Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide WMST 231-006 (5872)
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jackie on Friday August 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to WMST 231-006 (5872) at Towson University taught by Cecilia M. Rio in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Women in Perspective in Women and Gender studies at Towson University.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
My NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement A regional treaty established in 1994 liberalizing trade among Canada Mexico and the US It established rules and institutions much like WTO GATT GeneralAgreement on Tariffs and Trade Formed in 1947 to regulate international trade Member countries met periodically to negotiate lower trade tariffs on goods and also in later years nontariff barriers to trade such as quotas DOMA Defense of Marriage Act A US law that allows states to refuse to recognize samesex marriage granted under the laws of other states Sexual binaries the classification of sex and gender into two distinct opposite and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine Sustainability able to be upheld or defended Believing that a production process is not hurting the future TANF Temporary Assistance for Needy Families The World Bank an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs Goals are reduction of poverty and facilitation of capital investment Bisexual someone who is attracted to both men and women TranSgendered A person whose selfidentity does not conform unambiguously to conventional notions of male or female gender Deep Ecoloav An environmental movement and philosophy that regards human life as just one of many equal components of a global ecosystem The belief that humans are not superior to nature Humans endanger their own habitat worse than any other species Heterosexism discrimination or prejudice against homosexuals on the assumption that heterosexuality is the normal sexual orientation Militarized masculinity increased cases of rape in the military A hypermasculine environment toughness with violence The male bond is most important women are viewed as objects Coital imperative real imperative peneinvagin Think about the reading where they talked about using a condom insinuating penetration Eugenics The science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics Incest sexual relations between people classed as being too closely related to marry each other Date rape forcible sexual intercourse by a male escort of a woman Sexual harassmentharassment typically of a woman in a workplace or other professional or social situation involving the making of unwanted sexual advances or obscene remarks Marital rape sexual intercourse forced on a woman by her husband knowingly against her will Domestic Violence Violent or aggressive behavior within the home typically involving the violent abuse of a spouse or partner Double shift When women come home from work their double shift begins Ex cooking cleaning taking care of kids Public vs private dichotomv Private life is devalued because it is unknown The legal definition of rape A criminal offense defined in most states as forcible sexual relations with a person against that person39s will Manternational Monetary Fund An international organization whose stated objectives are to promote international economic cooperation international trade employment and exchange rate stability including by making financial resources available to member countries to meet balance of payments needs Export processing zones type of free trade zone set up in primarily developing nations by the government to promote industrial and commercial exports Offers incentives such as exemptions from certain taxes and business regulations Maquiladoras A factory in Mexico run by a foreign company and exporting its products to the country of that company Ecofeminism A political movement that combines ecological concerns with feminist ones regarding both as resulting from male domination of society WTO World Trade Organization Created in 1995 to implement the Uruguay round agreements and its new enforcement mechanism which consists of a standing appellate body to render final decisions regarding disputes between WTO members The global assembly line poorly or unpaid workers in other countries that work in outsourced American companies Often poorly treated with bad working conditions Environmental Racism Correlation between toxic dumping and people of color Not in my backyard toxic waste is dumped mainly in neighborhoods of color where they are uneducated and poor Glass ceiling As women advance in their career ladder they cannot get any higher while men are promoted Structural adiustment Drograms imposed by the IMF Ability to make loans to developing nations for personal benefit Countries will cut government spending raise taxes and fees and charge interest Identitv politics a tendency for people of a particular religion race social background etc to form exclusive political alliances moving away from traditional broadbased party politics Ecological footprint The amount of land and energy required by various lifestyles and levels of consumption calculated by estimating the amount of productive land needed to provide food housing transport and consumer goods and services and to absorb the waste that results from these processes Egalitarian relationship truly equal relationships where each person takes on the same amount of responsibly Gender roles the overt expression of attitudes that indicate to others the degree of your maleness or femaleness It is the public expression of your gender identity Gendered division of labor delegation of tasks based on male or female Ex Women cook and clean while men take out trash and build Genderbending adopting clothing body language or behavior that challenges and undermines conventional gender norms and expectations Living wage a wage that is high enough to maintain a normal standard of living Compulsory heterosexuality extemalities The idea that one s sexuality is not chosen but rather forced through society Heterosexuality is then viewed as the natural inclination or obligation by both sexes Dumping deposit or dispose of garbage waste or unwanted material typically in a careless or hurried way Globalization The process of international integration arising from the interchange of worldviews products ideas and other aspects of culture Comparable worth Equal pay for women is an issue regarding pay inequality between men and women Sweatshop a factory or workshop esp in the clothing industry where manual workers are employed at very low wages for long hours and under poor conditions Liberalization of trade The removal or reduction of restrictions or barriers on the free exchange of goods between nations Includes the removal of tariffs and quotas for easier trade Bioregionalism the idea that people should be living off of resources coming from only their region NGO Nongovernmental organizations operate independently from any form of government International division of labor An outcome of globalization It is a spatial division of labor