develop dependency on manager. Everyone shares information, interprets it & decides on action steps.
(This happens on the last day, but if you allow people to make their own choices it happens at every step)
4 insurance Policies of Future Research
Plan of action to protect the future search process
1. Full attendance (Participation needed for shared meaning + participants buy-in) 2. Healthy meeting conditions (lunches, lighting, appropriate room)
3. Three-day event (“sleep twice”)– soak time: Need time to think about it, need breaks so work is effective
4. Public responsibility for follow-up (When publicly declared more likely to follow through)
Future search: The method
Translate principles into methods
• 2 1/2 day process
• 2 facilitators are called “future search managers” (starts with contracting and lots of planning, participants agree to a future search question ahead of time)
- Don’t just do something, stand there! (They Organize situation, they don’t do anything)
*3 things that we can’t do with Future Search- EXAM
1. Shore up ineffective leadership (Deal with problems in leadership)
2. Convince skeptics to go forward
3. Reconcile values differences: ‘fixing’ differences is not the goal, common ground is.
Trying to find truth through unconventional means. Truth comes out in your art.
Try to get past the verbal (past that left-brain linear).
**Try to get to the subconscious and unconscious. Try to find creative way to bring the subconscious and unconscious out. EXAM**
There are some things that people cannot get out verbally. If the creative methods are verbal, it will be: poetry or narrative story telling; so it is still creative. We can get very important data through non-verbal.
Outside of Mask = persona (What you show to the world)
Inside of Mask = True self (what you don’t show to world)
Researching Social Phenomena in Organizations:
Managers in organizations, who have the power to let researchers into, or to exclude them from, their company, may have been academically or professionally educated within a positivist tradition of inquiry (traditional researcher, try to bring things down to an atomic level. They examine, analyze everything one thing at a time).
Schön has argued that much of the education and training of professionals is characterized by technical rationality.
Roberts suggested that a great deal of management education and training is rooted in instrumental rationality.
*Four (4) assumptions that underpin the use of creative methods:
1. Appreciating the rich and multifaceted dimensions of human experience can make an important contribution to our understanding of social systems.
- Human beings have complex emotional lives, do not always behave rationally, and are not always easily understood.
Orthodox thinking about organization has been based on rational and analytical models where the place for feelings and emotions in organizational life has been denied or marginalized.
- Taylorism and other bureaucratic organization have dominated our thinking.
- Creative methods enable researchers and participants to access a richer, deeper, more true to-life & more useful ‘knowing if this is constituted in a complex relationship between different forms of knowing.
- Creative methods enable management and organizational researchers in a collaborative inquiring relationship with research participants, to access a richer, fuller life which includes understanding more about basic human yearnings and a life and dimension beyond that reached by the written word alone.
2. Creative arts can enhance our capacity to find different expressive forms to inquire into human experience.
- Feminist Approach emphasizes ***power relationships***, such as between parent and daughter. EXAM**
3. **The data that are generated by creative methods often take on metaphorical forms, and metaphor offers insights into organizational experience.
- When Shakespeare wrote ‘All the world's a stage.’ he was using metaphor. A characteristic of the data that are generated through the use of the creative methods is that they often take on metaphorical forms.
- Drawings can be seen as a visual metaphor
- Trying to explain a company experiencing a turbulent environment verbally may sound like ‘’being on a roller-coaster’’ or a ‘’white-knukle ride’’ -> Examples of verbal metaphor.
- All theory is metaphor; all metaphor is theory.
- We must be careful not to let metaphor become a mask which obscure the whole picture
- Averill suggests that emotional aspects of experience that are difficult to contain, often become subjects of metaphor.
• **Medusa effect: In organizations, where direct expressions of emotion can be suppressed and avoided, individual and organizational defences against emotion become very powerful. It is rather like looking directly into the eyes of Medusa: the fear of emotion can turn organizational members to stone. (They don’t talk about how they feel so it is up to us to ask them, otherwise their fear will turn them to stone) EXAM**
4. Collaborative approaches to inquiry are appropriate for the exploration of human experience.
How meaningful conversations can change our worlds. “There is no power greater than a community discovering what it cares about”-Margaret Wheatley
Conversations are an act of creativity and they work for learning. A key process in all aspects of our lives that bring about similarities more than differences (as we saw by the overlap in answers of our world café). It is only through conversations that human beings figure out what they care about. Conversations always happen, the question is can we use this as a process?
