Plants and Humans Study Guide
Test: Dec 1 (Final)
1. Biology- an experimental science
2. Organism- living thing
3. Atom- smallest functional unit of all chemical substances 4. Molecule- two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds 5. Organelle- membrane-bound sub-cellular structure with its own unique function
6. Cell- the simplest unit of an organism
7. Tissue- the association of many cells of the same type 8. Organ- two or more types of tissue combined to perform a common function
9. Organism- a living thing that maintains an internal order and is separate from the environment
10. Species- group of related organisms sharing a distinct form
11. Population- group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment
12. Community- assemblage of populations of different species living in the same place/time
13. Ecosystem- biotic community of populations and the abiotic environment affecting that community
14. Biosphere- all regions on the Earth, and in the atmosphere, where organisms exist
15. Science- The observation, identification, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. 16. Biochemistry- involves the understanding of life and the chemical processes that govern it
We also discuss several other topics like What happens to kinetic energy when an object slows down?
17. Thermodynamics- the ability of energy to be converted from one form to another
18. ATP-primary energy carrying molecule in the cell 19. DNA- store genetic information
20. RNA- decodes this information into instructions for a polypeptide chain Don't forget about the age old question of Who is william herschel?
21. Perianth- sterile tissues
22. Petal- brightly colored to attract pollinators
23. Stamen- male reproductive structures
24. Filament- stalk that holds up the anther
25. Anther- site where pollen is produced
26. Pistil(carpal)- female reproductive structures
27. Stigma- site where pollen sticks
28. Style- hollow tube connecting stigma and ovary 29. Ovary- site where eggs are formed
30. Fertilization- fusion of egg + sperm to produce zygote(fertilized egg)
31. Pollination- transfer of pollen from stamen to stigma of same or distant
32. Endocarp-innermost layer, surrounds seeds 33. Mesocarp- middle layer, usually fleshy If you want to learn more check out Isaac had two sons; who are they?
34. Exocarp- outermost layer, “skin”
35. Mitosis- results in 2 genetically identical daughter cells 36. Meiosis- results in 4 genetically different daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the mother 37. M phase- division of one nucleus into two, sister chromatids align and separate, ensures each daughter cell gets a full set of chromosomes
38. Prophase- chromosomes condense into highly compacted structures, nuclear membrane begins to break apart, spindle begins to form
39. Metaphase- sister chromatids aligned along a plane halfway between the poles, organized into a single row 40. Anaphase- connections between the pairs of sister chromatids are broken, each chromatid is liked to one pole 41. Telophase- chromosomes have reached their respective poles and de-condense, nuclear membranes now reform to produce two separate nuclei
42. Cytokinesis- two nuclei are segregated into separate daughter cells We also discuss several other topics like It is when the price of a good changes ceteris paribus, we move along the supply curve. what is it?
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43. Meiosis I- separates homologous chromosomes 44. Prophase I- chromosomes condense and bivalents form 45. Metaphase I- tetrads organized along metaphase plate as double row
46. Anaphase I- separation of the chromatids pairs occurs, connections between tetrads break, each pair of chromatids migrates to one pole, other pair moves to the opposite pole
47. Telophase I- sister chromatids have reached their respective poles and de- condense; nuclear membranes form 48. Meiosis II- separates sister chromatids We also discuss several other topics like How do we guarantee the person we vote for will act as we want?
49. Calvin cycle- ATP and NADPH used to make carbohydrates, involves as series of steps occurring in a metabolic cycle, converts atmospheric carbon dioxide to glucose
50. Genetics- study of variation and its how it is passed from generation to generation
51. Variation- traits in organisms that differ
52. Traits- observable characteristics
53. Genes- units of instruction for producing or influencing traits
54. Gene pair- two genes at the same place on homologous chromosomes
55. Allele- different form of a gene at a given location
56. Dominant Allele- the allele that is expressed in the heterozygous condition (upper case)
57. Recessive Allele- the allele that is not expressed in the heterozygous condition (lower case)
58. Homozygous Dominant- 2 dominant alleles for a given trait 59. Homozygous Recessive- 2 recessive alleles for a given trait 60. Heterozygous- 2 different forms of an allele for a given trait 61. Genotype- the actual alleles present at a given gene locus
62. Phenotype- the observable trait produced by the genotype 63. Gregor Mendel- conducted plant breeding experiments from 1856-1864
64. Charles Darwin- British naturalist born in 1809 (Galapagos Island Finches)
65. Traits heritable- passed from parent to offspring 66. Population ecology- focuses on groups of interbreeding individuals (populations)
67. Density- number or organisms in a given area 68. Sampling- extrapolate population size from number of captured individuals
69. Clumped- most common, resources tend to be clustered in nature
70. Uniform- competition may cause this pattern 71. Random- rarest, resources are rarely randomly spaced 72. Semelparity- produce all offspring in single reproductive event, individuals reproduce once and die
73. Iteroparity- reproduce in successive years of breeding seasons
74. Seasonal iteroparity- distinct breeding seasons 75. Continuous iteroparity- reproduce repeatedly 76. Community ecology- studies how populations of species interact and form communities
77. Succession- how species composition and community structure change over time, after a disturbance
78. Community- assemblage of many populations that live in the same place at the same time
79. Species richness- number of species in each community 80. Primary succession- succession on a newly exposed site not previously occupied by soil and vegetation
81. Secondary succession- succession on a site that has already supported life but that has undergone a disturbance, such as fire, tornado, hurricane, or flood
82. Facilitation- colonizing species change the environment so that it becomes more suitable for subsequent species 83. Species- area effect- number of species should increase with increasing
