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UGA / Religion / RELI 1001 / What is the first book of prophets in the jewish bible?

What is the first book of prophets in the jewish bible?

What is the first book of prophets in the jewish bible?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Religion
Course: Religion: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Professor: Brown
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: RELI 1001 Final Exam Compilation of Notes
Description: This is a complete compilation of all the notes for RELI 1001.
Uploaded: 11/29/2017
112 Pages 29 Views 2 Unlocks
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1


What is the first book of prophets in the jewish bible?



8/16/17 Lecture:  

- religion — basis of beliefs/morals; sense of identity; community; purpose; relationship with  supernatural; conformity or control; sense of worldview; emotional connection to something  more (greater entity with power); common belief; FAITH based (believing what you cannot  see); understanding of creation and after life; prayer  

- cult — acted out practices of a religion  

- atheism is a proposition of the supernatural  

- deism — God created the world but hasn’t had anything to do with it sense; religion of the  founding fathers  

- many people want to distort their radicalism by wanting to return to their origin (ex. saying  people want to return to the religion of the founding fathers)  


Isaac had two sons, who are they?



- know the difference between redirect vs. reality  

- what people say vs. what people mean  

- religion is tied with economics, politics and standards  

- religion is inseparable from the rest of reality  

- what truly is religion?  

- we must look at history to observe/study religion  

- we don’t REALLY know what ALL happened in the past  

- we collect evidence and create a model that accounts for all the evidence  - definitions of history:  

- what really happened  


What is a french word for tax labor?



- probable reconstruction based on evidence  

- genre of writing  We also discuss several other topics like What is the demand curve?

- there is a difference between a history book vs. a novel  

- a history book can be wrong, but that doesn’t make it fiction — new facts and evidence  come up which causes our probable reconstruction to be wrong  

- what kinds of evidence do we need to confirm the Bible?  

- what evidence do we use to write history? eye witnesses, physical evidence, written texts and  comparing texts  

8/18/17 Lecture:  

- Hebrew Bible = Old Testament  

- Testament = contract  

- Christian Bible = Old and New Testament  

- Torah: Law/teaching = Pentateuch = 5 books of Moses  

- Genesis — “In the Beginning”  

- Exodus — “Names”  

- Leviticus — “And he called”  

- Numbers — “In the wilderness”  

- Deuteronomy — “Words”  

- the story of the Torah isn’t complete until Joshua

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- Joshua is the first book of prophets in the Jewish Bible  If you want to learn more check out What are the five radiologic cxr patterns?

- Joshua is the first book of the history in the Christina Bible  

- God = YHWH (Adonai)  

- pronounced Yahweh — but we shouldn’t say the name of God, call Him Adonai instead  - Israel’s location is so valuable because of geography — in between Africa, Europe and Asia  — the MOST valuable trade route  

- Philistines = Greeks (group of city-states)  If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between an interest group and a political party?

- the Phoenicians were a mediating force between the Greeks and the near east  - Aram = region name, made up of city-states  

- Assyria and Babylon — really far away, first world empire, boarders north of Israel  - Israel is NOT the beginning of the world  

Important Numbers:  

- 7: you can see 7 things in the night with the naked eyes — Sun, Moon, Saturn, Venus,  Jupiter, Mercury, Mars — there are also 7 days  

- 40: typical time period of a generation  If you want to learn more check out How to measure color temperature?

- 12: number of times the moon goes through its cycle, number of months in a year  - our biology is determinative of how we view the world (2 hands = good or bad, if we had  more than two hands we may think there are more options)  

- Solomon built the temple in the middle of the 10th century (950 BCE)  - numbers in the Bible do not necessarily mean a quantitative amount — they are often  symbolic  

Genesis 12:  

- God called Abram from Mesopotamia  

- God promises Abram descendants and land 

- PROBLEMS WITH THE PROMISE OF DESCENDANTS: Abram had no kids at the age  of 75  

- PROBLEMS WITH THE PROMISE OF LAND: people already lived in the promise land  - the book of Genesis deals with the problem of no descendants and the rest of the Pentateuch  deals with the problems of no land  If you want to learn more check out What is the business cycle?

