Final Exam Study Guide
Professor: Florin Lung
● Weight is not considered a fundamental property
● Scientific thinking mean analyzing the situation, accepting experimental results, and questioning the authority of other
● The velocity of a falling object is constantly increasing (ignoring air resistance)
● Energy is conserved when a moving object slows to a stop ● The same amount of work is done when one walk up stairs and
runs up stairs
● The fahrenheit thermometer scale is equally accurate as the
● Freezing point of water is 273 K
● ke= 1/2mv ^2
● Frequency is NOT the time required for one complete cycle.
-Frequency is amount of vibrations that are completed in one second
-Unit: Hertz (Hz)
● Sounds that move through air are NOT transverse waves. ● Only pressure waves or longitudinal waves can travel through
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the colors of the clouds?
● Transverse mechanical waves can only move through solids. ● Longitudinal waves can move through gases, solids, and liquids. ● Sound does NOT travel faster through cold, denser air than
through warm, less dense air.
● Sound waves travel faster in warm air compared to cool air, solids
compared to liquids, and liquids compared to gases.
● When you increase the energy that goes into starting a vibration,
the amplitude increases
● A period is the time required for one cycle of any repeating event ● Longitudinal waves are particles of a material that move back
and forth in the same direction of the wave
● Transverse waves are particles of a material that move up and
down perpendicular to the direction of the wave
● The greater the frequency, the higher the pitch will be. ● Both constructive and destructive sound interference is We also discuss several other topics like Isaac had two sons; who are they?
necessary to produce beats.
● A resonance takes place at a natural frequency and is an efficient
transfer of energy
● Frequency is the number of cycles that a vibrating object moves
through during a time interval of 1 second.
● The frequency of the wave is what is interpreted as pitch. ● The period of a vibrating object is inversely proportional to the
● A wave travels and carries energy.
● An echo and a reverberation is different based on the time interval between the sound reflected and the original sound
Chapter 6: Electricity
● The electrical force is NOT much weaker than the force of gravity. If you want to learn more check out It is when the price of a good changes ceteris paribus, we move along the supply curve. what is it?
● An object gaining protons does NOT cause it to become positively charged.
● An object becomes positive by gaining an excess of electrons.
● Doubling the distance between two charged objects will reduce the electrical force by a factor of four.
● A magnetic field is produced around a wire by a charge moving through the wire. We also discuss several other topics like What is the pathogen in pulmonary?
● The attractive force between two unlike charges and the repulsive force between two like charges have the same strength.
● Chemical, light, and electrical phenomena involve movement or interactions in the electrons of the atom.
● An object becomes electrostatically charged after the transfer of electrons.
● A unit of electrical charge is called a coulomb.
● A unit of electrical potential difference is called a volt. ● A unit of electrical current is called an amp.
● A watt requires a measure of time.
● Work has the unit of kilowatt-hour.
● Amp and watt are measures of rates.
● Ohm’s law states that the potential difference increases if the current in a circuit increases.
Wave Velocity, v=f λ
Speed of sound, v = 331+ 0.6(T)
Beat frequency, fb= f₂-f₁
Harmonic frequency, fn= nv/2L
Charge of an object, q=ne
Single electron = -1.60 x 10^-19 C We also discuss several other topics like How do we guarantee the person we vote for will act as we want?
Single proton = +1.60 x 10^-19 C
q = total charge in coulombs
n = number of extra electrons
e = fundamental charge
Frequency and period are inverse.
T= 1/F ←-------------→ F= 1/T
Voltage, V= W/ q
Ampere, I= q/ t …. 1A= 1C/ 1 sec
Ohm’s Law, V=IR … R= V/ I … I= V/ R
Power, P= IV
Series Resistances, Rtotal= R1 + R2 …
Parallel Resistances, 1/Rtotal= 1/R1 + 1/R2 …
Chapter 6 & 7
● Magnetism is produced by the movement of electrical currents. ● If you reverse the direction of a current in a wire, the magnetic field around the wire will have a reversed north pole direction. ● A step-up transformer steps up the voltage. If you want to learn more check out How to measure color temperature?
● Light interacts with matter through the process of absorption, reflection, and transmission.
● A prism separates the colors of sunlight into a spectrum due to each wavelength of light having its own index of refraction. ● Green grass is a reflection green light.
● The polarization behavior of light is best explained by considering light to be transverse waves.
● Max Planck discovered that the energy of vibrating molecules existed only in multiples of certain fixed amounts when involved in blackbody radiation.
● Earth’s magnetic field has undergone many reversals in polarity. ● Because a moving charge produces a magnetic field of its own, a current-carrying wire has a magnetic field around it.
● The current in the secondary coil of a transformer is produced by a varying magnetic field.
● Dispersion is the separation of white light into its component colors.
● A pencil appearing bent in a glass of water is an example of refraction.
● Green grass absorbs all light except green light.
● Interference can only be explained by a wave model of light. ● Higher frequency has more energy.
● A thin wire would have more electrical resistance than a thick wire with the same material, length, and temperature. ● The electric field that surrounds an electric charge will collapse inward if the charge suddenly neutralizes.
● The earth’s magnetic north pole is a south magnetic pole. ● The magnetic domains in a permanent magnet are aligned, giving it magnetic properties.
● The force of attraction between two unlike charges has the same strength as the force of repulsion between two like charges. ● The electrical force is not weaker than the force of gravity. ● A magnetic field is always produced around the wire by a charge moving through it.
● A person’s brain’s interpretation of light rays is considered a virtual image.
● Red light has the lowest frequency and longest wavelength detected by your eyes.
● Warm air has a higher index of refraction in comparison to cool air and produces a mirage.
● The changing refraction from the mixing of cool and warm air produces the ‘shimmering’ that one observes on a heated surface.
● The color blue has more energy based on the relationship between energy of light and frequency.
● The photoelectric effect cannot be explained with a wave theory of light.
● Polarization cannot be explained with a particle theory of light. ● An object that produces light of its own is a luminous object. ● Based on the electromagnetic wave model, when an electrical
charge is accelerated with a magnitude within a given range visible light is produced.
● After an object is hot enough to produce a dull red glow, it will produce a shorter-wavelength and higher-frequency radiation if it is heated more.
● The difference in temperatures is the difference in the light that is produced by the sun, light bulbs, and candles.
● Sunlight is mostly infrared radiation before traveling through the earth’s atmosphere.
● Because the light has undergone diffuse reflection, it gives one the ability to see in shaded areas.
● All parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can be measured in the units of wavelength, energy, or frequency.
● Interference can only be explained by a wave model of light. ● Because blue light is scattered more than any other color, the sky appears blue.
● Light today is considered a small-scale phenomenon. ● A full moon is not more luminous than a half moon. ● Incandescent objects are more luminous because of the high temperature.
● Color is for light what pitch is for sound.
➢ v1/v2= n1/n2
➢ n= c/v
➢ E= h*f, c= f*λ, E= h*c/λ ……. h= 6.63 x 10^-34 J . s