Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide WMST 231-006 (5872)
Popular in Women in Perspective
Popular in Women and Gender studies
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jackie on Friday August 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to WMST 231-006 (5872) at Towson University taught by Cecilia M. Rio in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 384 views. For similar materials see Women in Perspective in Women and Gender studies at Towson University.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
WMST Midterm Review Race a social construction attached to skin hair and bone Not valid gment of imagination Gender the social construction of cultural meanings attached to the biological differences in genitalia Class income distribution property relations and social relations of labor 0 Income Distribution take the income for a household or an individual for one year Rangelowesthighest l5 5 Quintiles Elite Upper Middle Class Middle Class Working Class Poor 0 Property Relations Capitalists make money with pro ts Laborists work paychecks to paychecks Pro tTotal Revenue Total Cost Prices go down when wages go up 0 Social Relations of Labor Feudal Society Primitive Communism Capitalists Ancient Craftspeople artisans Karl Marx Encoding artistscreators imply a message in a cultural artifact movie song etc Decoding viewer understands gures out the message being encoded Tokenism the practice of making only a symbolic effort to do a particular thing especially by recruiting a small number of people from underrepresented groups in order to give the appearance of sexual or racial equality within a workforce Neocolonialism economic political and cultural domination by which a nation maintains or extends its control and in uence over other nations creating new forms of colonialism quotOne Drop Rulequot the social classi cation as Negro of individuals with any African ancestry meaning any person with quotone drop of Negro bloodquot was considered black Social ldentitv the portion of an individual39s selfconcept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group Symbolic Identity the expansion from an identity that is constricted to a singular limited insigni cant and de nitive de nition of oneself to one that is expanded and transcends beyond the singular self as one person in one place at one time Ex On St Patrick s Day everyone becomes lrish 1980 s Backlash Manifested by the return of conservative hegemony of Reagonomics Attack on Civil Rights Attack on Reproductive Rights Attack on Affirmative Action Sexual Repression War on the Poor workfare 3 strikes your out Repe of Environmental Protections SUVs ncrease militarism Eugenics the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics Sexism prejudice stereotyping or discrimination typically against women on the basis of sex Revolutionary Feminism wants to get rid of sexism all together A philosophy that sees the oppression of women in terms of patriarchy a system of male power and authority especially manifested in sexuality personal relationships and the family carried into the maledominated world of work government religion media and law Liberal Feminism a philosophy that sees the oppression of women as a denial of equal rights representation and access to opportunities Matrix of Oppressions used to describe the interrelatedness of various forms of oppression Sexism Racism Cassism Heterosexism AntiArabism AntiSemitism Doing Gender the idea that in Western culture gender rather than being an innate quality of individuals is a psychologically ingrained social construct that actively surfaces in everyday human interaction Second Wave Feminism feminist projects and organizations from the late 1960 s to the mid 1980 s that campaigned for women s equality in all spheres of life and in some cases that argued for complete transformation of patriarchal capitalist structures Third Wave Feminism Feminist perspectives adopted in the 19905 often by younger women with an emphasis on personal voice and multiple identities intersectionality ambiguity and contradictions Speaks mainly to young women Persona Voice Multipe identities o The Erotic sexuality passion creativity that comes from a freedom of expression More about desire and pleasure Black Feminism argues that sexism class oppression and racism are inextricably bound together Afrocentric thought glori cation of African heritage Eurocentric thought characterized with white supremacy conscious or subconscious o Outsider Within relates to the speci c experiences to which people are subjected as they move from a common cutura to that of the modern society Therefore even though a woman especially a Black woman may become in uential in a particular eld she may feel as though she never quite belongs Essentially their personalities behaviors and cultural beings overshadow their true value as an individual thus they become the outsider within Ablebodyism attitudes actions and institutional practices that subordinate people with disabilities 0 Ageism attitudes actions and institutional practices that subordinate elderly persons on the basis of their age 0 Biological Determinism a general theory holding that a group s biological or genetic makeup shapes its social political and economic destiny This view is used to justify women s subordination of peoples color on the argument that they are biologically or genetically different from and usually inferior to men or white people respectively stereotypes Objecti cation Attitudes and behaviors by which people are treated as if they were things One example is the objecti cation of women through advertising images Misogy y Womenhating attitudes and behaviors EssentialismThe view that people have some inherent essence or characteristics and qualities that de ne them Some people argue for ex that women are essentially more caring and nurturing than men 0 Patriarchy A family social group or society in which men hold power and are dominant gures Patriarchal power in the US play out on the family economy media religion law and electoral politics 0 Optional Ethnicity The idea that being white is the best way to be white supremacy Being white is a quotdefault settingquot for race you are white or you are NOTwhite Cultural Appropriation Taking possession of speci c aspects of another group s culture in the