- the author mentions Canaanites, which shows they are no longer in the land anymore  - God made a covenant => treaty/contract  

Genesis 15:  

- Abraham’s kids will be oppressed for 400 years  

- In Genesis 15:5, God told Abraham to count the starts then in Genesis 15:12 is becomes night  time (only one star was in the sky — the Sun)  

- we should look for things that are out of the ordinary when reading the Bible, they are there  for a reason  

- Abraham had a son with Hagar (his servant) but that wasn’t the promised descendant  - Abraham had a son with Sarah (Isaac)  

- Isaac had two sons — Esau and Jacob (Israel)  

- Jacob had 12 kids — the namesakes of 12 tribes  

- one of Jacob’s kids was Joseph  

- we have no way to know if this story is historically true — there is so much dialogue

3

- why is the Pharaoh anonymous? other Pharaohs’ are named in 1st and 2nd Kings  

8/21/17 Lecture:  

Timeline:  

- Late 13th Century — Merneptah Steele - 1st mention of Israel, but only as an ethnic group  with no governing control) and the Pharaoh claims to destroy everyone  We also discuss several other topics like What are the science of behavior and mental processes?

- 12th Century — 1st evidence for Israel in any land; the earliest text is Exodus 15 and  Judges 5  

- approximately 1020 — Monarchy is established (Saul fails to establish a dynasty: David  becomes the next king, then his son Solomon takes the crown then his son Rehoboam (asks  friends for advice about ruling strategies); the kingdom splits into two because Rehoboam is  a jerk  

- 922 — Division of the Kingdom  

- 853 — Battle of Qarqar  

- 722 — Assyrians destroy the North Kingdom of Israel  

- 701 — Judah is invaded  

- 622 — Book of the Law is found during Josiah’s reign  

- 587 — Babylonians destroy the South Kingdom of Judah  

- 539 — Decree of Cyprus  

- approximately 515 — 2nd temple completed  

- 332 — Alexander the Great conquers near east  

- 167 — Antiochus IV outlaws Judaism  

- 165 — Maccabees capture Jerusalem  

- 63 — Pompey captures Jerusalem  

- Israel was enslaved in Egypt  

- American slavery vs. Ancient slavery is very very different  

- American slavery was known as chattel slavery (one person owns another, used for  industrializing agriculture)  

- Ancient slavery — slaves had FEWER rights; owned labor, not owned people  - At Mount Sinai a new covenant was made between a specific god (Adonai) and a specific  group of people  

- the new covenant was NOT A UNIVERSAL LAW CODE  

- this was a code written for the Israelites written by the God of Israel  

- ^ is known as the Mosaic Covenant: God defining for Israel what their religion should be; the  foundation for Judaism  

Judaism vs. other religions today:

4

1. Religion and ethnicity/culture:  

- Jews don’t search for converts — only Israelites are bound by Jewish laws  - does “no other gods before me” mean not worshiping ANY other gods  2. Religion and Law  

- Jews take the law seriously  

- Jews don’t believe that following the law equals a good after life, it’s about doing good in  this life  

3. Religion of History  

- tells stories in a historical sense, not mythological sense  

4. Human-Centered  

- Judaism is far less theologically centered and more focused on human interaction  

- God is physically on Mt. Sinai with Moses  

- Moses appoints Joshua to be his successor  

- Moses’ gravesite is lost “until this very day” — which shows it was written about in the past  Problems with the Exodus Story:  

- over 1 million people would have left Egypt  

- the line would stretch from the promised land to Egypt  

- the peninsula would have been fertile from all the poop, but it’s actually a desert  - there are no records of the Israelites leaving Egypt  

- no Egyptian influence in the language or pottery  

Positives of the Exodus Story:  

- there Egyptian names in a small group of Israelites (the Levites, who became the priests)  - the Arch of the Covenant was a box carried on two poles that was covered in cherubs and  carried important texts — this looks a lot like the Egyptian barks (boats)  

Thanksgiving premise — Did something have to happen to everyone in a group of people in  order for it to be celebrated?  

- Israel goes in and destroys everyone in the land  

- Joshua is a book about genocide  

- Joshua is historically inaccurate — there is no large destruction layer, cities that were said to  be destroyed weren’t built yet, and certain cities continued to exist after the supposed  “destruction;” and some cities were already abandoned  

- the author of Joshua was not a liar — he believed that all the Israelis really did invade the  cities because there were ruins everywhere — he put two and two together: large group of  Israelites enter land + large ruins of destroyed cities = Israel did the destroying  

- Joshua 11 — Hasor: head of kingdoms was intentionally destroyed in this time period  - there was a population explosion  

- pottery and language of the Israelites are indigenous, not Egyptian  

- myth — story of cultural value to explain why something is the way that it is

5

8/21/17 Lecture:  

Timeline:  

- Late 13th Century — Merneptah Steele - 1st mention of Israel, but only as an ethnic group  with no governing control) and the Pharaoh claims to destroy everyone  