which occurs when the process of production is no longer confined to national economies Xenophobi fear of outsiders immigrants Fast track a route that provides more rapid results than usual Environmental iustice the recognition that a clean environment is a human right Clean air and water Politics of scarcitv the view that the unavailability of resources required to sustain life such as food energy or water can undermine security in degrees similar to military aggression Multiissue organizing Feminization of poverty A phenomenon in which women represent disproportionate percentages of the world39s poor Mommy track professional women who must balance work and family often find themselves on a limited career path They experience lower wages less upward mobility and less prestige than their male counterparts including men who have children Reproductive labor Social Reproduction Children are the future labor force and need to be raised to be valuable to society Militarv industrial complex the growing and profitable collaboration among the military lobbyists government policy war on terrorism homeland security and other military events and businesses Aka War Profiteering Mommy tax highlights the struggles of being a mother in the workforce Prison industrial complex the growing and profitable collaboration among the prison industry government business and state policy Over 2 million US citizens are in jail Precautionarv principle approved goods by the FDA If there is any doubt at all t should need to be proven safe Corporation a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity legally a person and recognized as such in law Short Answer 1 Give examples of micro macro meso and global analysis found in specific articles from each chapter Micro Macro Living to Love black people still feel oppressed in today s society because of the US culture and laws that affect black s negatively such as Jim Crow laws Meso I am Not A Rapist a community of college guys confronts sexual violence Global 2 Discuss the medicalization of pregnancy and how it impacted women Medicalization of Pregnancy made being a midwife illegal thought that you were a witch and would burn you doctors put you in uncomfortable positions laying on your back rather than squatting making women shave etc 3 How is the US labor market divided along lines of race class and gender Give an example of each Race Whites have greater opportunities than colored people and immigrants Class Upper class and Middle class have greater opportunities than lower class people Gender Men have greater opportunities than women 4 What is the connection among the rise of multinational corporations the spread of globalization and ecofeminism Multinational corporations corporations that are registered in more than one nation for example run in america but have factories in 3rd world countries Spread of Globalization economic and cultural integration by electronic media intemet financial institutions trade agreements and national immigration policies Ecofeminism correlates women treated under patriarchy to how nature is treated by western culture Both multinational corps and spread of globalization both lead to the destruction of the environment 5 What is the problem that results form looking at the current wave of corporate corruption as simply a case of a few bad apples It is a majority of the companies that are doing this just not a few It is a global level of analysis because they want us to think of it on the micro level but they are really macro and global issues because they are structural issues 6 Give three specific examples of how violence against women is intimately connected to the history of colonialism andor neocolonialism What forms does such violence take It is a majority of the companies that are doing this just not a few It is a global level of analysis because they want us to think of it on the micro level but they are really macro and global issues because they are structural issues 7 What is the wage gap How big is it Female workers earn 822 of weekly earnings of male full time workers Men took home 832week while women took home 684week 8 Give 2 examples of the how the intersectionality of race class nation and sexuality affect violence against women Women of lower class or of minorities are more vulnerable to rape for example black women have a 40 chance of being raped by the time they are 18 A women s chance of being raped increases by 2 to 3 times if she makes 15000 or less 9 How is occupational segregation different than the glass ceiling The Glass Ceiling is when woman advance in their career ladder they cannot get any higher while men get to go above and be promoted Only 17 women held CEO positions in companies Occupational Segregation only 58 of women are in traditionally male occupations 10 What is the mommy track What are some ways that women try to balance work and family Professional women must balance work and family often find themselves on a limited career path Women use market substitutes like fast food and pre made cookies instead of home made items that is too timeconsuming 11 Do all feminists believe marriage is a path to liberation Why or Why not No some feminists believe that marriage is not liberating They believe that the idea of becoming someone else s when your dad gives his daughters hand is wrong and the traditions of taking a man s last name show that she is less than him 12 Give three examples of how men can be allies in the fight to end violence against women Men can not rape men can raise rape awareness Take Back the Night walks and teach their sons not to rape or disrespect women 13 Give a current example of violence against women given in class Discuss how that example illustrates some important aspects or factors of violence against women in society The sex trade industry along with pimping girls as prostitutes It is all about men being dominant over women and ideally making money off of women from their bodies It is about treating women as property and objectifying them solely as objects to put glossily to put penis in 14 Identify 2 societal factors discussed in class that contributed to the increase in the Feminization of Poverty The wage gap increases the Feminization of Poverty as women do not make as much as men they make 18 less on the dollar than men Even if women work as much as men they will not make as much Also the Glass Ceiling which keeps women from getting higher positions at work to be able to work less hours for more money 15 Discuss the connection between anorexia and power in detail In what ways does an anorexic feel powerful They feel that they re in control of their body when other components in their life are out of their own control They feel powerful knowing that what they did made them conform to media beauty 16 Discuss each stage in the cycle of violence What tends to happen to the cycle over time The cycle starts at the honeymoon phase which occurs when the male treats the woman with respect and care Then the Tension Phase includes fighting between the two Next the Eruption Phase includes lashing out and hitting the woman Lastly the Forgiveness Phase is when