gratuitous in authentic way For ex when whites have dreads or when non indigenous people use indigenous people s names symbols or adopt their spiritual practices without being taught by indigenous practitioners Especially using another s culture to make money this is routine in the tourist industry and in the quotNew Agequot spirituality movement Passing refers to a person39s ability to be regarded at a glance to be either a cisgender man or a cisgender womanTypicaly passing involves a mixture of physical gender cues for example hair style or clothing as well as certain behavioral attributes that tend to be culturally associated with a particular gender Whiteness The cultural boundaries separating White Americans from other racial or ethnic categories are contested and always changing David R Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves By the 18th century White had become well established as a racial term Normalization refers to social processes through which ideas and actions come to be seen as quotnormalquot and become takenfor granted or 39natural39 in everyday life 0 White Privilege refers to the set of societal privileges that white people are argued to bene t from beyond those commonly experienced by people of color in the same social political or economic spaces nation community workplace income etc For ex black people getting pulled over by cops more often then white people and white people not getting accused of stealing as often as blacks quotWhite mans burdenquot having to educate the black man 0 Pornographyis the explicit portrayal of sexual subject matter for the purpose of sexual arousal ls about humiliating women and is all about the man s pleasure and his orgasm Glamorized shaving pubic hair and teaches people that is what all sex is like which is not true The quotmoney shotquot is a man ejaculating on a women s face in a degrading way Tough Guise quotmask to hide humanityquot for men think of the Wizard in The Wizard of Oz 0 Sexual Binaries Boys will be boys girls will be sluts Having a norm and then having a other lntersex ambiguous genitalia or chromosomes and genitalia that don t match 0 Heteronormativity Portrayal of the institution of heterosexuality its norms and practices as natural and inevitable Being hetero is the norm and homo is the other Coital lmperative quotreal imperativequot peneinvagin Think about the reading where they talked about using a condom insinuating penetration Path of Least Resistance not taking a stand being an enabler think sexist jokes testing boundaries without getting in trouble for saying what you say Micro thoughts reinforce macro thoughts and macro thoughts reinforce your individual beliefs 0 Feminism a personal and political push quotto end sexism sexist exploitation and oppressionquot Sex Roles the overt expression of attitudes that indicate to others the degree of your maleness or femaleness For ex women only belong in the kitchen and bedroom men belong in the workforce Internalized Oppression Attitudes and behavior of some oppressed people that re ect the negative harmful stereotypical beliefs of the dominant group directed at them For ex view of some women that they are inferior to men MadonnaWhore binary good girls vs girls who put out Think about the Guadeloupe Sex Goddess reading Also think about the quotSex Walkquot saying girls who dress Slutty still don t deserve to be raped quotYou look slutty so you are asking for sex A Four levels of analysis Micro level individual level Meso level community level blockwatch towerlight community fairs Macro level socialstructural political gov t TV pop culture post office In the US culture Global level international theme including two or more countries climate change Female Chauvinistic Pig when women willingly objectify themselves and act more like a guy because they think that means they are liberated Ex Miley Cyrus Madonna Autonomous Sexuality free expression of sexuality FCP s do have autonomous sexuality because they freely express themselves in the way they want to be shown whether it is objectifying or not they have the freedom to do so White Supremacist Capitalist Patriarchy The social and political system prevalent in the United States and much of the world right now lts agenda includes white supremacy and other forms of racism to keep many ethnic and racial groups in their place religious fundamentalism and prejudice inhuman levels of riches and wealth for corporations and rich individuals of the upper and upper middle class at the expense of the environment and the great majority of the world39s people and total destruction of social welfare programs to the poor Relates to the Matrix of Oppression because lower classes and sexualities are oppressed by superior white supremacists D According to Bell Hooks women can be prolife and still be a feminist They have the freedom to feel whatever they want as long as they are not prolife activists The antichoice movement is almost antifeminist lncome Distribution take the income for a household or an individual for one year Rangelowesthighest 5 Five Quintiles Elite Upper Middle Class Middle Class Working Class Poor Pr0perty Relations Capitalists make money with pro ts Laborists work paychecks to paychecks ProfitTotal Revenue Total Cost Prices go down when wages go up Since the 1980 s the rich have become richer and the poor have become poorer Cultural Appropriation one society takes from another society in a gratuitous fashion Ex White s take Native American cultural artifacts and sell them in the capitalistic world It is different from ethical cultural connections because cultural appropriation is having one culture take from another for capitalistic purposes Optional ethnicity whites have the abilities to be multiple ethnicities which is seen as normal Blacks cannot because they are only seen as African American Native Americans were forced out of their land and pushed into reservations or killed off European American s would not sign treaties with women tribe leaders so women s importance began to diminish Women used to be the head of the tribes and in many cases chiefs Negatives of Women s studies at colleges is that feminist theories began to be written exclusively for academic audiences Women and men who did not attend women s studies courses started to be considered unimportant It started to create a diversion