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MSU / Biology / BIOL 1023 / Are tissues groups of cells of the same type?

Are tissues groups of cells of the same type?

Are tissues groups of cells of the same type?

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Plants and Humans
Professor: Robert outlaw
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: final study guide, final, Biology, plantsandhumans, Cell, tissue, organ, molecule, organism, organelle, species, population, Science, biosphere, ATP, DNA, RNA, petal, stamen, stigma, filament, anther, plants, ovary, fertilization, pollination, Mitosis, MEOISIS, homeostasis, telophase, metaphase, anaphase, prophase, calvin, cycle, mphase, traits, Genetics, genes, dominant, recessive, homozygous, herterozygous, mendel, darwin, Ecology, and facilitation
Cost: 50
Name: Plants and Humans Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This will cover concepts that will be on our final exam!
Uploaded: 11/28/2017
6 Pages 24 Views 3 Unlocks
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Plants and Humans Study Guide


Are tissues groups of cells of the same type?



Test: Dec 1 (Final)

VOCABULARY

1. Biology- an experimental science

2. Organism- living thing

3. Atom- smallest functional unit of all chemical substances 4. Molecule- two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds 5. Organelle- membrane-bound sub-cellular structure with its own  unique function

6. Cell- the simplest unit of an organism

7. Tissue- the association of many cells of the same type 8. Organ- two or more types of tissue combined to perform a  common function

9. Organism- a living thing that maintains an internal order and is  separate from the environment


What is it called when a living thing maintains internal conditions?



10. Species- group of related organisms sharing a distinct  form

11. Population- group of individuals of the same species that  occupy the same environment

12. Community- assemblage of populations of different species living in the same place/time

13. Ecosystem- biotic community of populations and the  abiotic environment affecting that community

14. Biosphere- all regions on the Earth, and in the atmosphere, where organisms exist

15. Science- The observation, identification, experimental  investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. 16. Biochemistry- involves the understanding of life and the  chemical processes that govern it


How is biochemistry important to understanding life processes?



We also discuss several other topics like What happens to kinetic energy when an object slows down?

17. Thermodynamics- the ability of energy to be converted  from one form to another

18. ATP-primary energy carrying molecule in the cell 19. DNA- store genetic information

20. RNA- decodes this information into instructions for a  polypeptide chain Don't forget about the age old question of Who is william herschel?

21. Perianth- sterile tissues

22. Petal- brightly colored to attract pollinators

23. Stamen- male reproductive structures

24. Filament- stalk that holds up the anther

25. Anther- site where pollen is produced

26. Pistil(carpal)- female reproductive structures

27. Stigma- site where pollen sticks

28. Style- hollow tube connecting stigma and ovary 29. Ovary- site where eggs are formed

30. Fertilization- fusion of egg + sperm to produce  zygote(fertilized egg)

31. Pollination- transfer of pollen from stamen to stigma of  same or distant

32. Endocarp-innermost layer, surrounds seeds 33. Mesocarp- middle layer, usually fleshy If you want to learn more check out Isaac had two sons; who are they?

34. Exocarp- outermost layer, “skin”

35. Mitosis- results in 2 genetically identical daughter cells 36. Meiosis- results in 4 genetically different daughter cells  with half the number of chromosomes as the mother 37. M phase- division of one nucleus into two, sister  chromatids align and separate, ensures each daughter cell gets a full set of chromosomes

38. Prophase- chromosomes condense into highly compacted  structures, nuclear membrane begins to break apart, spindle  begins to form

39. Metaphase- sister chromatids aligned along a plane  halfway between the poles, organized into a single row 40. Anaphase- connections between the pairs of sister  chromatids are broken, each chromatid is liked to one pole 41. Telophase- chromosomes have reached their respective  poles and de-condense, nuclear membranes now reform to  produce two separate nuclei

42. Cytokinesis- two nuclei are segregated into separate  daughter cells We also discuss several other topics like It is when the price of a good changes ceteris paribus, we move along the supply curve. what is it?
If you want to learn more check out What are the five radiologic cxr patterns?

43. Meiosis I- separates homologous chromosomes 44. Prophase I- chromosomes condense and bivalents form 45. Metaphase I- tetrads organized along metaphase plate as  double row

46. Anaphase I- separation of the chromatids pairs occurs,  connections between tetrads break, each pair of chromatids  migrates to one pole, other pair moves to the opposite pole

47. Telophase I- sister chromatids have reached their  respective poles and de- condense; nuclear membranes form 48. Meiosis II- separates sister chromatids We also discuss several other topics like How do we guarantee the person we vote for will act as we want?

