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MSU - BIOL 1144 - Final Exam Review - Study Guide

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MSU - BIOL 1144 - Final Exam Review - Study Guide

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology II
Professor: Thomas Holder
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Name: Final Exam Review
Description: This covers the final material for test 4 on December 4. Good luck to everyone!
Uploaded: 11/29/2017
0 5 3 89 Reviews
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background image Bio 2 Exam 4 Review
background image Index  Respiratory System Urinary System  Nephron  Endocrine Systems Animal Reproduction Gametogenesis and Fertilization   Animal Development
background image Respiratory System • All structures that contribute to this process
• Gas Exchange: process of moving CO2 and O2 in opposite directions 
between the environment, bodily fluids, and cells (diffuse from high-
low, epithelial tissue maintains)
• Every place besides lungs CO2 fuses into bloodstream
background image Physical Properties of Gases  • Air is: 21% O2, 78% N2, about 1% CO2 and other gases
• Nitrogen is usually ignored because it is not part of the respiratory 
process  • Solubility of gases • Gases dissolve in water whether fresh water, sea water, or body fluids
• Most gases dissolve poorly in water
• Factors influencing solubility in water
• Pressure of the gas: increase in pressure will result in more gas in solution, up to a limit for  each gas at a given temperature • Temperature of the water: cold water holds more gas than warm water
• Presence of other solutes: other solutes decrease the amount of gas that dissolves into 
solution
background image Gas Exchange to Occur • Ventilation is the process of bringing oxygenated water or air into  contact with a gas exchange organ • All respiratory organs share common features: • Moist surfaces on which gases dissolve and diffuse (internal/external)
• High surface area for gas exchange
• Extensive blood circulation (capillary beds)
• Thin, delicate structure (simple epithelium)
background image Water Breathing vs. Air Breathing • Different challenges for gas exchange
• Aquatic Animals
• Less available oxygen- needs greater efficiency (<1% of O2 in air)
• When temperature change in water, oxygen availability also fluctuates
• Moving dense water over respiratory membranes takes more energy than 
moving air • Water also removes heat from gill surface and can create osmotic movement • Terrestrial Animals • Deal with desiccation of respiratory membranes 
background image Vertebrate Gas Exchange Types • 1. Gills- fish, some amphibians, some invertebrates  • Aquatic organisms- difficult due to low O2 concentration
• Air about 21% of air O2
• Design must be effective and efficient for maximum gas exchange
• Specialized respiratory structures/surfaces in water-breathing animals 
• External gills  • Uncovered extensions from the body surface
• Found in many invertebrates and larval form of amphibians
• Vary widely in appearance but all have a large surface area with extensive 
projections • Limitations: • Unprotected and subject to damage
• Energy is required to wave gills back and forth
• Appearance and motion may attract predators (parasites)
background image Gills Cont’d • Internal Gills • Gills of fishes, many with a cover called an operculum
• Gill arches- main support structure (4-5 fish, 3 amphibians)
• Contain filaments, which are composed of lamellae (hold blood cells- capillary beds and  1 cell squamous epithelial) • Blood vessels run the length of the filaments
• Oxygen poor blood travels through afferent vessel
• Oxygen rich blood travels through efferent vessel

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School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology II
Professor: Thomas Holder
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Name: Final Exam Review
Description: This covers the final material for test 4 on December 4. Good luck to everyone!
Uploaded: 11/29/2017
67 Pages 96 Views 76 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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