- 12th Century — 1st evidence for Israel in any land; the earliest text is Exodus 15 and  Judges 5  

- approximately 1020 — Monarchy is established (Saul fails to establish a dynasty: David  becomes the next king, then his son Solomon takes the crown then his son Rehoboam (asks  friends for advice about ruling strategies); the kingdom splits into two because Rehoboam is  a jerk  

- 922 — Division of the Kingdom  

- 853 — Battle of Qarqar  

- 722 — Assyrians destroy the North Kingdom of Israel  

- 701 — Judah is invaded  

- 622 — Book of the Law is found during Josiah’s reign  

- 587 — Babylonians destroy the South Kingdom of Judah  

- 539 — Decree of Cyprus  

- approximately 515 — 2nd temple completed  

- 332 — Alexander the Great conquers near east  

- 167 — Antiochus IV outlaws Judaism  

- 165 — Maccabees capture Jerusalem  

- 63 — Pompey captures Jerusalem  

- Israel was enslaved in Egypt  

- American slavery vs. Ancient slavery is very very different  

- American slavery was known as chattel slavery (one person owns another, used for  industrializing agriculture)  

- Ancient slavery — slaves had FEWER rights; owned labor, not owned people  - At Mount Sinai a new covenant was made between a specific god (Adonai) and a specific  group of people  

- the new covenant was NOT A UNIVERSAL LAW CODE  

- this was a code written for the Israelites written by the God of Israel  

- ^ is known as the Mosaic Covenant: God defining for Israel what their religion should be; the  foundation for Judaism  

Judaism vs. other religions today:  

1. Religion and ethnicity/culture:  

- Jews don’t search for converts — only Israelites are bound by Jewish laws  - does “no other gods before me” mean not worshiping ANY other gods  2. Religion and Law  

- Jews take the law seriously  

- Jews don’t believe that following the law equals a good after life, it’s about doing good in  this life

6

3. Religion of History  

- tells stories in a historical sense, not mythological sense  

4. Human-Centered  

- Judaism is far less theologically centered and more focused on human interaction  

- God is physically on Mt. Sinai with Moses  

- Moses appoints Joshua to be his successor  

- Moses’ gravesite is lost “until this very day” — which shows it was written about in the past  Problems with the Exodus Story:  

- over 1 million people would have left Egypt  

- the line would stretch from the promised land to Egypt  

- the peninsula would have been fertile from all the poop, but it’s actually a desert  - there are no records of the Israelites leaving Egypt  

- no Egyptian influence in the language or pottery  

Positives of the Exodus Story:  

- there Egyptian names in a small group of Israelites (the Levites, who became the priests)  - the Arch of the Covenant was a box carried on two poles that was covered in cherubs and  carried important texts — this looks a lot like the Egyptian barks (boats)  

Thanksgiving premise — Did something have to happen to everyone in a group of people in  order for it to be celebrated?  

- Israel goes in and destroys everyone in the land  

- Joshua is a book about genocide  

- Joshua is historically inaccurate — there is no large destruction layer, cities that were said to  be destroyed weren’t built yet, and certain cities continued to exist after the supposed  “destruction;” and some cities were already abandoned  

- the author of Joshua was not a liar — he believed that all the Israelis really did invade the  cities because there were ruins everywhere — he put two and two together: large group of  Israelites enter land + large ruins of destroyed cities = Israel did the destroying  

- Joshua 11 — Hasor: head of kingdoms was intentionally destroyed in this time period  - there was a population explosion  

- pottery and language of the Israelites are indigenous, not Egyptian  

- myth — story of cultural value to explain why something is the way that it is  

8/23/17 Lecture:  

Timeline Cont.  

BCE:  

- 4-3 — Jesus is born  

CE:  

- 30-33 — Jesus is crucified  

- 50 — Council of Jerusalem

7

- 64 — Great fire in Rome  

- 66 — 1st Jewish revolt begins  

- 70 — 2nd temple destroyed by Romans  

- 73 — Masada fails  

- 132-136 — Bar Kochba revolt  

- corvée — French word for tax labor  

- Rehoboam makes half the kingdom secede and Jeroboam becomes King of the Northern  Kingdom  

- Judah, the Southern Kingdom, is not important economically during this time  - Jeroboam made 2 golden halves and put them in the most north and south of Israel (Northern  Kingdom)  

- Elijah and Elisha didn’t address the golden calves when their mentioned in the Bible  - Jeroboam decentralized the religion — his government was in another city, which was the  beginning of the separation of Church and State  