49. Calvin cycle- ATP and NADPH used to make carbohydrates,  involves as series of steps occurring in a metabolic cycle,  converts atmospheric carbon dioxide to glucose

50. Genetics- study of variation and its how it is passed from  generation to generation

51. Variation- traits in organisms that differ

52. Traits- observable characteristics

53. Genes- units of instruction for producing or influencing  traits

54. Gene pair- two genes at the same place on homologous  chromosomes

55. Allele- different form of a gene at a given location

56. Dominant Allele- the allele that is expressed in the  heterozygous condition (upper case)

57. Recessive Allele- the allele that is not expressed in the  heterozygous condition (lower case)

58. Homozygous Dominant- 2 dominant alleles for a given trait 59. Homozygous Recessive- 2 recessive alleles for a given trait 60. Heterozygous- 2 different forms of an allele for a given trait 61. Genotype- the actual alleles present at a given gene locus

62. Phenotype- the observable trait produced by the genotype 63. Gregor Mendel- conducted plant breeding experiments  from 1856-1864

64. Charles Darwin- British naturalist born in 1809 (Galapagos  Island Finches)

65. Traits heritable- passed from parent to offspring 66. Population ecology- focuses on groups of interbreeding  individuals (populations)

67. Density- number or organisms in a given area 68. Sampling- extrapolate population size from number of  captured individuals

69. Clumped- most common, resources tend to be clustered in  nature

70. Uniform- competition may cause this pattern 71. Random- rarest, resources are rarely randomly spaced 72. Semelparity- produce all offspring in single reproductive  event, individuals reproduce once and die

73. Iteroparity- reproduce in successive years of breeding  seasons

74. Seasonal iteroparity- distinct breeding seasons 75. Continuous iteroparity- reproduce repeatedly 76. Community ecology- studies how populations of species  interact and form communities  

77. Succession- how species composition and community  structure change over time, after a disturbance  

78. Community- assemblage of many populations that live in  the same place at the same time

79. Species richness- number of species in each community  80. Primary succession- succession on a newly exposed site  not previously occupied by soil and vegetation

81. Secondary succession- succession on a site that has  already supported life but that has undergone a disturbance,  such as fire, tornado, hurricane, or flood

82. Facilitation- colonizing species change the environment so  that it becomes more suitable for subsequent species 83. Species- area effect- number of species should increase  with increasing

QUESTIONS

1. What are the 6 common characteristics of an organism?  2. What does the scientific method involve?  

3. Why do organisms need energy?  

4. What are the components of biochemistry?  

5. What are the 2 primary energy transformations that occur in  plants?  

6. What are the 4 main macromolecules found in all living things?  7. What is the function of the flower?  

8. 2 structures that are not directly involved in reproduction?  9. Functions of fruit?  

10. What are some fleshy fruits?  

11. What are some types of multiple fruits?  

12. What are some aggregate fruits?  

13. Which type of cell division is used in growth?  14. How many chromosomes do we have?  

15. How many autosomes?  

16. How many sex chromosomes?  

17. 2 trophic levels?  

18. How do waves travel?  

19. What are alleles of the same form?  

20. What are alleles of different forms?  

21. What were some on Mendel’s findings?  

22. Phenotype is?  

23. A dwarf plant must be?

24. A tall plant could be?  

25. What are the 2 sex chromosomes?  

26. What is male?  

27. What is female?

28. What does equilibrium number reflect?  

29. Why would the rates be curved?  

30. What 2 things are considered when classifying a biome?  31. What are the types of biomes?

32. What are aquatic biomes classified by?

33. What are the aquatic biomes?

ANSWERS

1. What are the 6 common characteristics of an organism?  Composed of cells, metabolism, respond to stimuli, growth and  development, reproduction, ability to evolve 

2. What does the scientific method involve? Observation,  hypothesis, prediction, experiment, results, conclusion 3. Why do organisms need energy? To carry out cellular functions 4. What are the components of biochemistry? Organic compounds,  enzymes, nucleic acids 

5. What are the 2 primary energy transformations that occur in  plants? Photosynthesis and cellular respiration 

6. What are the 4 main macromolecules found in all living things?  Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids 

7. What is the function of the flower? Site of sexual reproduction 8. 2 structures that are not directly involved in reproduction? Petal  and Sepal 

9. Functions of fruit? Protect developing seeds, seed dispersal 10. What are some fleshy fruits? Pome(apples and pears),  drupe ( peaches and plums), berry (tomatoes and blueberries),  hesperidium(citrus fruits), pepo (squash, melons, cucumbers) 11. What are some types of multiple fruits? Pineapple and  mulberry(derived from a tight cluster of separate individual  flowers on a single structure) 

12. What are some aggregate fruits? Strawberry and raspberry  (derived from a fusion of many ovaries) 

13. Which type of cell division is used in growth? Mitosis 14. How many chromosomes do we have? 23 pairs (46) 15. How many autosomes? 22 pairs 

16. How many sex chromosomes? 1 pair 

17. 2 trophic levels? Heterotroph and autotroph 

18. How do waves travel? Short to long wavelengths 19. What are alleles of the same form? Homozygous 20. What are alleles of different forms? Heterozygous 21. What were some on Mendel’s findings? Dominant is the  

displayed trait, unit factors are genes, each sperm or egg carries  only one allele 

22. Phenotype is? Characteristics that are the result of gene  expression 

23. A dwarf plant must be? tt 

24. A tall plant could be? TT or Tt 

25. What are the 2 sex chromosomes? X,Y 

26. What is male? XY 

27. What is female? XX 

28. What does equilibrium number reflect? Balance between  rate of immigration and rate of extinction

29. Why would the rates be curved? Species arrive at different  rates and extinctions accelerate as most species arrive and  compete 

30. What 2 things are considered when classifying a biome?  Average annual precipitation and temperature 

31. What are the types of biomes? Tropical rain forest,  temperature deciduous forest, temperate coniferous forest,  temperate grassland(prairie), hot desert, tundra 

32. What are aquatic biomes classified by? Differences in  salinity, oxygen content, depth, current strength, and availability  of light 

33. What are the aquatic biomes? Intertidal zone, open ocean,  wetlands

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