1. What are the 6 common characteristics of an organism? 2. What does the scientific method involve?
3. Why do organisms need energy?
4. What are the components of biochemistry?
5. What are the 2 primary energy transformations that occur in plants?
6. What are the 4 main macromolecules found in all living things? 7. What is the function of the flower?
8. 2 structures that are not directly involved in reproduction? 9. Functions of fruit?
10. What are some fleshy fruits?
11. What are some types of multiple fruits?
12. What are some aggregate fruits?
13. Which type of cell division is used in growth? 14. How many chromosomes do we have?
15. How many autosomes?
16. How many sex chromosomes?
17. 2 trophic levels?
18. How do waves travel?
19. What are alleles of the same form?
20. What are alleles of different forms?
21. What were some on Mendel’s findings?
22. Phenotype is?
23. A dwarf plant must be?
24. A tall plant could be?
25. What are the 2 sex chromosomes?
26. What is male?
27. What is female?
28. What does equilibrium number reflect?
29. Why would the rates be curved?
30. What 2 things are considered when classifying a biome? 31. What are the types of biomes?
32. What are aquatic biomes classified by?
33. What are the aquatic biomes?
1. What are the 6 common characteristics of an organism? Composed of cells, metabolism, respond to stimuli, growth and development, reproduction, ability to evolve
2. What does the scientific method involve? Observation, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, results, conclusion 3. Why do organisms need energy? To carry out cellular functions 4. What are the components of biochemistry? Organic compounds, enzymes, nucleic acids
5. What are the 2 primary energy transformations that occur in plants? Photosynthesis and cellular respiration
6. What are the 4 main macromolecules found in all living things? Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
7. What is the function of the flower? Site of sexual reproduction 8. 2 structures that are not directly involved in reproduction? Petal and Sepal
9. Functions of fruit? Protect developing seeds, seed dispersal 10. What are some fleshy fruits? Pome(apples and pears), drupe ( peaches and plums), berry (tomatoes and blueberries), hesperidium(citrus fruits), pepo (squash, melons, cucumbers) 11. What are some types of multiple fruits? Pineapple and mulberry(derived from a tight cluster of separate individual flowers on a single structure)
12. What are some aggregate fruits? Strawberry and raspberry (derived from a fusion of many ovaries)
13. Which type of cell division is used in growth? Mitosis 14. How many chromosomes do we have? 23 pairs (46) 15. How many autosomes? 22 pairs
16. How many sex chromosomes? 1 pair
17. 2 trophic levels? Heterotroph and autotroph
18. How do waves travel? Short to long wavelengths 19. What are alleles of the same form? Homozygous 20. What are alleles of different forms? Heterozygous 21. What were some on Mendel’s findings? Dominant is the
displayed trait, unit factors are genes, each sperm or egg carries only one allele
22. Phenotype is? Characteristics that are the result of gene expression
23. A dwarf plant must be? tt
24. A tall plant could be? TT or Tt
25. What are the 2 sex chromosomes? X,Y
26. What is male? XY
27. What is female? XX
28. What does equilibrium number reflect? Balance between rate of immigration and rate of extinction
29. Why would the rates be curved? Species arrive at different rates and extinctions accelerate as most species arrive and compete
30. What 2 things are considered when classifying a biome? Average annual precipitation and temperature
31. What are the types of biomes? Tropical rain forest, temperature deciduous forest, temperate coniferous forest, temperate grassland(prairie), hot desert, tundra
32. What are aquatic biomes classified by? Differences in salinity, oxygen content, depth, current strength, and availability of light
33. What are the aquatic biomes? Intertidal zone, open ocean, wetlands