- Solomon’s temple had 2 cherubs in the Holy of Holies  

- when there is an empty throne in a temple, it’s a symbol of where God should be  - the bulls Jeroboam made were spread out from the north to the south, which shows that  God is all over Israel and not just in one place  

- 722 — Assyrians destroyed the Northern Kingdom because they stopped paying taxes  - the Assyrians deport people they conquer to other lands and import people to the land they  conquer  

- this is because people wouldn’t have connections to the land so there is less of a chance  they would revolt  

- Jews = citizens of Judah  

- Judah (southern kingdom) survived, but Israel (northern kingdom) did not  - Sennacherib destroyed all of Judah except for Jerusalem  

- Assyria controlled most of the economic and domestic policies of the time because they were  so powerful  

- Josiah renovated the temple and found the book of the law and he said no one can sacrifice  anywhere except Jerusalem  

- 587 — Judah stopped paying taxes and united with Egypt  

- the Babylonians came and destroyed Jerusalem  

Questions to Ponder:  

- what does it mean if you believe in Josiah’s reform and the only place to worship is now  destroyed?  

- God promised that a son of David would always rule, but that doesn’t happen  - What does this mean theologically?  

- because people are being deported from Judah, the religion of the Jews had to adapt and  change or it would have dissipated  

- Cyrus allows Jews to return to Judah and paid to rebuild Jerusalem

8

- Cyrus was from Persia, and the Persians were enlightened and believed in the concept of  hands off ruling — if Judah paid their taxes he left them alone  

- Judaism spread from Judah to Babylon  

- a new temple is built — which was super rinky-dink  

- in 515 the doctrine of Josiah takes a BIG hold  

- Alexander the Great was a disciple for Greek culture  

- Hellenism — the spread of Greek everything (clothes, food, culture, religion, etc.)  - Hellenism and Judaism don’t get along AT ALL  

- how do the current Jews hold on to traditions and adapt to Hellenism at the same time?  - Antiochus IV outlawed Judaism  

- a conservative group from Judah (Maccabees) revolt and succeed in their efforts — they re purified the temple and rededicated it to the Lord  

- the Maccabees made Judah an independent country with a monarchy  

- Judah makes a close connection with Sparta  

- Pompey the Great captured Jerusalem and make Judah part of the Roman empire  - 4-3: Jesus was born  

- BCE = BC and CE = AD  

- 30-33: Jesus is crucified  

- Why was Jesus crucified?  

- What crime did He commit?  

- Romans were good at public displays of discouraging any resistance  

- Jesus Crucifixion Details:  

- Jesus’ crime was that he said he was “King of the Jews”  

- the ruler/governor was Pontius Pilate — he was a terrible person and a brutal ruler  - when — Passover (the holiday that commemorates the Exodus event and overthrow of  foreign rule)  

- what happened when Jesus got to Passover — people cried Hosanna and Son of David  - Hosanna — “save us from foreign rule”  

- Son of David = King  

- context of the situation — Jesus was not the first person who though He was the Messiah;  Romans literally killed those other Messianic movements  

- the Jewish leaders thought it was better to turn Jesus over than to let the movement get  out of hand and get a lot of people killed  

3 characteristics of religion:  

1. Religions are organic  

2. Religions are not monolithic  

3. The things people do make sense  

8/25/17 Lecture:  

Timeline Cont.:  

- approx. 200 — Mishnah is compiled

9

- End of 3rd Century — Jews ceased to be majority in Palestine  

- 303 — Diochitan outlaws Christianity  

- 313 — Edict of Milan  

- 324 — Constantine becomes emperor of entire Roman empire  

- 325 — Council of Nicaea  

- 381 — 1st Council of Constantinople  

- 431 — Council of Ephesus  

- 451 — Council of Chalcedon  

- approx. 500 — Talmud Compiled  

- 570 — Muhammad was born  

- 610 — 1st Revolution to Muhammad  

- 622 — Hijran  

- 632 — Death of Muhammad  

- 644 — Uthman compiles the Quran  

- 661 — Ali Assassinated  

- 711 — Muslim conquest of al-Andalus  

- 732 — Battle of Tours  

- 750 — 3rd Fitna  

- 632-661 — “Rightly Guided” Caliphate  

- 661-750 — Umayyad Caliphate  

- 750-1258 — Abbasid Caliphate  

- Christianity began as a subset of Judaism  

- it took about a century for the 2 religions to fully break apart — which happened at the Bar Kochba Revolt  

- Christ = Messiah  

- but Messiahs aren’t supposed to die before they accomplish their “tasks” — ex. free Israel  from oppression  