the male does things to make it up to the woman such as buying owers and begging for forgiveness 17 Draw the Wheel of Power and Violence What types of violence are enacted against women What is the objective of enacting such violence against women Both physical and sexual violence rely on control to be effective toward the victim This things include using economic abuse using male privilege using coercion and threats using intimidation using emotional abuse using isolation using children and using minimizing denying and blaming that abuse is actually taking place 18 What is the Body Politic and how does this concept relate to the beauty industry How does this concept relate to dieting andor exercise Body Politic societies political struggles between men and women in society that get enacted on our society Women shown in the beauty industry is only thin and unrealistic This relates to dieting because it causes many women to feel too fat and want to conform to society s view of beautiful Females got thinner overtime 19 What form does structural adjustment take in developing countries Why have these policies been put into practice Structural Adjustment helps developing countries grow through loans from developed countries Countries will have to cut government spending raise taxes and fees and pay back interest on the loan They were put into practice to help developing countries grow 20 What are the reasons that Filipino women leave home to work overseas What kind of jobs do they end up in They come overseas to try to get better paying jobs and make money for their children back in their homeland They end up doing caretaking jobs or working for other women s families 21 What is the major objective of a corporation How is the 14th amendment used to benefit corporations Why is this legal definitionpolicy a problem for society Corporations seek to make money individuals working together to make money for people who own businesses The 14th Amendment was originally to give equal rights to black people but corps claimed they were people and can be protected by this Amend life liberty amp property This is bad for society because corps have so much money that they do not care if they get fined for violations even a few million because they will still make a profit also everyone owns everything like water the environment is going to waste and we are running out of natural resources like water and oil 22 What are the main environmental concerns on your campus In the Baltimore area Air Quality and recycling 23 Discuss the global patterns of consumption Make sure you discuss the world s top middle and lowest levels of consumption by giving specific examples of differences in diet transportation and common types of materials Living in the US we have 5 of the Earth s population but do 72 of the hazardous waste 25 of fossil fuels 20 of metals 33 of the paper The top level of consumption are the consumers 11 billion who eat meat packaged food and soft drinks drive private cars and have a lot of throwaway items The second level is the Middle 33 billion who eat grain and clean water drive bikes and buses and have durable items and the lowest class which is poor 11 billion who have insufficient grain and unsafe water walk for transportation and use local biomass for their items There are just as many people in the world who do not value goods and just throw things away than people who have barely anything If we would be able to fix the consumer distribution in the world than no one would be starving or not have any goods 24 Explain the head heart and hands theory of social change Give an example Head How we theorize is a key first step in creating change We need to analyze issues individually and together in order to obtain more information Heart Vision is needed to create change Need to picture a better way to do things and a better future for mankind Hands Action is needed to create change Through action theories and visions are tested sharpened and refined to create more useful theories and have more useful visions 25 Give three examples of how the impact of the globalization of the economy impacts women in developing countries 1 Women work in factories for unfair wages with poor or unsafe working conditions 2 When we take all the clean water they are forced to travel farther and longer for clean drinking water 3 Additionally it increases poverty job insecurity and pulls mothers away from their children 26 Identify two principles of environmental justice How do these principles work to promote sustainable development 1 Environmental justice affirms the sacredness of Mother Earth ecological unity and the interdependence of all species and the right to be free from ecological destruction 2 Environmental justice demands that public policy be based on mutual respect and justice for all peoples free from any form of discrimination or bias 27 How does multiissue organizing differ from identity politics Identity politics is a politics that puts identity at the center such as race sexual identity allows groups of people to band together exclusive political alliances MOVES AWAY FROM BROAD BASED POLITICS 28 How do people in elite positions justify the perpetuation of inequalities to others To themselves They say that they work harder than others and that they deserve the position they re in They feel that they have better education and worked harder throughout their life so they should have the position they are in 29 In what way has identity based politics in uenced activism on your campus Give an example Groups of people who share a common belief band together to work for the benefit of that belief Black student union to stop racism of blacks 30 Why does the globalization of the economy matter to people living in the United States How do they benefit from globalization Globalization creates a larger economy that brings in revenue from other countries and creates more jobs for outside countries at a lower price for American companies Globalization creates more quality products for people in the US at a cheaper price 31 Identify three legacies of colonialism that impact the global economy 1 Wanting to be seen as the most powerful or the most money 2 oppression of underdeveloped countries by countries of higher power 3 think the Iraq war we said there were weapons of mass destruction but really just wanted their oil 32 What is the Politics of Scarcity How can this be an impediment to effective change Politics of Scarcity is the view that the unavailability of resources required to sustain life such as food energy or water can undermine security in degrees similar to military aggression If there are not enough of certain things people will unconsciously be focused on obtaining that thing 33 What are parallels between how women are treated under patriarchy and how the earth is treated in the development of Western Civilization Women are treated like they are below men and worthless The Earth being mother nature is treated as lesser and not as important as humans Both women and the earth are feminine which causes people to treat it with little respect
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