between the real world and the feminist movement and academic politics and careerism Feminist studies need to be community based not only for academic and working purposes To understand the system of patriarchy women raised their consciousness which emphasized the importance of learning about patriarchy as a system of domination how it became institutionalized and how it is perpetuated and maintained The most powerful intervention made by consciousness raising groups was the demand that all females confront their internalized sexism their allegiance to patriarchal thinking and action and their commitment to feminist conversion M During WWII white women had jobs in factories and were treated well while black women were treated poorly and still segregated in facilities White mothers could put their children in daycare while black mothers had to leave children elsewhere Black women were paid much less than white women were After the war black women still needed to work and usually worked in white houses N Those with less education are set up to naturally make less money usually black people She synthesizes with black women who can not nd higher paying jobs due to a lack of education This is the problem of paid work under capitalism and is why liberal feminism does not address the real problems because it does not strive to actually x the system 0 The Backlash is from the 1980 stoday and is an angry and violent movement of sexism This relates to body image because in society and the media men have progressively gotten larger more muscular and taken up more space while women have gotten much skinnier and less curvy to take up less space It reinforces the idea that men dominate women P The norm is the quotdefault settingquot White supremacy shows whites as the norm and every other race especially blacks as the other Sexism shows men a the norm and women as the other Heteronorm shows straight as the norm and being a part of the LGBTQ community as the other Main Point You are either the norm or you ARE NOT the norm Q Tough Guise is a quotmask of humanityquot for men It shows men that they are not allowed to be emotional but should be focused on being muscular in control and violent It also is oppressive to women because it shows women as being more sexual and like play toys and to take up less room than the now HUGE men in todays society R Girls dancing on tables in clubs stripper poles in peoples houses and EVERYONE AND THEIR MOTHER having bikini waxes S The Second Wave of Feminism was from the 19601980 5 It focused on gender roles and more women held political offices Before the women s liberation movement women were told their value rested solely on appearance During the Second Wave many women started to wear more comfortable shoes and less restricting bras and undergarments due to more women being in the workforce But many women felt that all women who wore makeup during this time were antifeminist however Bell Hooks disagrees and thinks women can still be concerned with their appearance and be a feministThe Second Wave also had a push toward better female health care T The white upperclass liberal fem s who did not support the welfare system are stripping lower class women of the quotnecessitates of life food and shelterquot Taking away welfare bene ts the rich women but it makes the poor women unable to be selfsufficient on their own salaries U It is about the young transgender female to male named Brandon Teena was named Teena Brandon at birth and his murder He lived in a small town in Nebraska and was raped and murdered by two men when he told the cops about his rape they did nothing and two days later the same men killed him along with his physically disabled black male friend and white female friend His parents sued the police department because if they had taken Brandon s rape report seriously his death could have been avoided Both murders are in prisondeath row for life V Gays in the media are shown as feminine Like in the show Will amp Grace they were dependent on their best friends Will and Grace Also sometimes gay people or ideas are thrown into shows JUST for the purpose of being more culturally diverse vs representing the real gay population Also people who watch these shows with gays in them feel as though that automatically makes them allies of gay people 3 types Queer media pretending to be gay and straight but mistaken for gay W Erotic is a desire autonomous and passionate connection quotGet off the path of least resistancequot nd your passion you have to be the author of your own You can nd your erotic in what you are passionate about like poetry or a sport About passion and creation Not settling for the easy things in life Connecting yourself to others in happy emotions Porn All about the males pleasure and penis in vagina sex Not about feelings or sensual connection but rather purely physical About someone else being the author of your own pleasure About humiliating women Not intimate X lndian Removal Act of 1830 moved Native Americans out of Ohia and Mississippi because we wanted that land for agriculture Whites said it was our God given right to have Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Also gold rush and more railroads Y They ended up on dry lands with cold winter conditions They were not used to these conditions and they did not know how to farm on this type of land They often faced starvation and disease Z Jewish Diaspora was the historical exile and dispersion ofm from the region of the Kingdom ofludah and Roman udaea as well as the later emigration from wider Eretz lsrael Just like how the Native Americans were also dispersed and separated from their tribes They were pushed Westward and put to live on reservations away from their native homeland AA 18301920 was about women s suffrage and the right to vote 19601980 focused on gender roles and more women in politics 1990today focuses on body image health care sexuality and the multiple identities of women From the 50 s70 s women were more empowered and thicker body types were in style Women pushed to be allowed to wear at shoes and pants and nonconstricting undergarments From the 80 s to today women are now back into wearing high heels and Spanx and bras Thinner bodies are in style and the objecti cation of women s own body is on the rise
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