- Christians “postponed” what Jesus (the Messiah) was supposed to do  

- Christianity spread by word of mouth and letters written  

- the people who originally developed Christian Orthodoxy were from North Africa  - 50 CE — Council of Judah:  

- the question asked here was “do you have to be circumcised to convert to Christianity?” in  other words — do you have to convert to Judaism before you can become a Christian  - the council decided NO  

- if they had said yes, Christianity would not have survived  

- Christianity gradually became more Gentilized (not Jewish)  

- 3 things new churches had to do in order to follow Christianity:  

1. you couldn’t eat meat sacrificed to idols  

- this was a problem because butchery happened in temples and that was the only way  people ate meat  

2. you couldn’t eat meat that’s been strangled (or still has blood in it)

10

3. refrain from sexual immorality (sexual illicitness)  

- these three restrictions begin to separate Christianity from Judaism  

- 64 — Nero blamed Christianity for the fire of Rome and drove them out because they are  “man haters” and atheists  

- 66 — Judah revolts and fight a way for 7 years  

- 70 —temple is destroyed for the final time  

- before the temple was destroyed is known as Temple Judaism  

- after the temple was destroyed is known as Rabbinic Judaism  

- 73 — Masade was destroyed = Jewish fort on a hill; Rome built a hill next to them to get to  the top  

- 132-136 — Rome squashes another attempted revolt  

- this is the split between Christianity and Judaism  

- the leader of Bar-Kochba was considered to be the Messiah  

- Romans renamed Judah to Palestine (closest thing they could say to Philistine) — “F*** you  Jews”  

- approx. 200 — Mishnah is compiled  

- Mishnah — foundation texts for Rabbinic Judaism; written form of an “oral Torah” that was  spoken on Mt. Sinai  

- end of 3rd Century — Judaism = world religion  

- Diochitan outlaws Christianity  

- 313 — Constantine signs the Edict of Milan, which makes Christianity a “real” religion  - 325 — Council of Nicaea  

- is Jesus God or not? they came to the conclusion that he is  

- beginning of Orthodox Christianity  

- 381 — question is brought up - yes Jesus is God, but how does that work?  - 451 — the answer to the above question — Jesus is both God and man  - Nicene Creed and the Council of Chalcedon is what made Christian Orthodoxy  - 570 — Muhammad is born in Saudi Arabia to a poor family in a wealthy tribe; he was an  orphan raised by his aunt and uncle; he worked on his uncles caravan and quickly became  known for being trustworthy  

- When Muhammad was 25, an older, wealthy woman named Khadijah proposed to  Muhammad  

- Muhammad didn’t marry again until she died  

- Mecca was a metropolis at this time; it was a major religion and trade center  - Muhammad was on his pilgrimage and was in a cave and was spoken to by the angel Gabriel  - he went back to his wife and told him what had happened and that he thought he was losing  his mind — his wife took Muhammad to her cousin, who was a Christian, and he said not to  worry because it was God talking to him  

- 4 things Muhammad said:  

4. Monotheism — there is only one god  

5. submit and obey god  

6. charity — give to the poor  

7. there will be judgment befitting your actions

11

- Muhammad’s god is the God of Abraham  

Lecture 8/28:  

Timeline Cont.:  

- 570 — Birth of Muhammad  

- 610 — 1st Revolution of Muhammad  

- 622 — Hijra  

- 638 — Muslim conquest of Jerusalem  

- 644 — Quran compiled by Uthman  

- 661 — Ali assassinated  

- 680 — Martyrdom of Hussayn at Karbala  

- 711 — Muslim conquest of al-Andalus  

- 732 — Battle of Tours  

- 750 — 3rd Fitna  

- 830 — House of Wisdom built  

- 1054 — Great Schism  

- 1099 -- Crusaders conquer Jerusalem  

- 1187 — Battle of Hattin  

- 1258 — Fall of Baghdad  

- 1453 — Fall of Constantinople  

- 1492 — Spanish Inquisition  

- 1517 — Luther posts 95 Thesis  

- 1545-63 — Council of Trent  

- 1789 — French Revolution Begins  

- 4 things Muhammad said:  

- monotheism  

- submit and obey god  

- charity  

- judgment  

- charity — there should be no division; there should be a construction of a community of  

equals  

- Muhammad is NOT Muslim Jesus  

- Muhammad is a prophet who delivers the most pure message from god  - Ali = first male convert; Muhammad’s nephew/son  