World Cafe: method for creating a living network of collaborative dialogue around questions that matter in service to real work.
Metaphor that enables us to see new ways to make a difference in our lives and work. (Power of conversation is so invisible that we usually overlook it- it is important to acknowledge it) (Setting up an environment that looks like a cafe)
Using dialogue as an intervention and problem-solving tool. Voice of people in the system & bringing different parts of the system together. Key question for human systems intervener: What is your purpose?
**EXAM - The World Café is built upon the assumption that…
- People already have within them *wisdom + creativity* to confront even the most difficult challenges
- The answers we need are available to us
- We are wiser together than alone*
A World Café is always intimate, even when scaled to very large numbers.
*World Café 7 Principles: - EXAM
1. Set Context: Why are you bringing people together? What do you want to achieve? - allows you to consider and choose the most important elements to realize your goals
2. Create Hospitable Space: Create a space where people feel safe and inviting.
3. Explore Questions that matter: Knowledge emerges in response to compelling questions - these are done in advance (the host has to make them before)
4. Encourage Everyone’s contribution: As a leader, be aware of the importance of participation, let everyone contribute, and encourage them to.
5. Connect Diverse Perspectives: Move between tables and meet new people to learn about different perspectives. - collective consciousness
6. Listen Together for Patterns & Insights: The quality of our listening is perhaps the most important factor determining the success of a café. - what patterns are people bringing? what's the one theme?
7. Share Collective Discoveries or *HARVEST*: Conversations held at one table reflect a pattern of wholeness, at the end, this pattern is visible to everyone (ex: mural drawing) – usually through the help of a graphic recorder
Roles: - EXAM
• Cafe host: (Rehab)
o Sees that the 7 design principles are put into action.
o Designs the whole process, plans and decides who should be involved, create a comfortable cafe environment, explain the purpose of the gathering, move around tables, encourage everyone to participate.
o To be a Café Host need thoughtfulness, artistry & care.
• Table Host: remains at the table, welcomes travelers, briefly shares key insights from prior conversations, encourages people at the table to share their ideas, helps table stay on topic. Same person should not be a table host for more than one round. • Ambassador of meaning: Convey data to Graphic recorders
• Graphic Recorder: takes notes, gathers data, captures the essence of the presentation that is taking place. Gives a representation of the conversations that took place and the ideas formed from those conversations.
• Participants - make the notes, talk over questions.
Authentic Participation: it happens there, at the moment.
World Café conversations:
o 4-5 people at café tables
o 3 rounds of conversation (20 min each)
o Engage questions or issues that matter to the life of your community o Encourage participants to write, doodle or draw key ideas.
o Provide opportunities for people to move in several rounds of conversation.
o During last round, people might go back to their first group to synthesize their discoveries.
Are simple and clear, thought-provoking, generate energy, focuses inquiry, surfaces unconscious assumptions & opens possibilities
**5 ways to make collective knowledge visible:
1. Graphic Recorder: Draws the group’s ideas on flipcharts or wall mural using text + graphics to illustrate the patterns of the conversations taking place.
2. Gallery tour: Placing the paper tablecloths from each table on the wall so all members can take a tour of the group’s ideas
3. Post insights: Placing large Post-Its with a key insight on a blackboard, wall, etc. So, everyone can review the ideas during a break.
4. Create Idea Clusters: Categorize the Post-Its into “affinity clusters” that way related ideas are more visible & more available to plan the group’s next steps
5. Make a Story: Create a newspaper or storybook to bring results to a larger audience even after the event. Use graphic recordings along with text for documentation.
Learn from them. Be calm and help client, give them enough anxiety for them to want change, without forgetting to give them hope.