- Muhammad was protected by his uncle and wife

12

- Kaaba — shrine in the middle of Mecca  

- has stuff for a lot of gods — polytheistic gods, Jesus, Mary  

- 622 — Hijra — Muslim community ran from Mecca to Madina  

- means flight/escape  

- this was the beginning of a new era  

- the moment when a Muslim community became prominent in their own city  - Treaty/charter of Madina — negotiates religion freedom for all religions  - you do you and I’ll do me  

- leaders of Mecca want Muhammad dead, which causes tension and war  - 632 — leaders of Mecca surrender the city and Muslims rededicate the Kaaba  - Muhammad is important, but he is not Jesus  

- according to Muslims, the large scale spread of Islam shows how Islam is truly a “religion of  

God”  

- 632-661 — Muslim conquests do not equal killing and forced conversion  - the Muslims only took over the government  

- 661-750 — Umayyad Caliphate - discourages conversion to Islam because non-Muslims had  to pay higher taxes  

- 632-661 — split of Sunni and Shias  

- initially a political split, but the religious differences came later  

- 644 — official Quran put together because Muhammad’s “companions” (like Jesus’ disciples)  

were dying off  

- Aisha (Muhammad’s second wife) was incredibly important during this time  - 661 — Ali was assassinated  

- this was the closest to a male heir for Muhammad  

- if Muhammad is the last prophet, how can someone take his place/role?  - 661-750 — Umayyads took over — only cared about money/power — discrimination of non Arab Muslim — this is a failure  

- 680 — commemorates the sadness of the Shias  

- Abbasid Caliphate — moved capital to Baghdad (where there had been no previous religious  

holds)  

- the Abbasid doesn’t care about expansion, they want to nurture the current empire  - they were all about scholars and academics  

- this was the golden age for the Western World  

- split between Eastern/Western Christianity  

- Eastern Orthodox — many leaders, not one center  

- Western Roman Catholic Church — one leader (Pope), one central location

13

- Crusades — attempt to reclaim Jerusalem for Christianity  

- just war vs. holy war  

- just war — sometimes you have to go to war, but killing is still sinful  

- holy war — killing isn’t sinful, it cleanses your soul  

- Crusaders attacked Jews, Muslims and un-Orthodox Christians  

- 1258 — end of Caliphate and the thought that there is a single leader/government for all of  Islam  

- 1453 — end of the Roman empire  

- 1492 — reconquering Spain/Portugal for Christianity; kicked Jews and Muslims out of Spain  - 3 options of Jews/Muslims in this period:  

- convert to Christianity  

- leave  

- die  

8/30/17 Lecture:  

- Leviticus 17: difference between sacrificing domestic animals vs. wild animals  - no offering with a domestic animal is equal to murdering a human  

- there is no such thing as only killing an animal for food  

- this law shows there is some form of government that has the power to administer capital  

punishment  

- property crimes do not equal the death penalty  

- this differers from other near-eastern law codes  

- “eye for an eye” = Talion  

- a punishment cannot exceed the crime committed  

- a boundary on capital punishment  

- laws don’t actually tell you what people actually did  

- ex. just because there’s a speed limit that doesn’t mean people follow it  - Exodus 22:30 — sacrifice your first born  

- “son of God” alludes to child sacrifice  

- Psalm 115  

- did the Israelites really not understand other religions or did they know and just wanted to  

make fun of others?  

- 1 place you sacrifice — temple  

- temple -- house of god  

- a temple is not the same as a church, synagogue or mosque

14

- everyone could enter the temple courtyard to sacrifice at the alter; no regular people in the  Holy Place, only priests; only the High Priest could go into the Most Holy Place (Holy of  

Holies) at certain times of the year  

- in the Most Holy Place there is a seat for God (of cherubs) and the Arch of the Covenant (his  footstool)  

- kings build temples and install priests  

- in Pagan religions, the Most Holy Place is where the statue was  

- the statue was the representation of the gods, not the ACTUAL god  

- the people weren’t stupid — they knew that the idol wasn’t actually a god, but it was a  

representation of the god they were worshiping  

- what is the God of Israel the God of?  

9/1/17 Lecture:  

Intro to Judaism:  

- the Hebrew Bible is not the same as Judaism today  

- 2000 years is a long time for stuff to change  

- these religions have grown and adapted — if they didn’t they wouldn’t have survived  - clean — unclean or pure — impure  

- these translation are totally different concepts  

- they do not mean something then the negation of something  

- these are not moral judgments  

- nothing to do with right and wrong  

- ex. touching a dead body makes you unclean, but you still have to bury people  - cultic state of being — the events happening have an impact on you  

- birth, sex, death, menstruation, etc. — all these events have to do with life and death  - there are other forces at work other than clean and unclean (for example — holiness)  - to bring an unclean force into contact with something holy is a dangerous combination  - this can lead to death  

- courtyard at the temple — place in front of God  

- women are equally involved in temple worship because they were concerned about being  

unclean  

- being clean/unclean affects your ability to participate in temple sacrifice  - 2 largest religions  

- 2.2 billion Christians  

- 1.5 billion Muslims

15

- 15 million Jews (0.2% of world’s population)  

- this isn’t even close to the other two largest religions  

- Judaism is the parent of Christianity and Islam  

- Christianity and Islam are the world’s largest religions  

- they are NOT ethnicities  

- the most Muslims live in Indonesia  

- Christianity and Islam have religions claims/messages that they believe is for everything and  there is bad consequences in the afterlife if you reject the message  

- Judaism is a covenant with a certain god and certain people  

- Jewish claims aren’t for everyone  

- they aren’t universal  

- there no Jewish missionaries  

- getting to heaven is not the goal of Judaism  

- Rabbinic Judaism changes:  

- no more clean/unclean  

- prayer takes place of sacrifice  

- Judaism:  

- religion of history — still celebrate special events  

- man-centric  

- religion of law — Exodus 23-24  

- relationships between human being; study of Torah = center of religion; act of worship  - religion and an ethnicity  

- creed — what people believe  

- there is no creed in Judaism  

- Judaism is man-centric — it focuses on what’s going on here and now and your relationships  with people  

- there’s an oral Torah given to Moses then to Joshua that was never written down  - nothing in written Torah about marriage or "what is work”  

- there is a current debate about a light switch  

- they are taking serious the Torah  

- they are worshipping God through this debate  

- keep commandments because you owe God because He saved you in history  - thinking about what you eat and wear = transforming everyday activities into acts of  

worship for God  

- you keep commandments because that’ what you’re supposed to do  

- you go to Gehenna (bad place in afterlife) to be purified, but it’s not permanent

16

- Gehenna is where you go before you stand God  

- 3 Branches of Judaism:  

- Reform Judaism  

- Orthodox Judaism  

- Conservative Judaism  

- Reform and Orthodox Judaism was formed in the late 1700s  

- these three branches debate on how much of the Torah should still be practiced  - French Revolution — end of locking people in ghettos; religion is no excuse to forbid people  

from living in a country  

- till 1850s — Jews couldn’t live in England  

- Reform Judaism decided it was okay to set aside dietary laws/dress code and adapt to the  

countries they’re in  

- Reform is the most common form of Judaism in America  

- this separates ethnicity from religion  

- ex. a French citizen who practices Judaism — not a Jewish person who lives in France  - Reform — most “liberal” Jews  

- different branches of Judaism is not like denominations in Christianity  - Orthodox — don’t like to throw away traditions; they continue to live out traditional Rabbinic  

Judaism  

- not the oldest because you can’t have Orthodox Judaism without something that contradicts  

it  

- Conservative — middle ground approach  

- okay with dispensing tradition, but preserve as much as possible while adapting to the  

current world  

- 43% of Jews live in Israel  

- 32% of Jews live in America  

- Secular Judaism — participates in culture, but aren’t religions  

- Torah — central to Judaism; not a lot about the afterlife  

- God speaks to Moses mouth to mouth  

- Tikkun-Olam — repair of the world  

- one of the reasons you follow the commandments  

- with the commandments the world is being repaired/getting better  

9/6/17 Lecture:  

- the Messiah is not a divine being in Judaism  

- the Messiah has to do with restoring independence to Israel  

- 2 Samuel 7 — there is a promise made that a descendant of David will always be king — did God  break His promise?

17

- no — the Messiah will reinstate this promise  

- Christianity — belief system based on propositions based on Jesus  

- belief is a central concept/component of Christianity  

- belief is intensified by the Protestant Reformation  

- other religions recognize actions as the center of their religions, not what you believe  - while Judaism and Islam do care about what you believe, they focus on how your beliefs manifest in  your everyday life  

- there is nothing in the Pentateuch about what to believe  

- claim of Christians: Jesus is the Messiah (Christ)  

- Messiah/Christ literally means someone who has had oil poured on their head  - the problem with Jesus being the Messiah is that he didn’t restore a descendant of David to the throne  - 2 Responses to this problem:  

- Second Coming — Jesus will do it later  

- Reinterpret His death  

- Paul’s writing:  

- he wrote letters to early churches  

- most are responses to letters we don’t have  

- wrote 13 of the 27 books of the New Testament  

- Paul’s writing are the earliest Christian texts (in addition to James)  

- from Paul’s perspective, all of his writing is expected to happen in the next 1-10 years  - some reinterpret Jesus’ death as a sacrifice  

- Paul has a solution — Jesus has relevance for everybody (Jews and Gentiles)  - but there is not problem for his solution  

- Romans didn’t care enough about Christianity to care about Jesus  

- Paul’s solution to not having a problem is that he tells the story of Adam and Even in the garden  - Paul says Jesus as a sacrifice solves the problem of Adam and Eve disobeying God  - this doctrine was adapted by Augustine and called “Original Sin”  

- Augustine was from North Africa, which was a center for early Christian thinkers  - Augustine questions the practice of baptizing babies:  

- it can’t be wrong if every church is doing it  

- babies have no sin  

- baptism is for the forgiveness of sin  

- 2 kinds of sin  

- Personal Sin: the crap you do that you’re responsible for  

- Original Sin: Adam and Eve’s sin that is a genetic trait for all humans  

- Jesus is born of a virgin, which removes him from Original Sin  

- Immaculate Conception — Mary was removed of Original Sin so that Jesus could be sinless from  Mary’s side and God’s side  

- you must believe something about Jesus for His sacrifice to work  

- this is different than EVERY other religion — sacrifices just work because they work  - Christianity is centralized on belief  

- Council of Nicaea — is Jesus God or is He some kind of divine creation made by God?  - this is an argument of belief, not practice  

- Council of Ephesus/Chalcedon — all questions about belief  

- Council of Jerusalem — do you have to be Jewish to be a Christian

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- this is a practical question with a practical solution  

- for Christians, practice does matter, but belief trumps practice  

- from the year 50 to 325 was the switch from practical questions to abstract questions about belief  - by 325 Jesus is for sure God  

- common argument — if Jesus is God then Christians are polytheistic  

- monotheistic — one god; Christians get this belief from Judaism  

- solution to the argument:  

- The Trinity — way of saying Jesus is God, but there is only one God  

- God exists in 3 persons  

- the Father is not the Son and the Son is not the Holy Spirit and the Holy Spirit is not the Father  — but all three are all God  

- Paul is a foundational thinker in Christianity  

- Why is monotheism so important to Christianity, Judaism and Islam?  

- what’s the difference in a monotheistic and polytheistic world-view?  

- surrounding countries’ religions look a lot like Judaism  

- Interpretation of Christ’s Death:  

- Recapitulation Theory (Iranaeus)  

- Jesus is Adam pt. 2  

- Adam screwed up at the tree of good and evil  

- Jesus is the second divine creation that didn’t screw up at the tree (cross)  

- Jesus represents all humans, just as Adam did  

- Ransom Theory  

- Satan kidnapped all humanity  

- God makes a deal with Satan saying He will trade a really awesome human (Jesus) for all of  humanity  

- Satan agrees  

- but Jesus is God and God can’t be held so Jesus escaped and tricked Satan  

9/8/17 Lecture: Intro to Islam  

- Christianity Cont.  

- Atonement Theories  

- Recapitulation Theory — Jesus is a New Adam  

- Ransom Theory — Satan has kidnapped all mankind  

- Moral Influence — created by Peter Agelard  

- looks at important of Life and death of Jesus  

- Jesus provides an example of how to live a moral, upright life  

- this example creates a pattern for people to follow  

- Satisfaction Theory — created by Canterbury  

- humans owe God everything because He made everything  

- Jesus is representing humanity and satisfied the debt to God  

- Penal Substitution — from the Protestant Reform  

- this is the most recent Atonement Theory  

- God made everything and humans owe God  

- God owes human an infinite amount of punishment for us not paying God back

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- Jesus took place of this punishment  

- Types of Christianity:  

- Roman Catholic  

- 50% of Christians  

- 1 leader of the church  

- Bishop of Rome — Pope  

- Protestantism comes from this  

- Protestantism is a reaction to the Roman Catholic Church  

- made popular by Martin Luther  

- Scientific Revolution comes from this  

- this comes from a rejection of authority  

- denominations come from protestantism  

- 800 million Christians in denominations  

- no protestant group outnumbers the Eastern Orthodox  

- Eastern Orthodox  

- approximately 200 million Christians  

- group of equal leaders that meet together to make decisions for the church  

- theosis — you don’t convert; you work to constantly become a Christian  

- “By Scripture alone…” — Martin Luther  

- but he threw out so many books of the Bible that Jews read  

- the individual must decide what they believe — not a Pope or council  

- Martin Luther thought if people only read the Bible they’d all believe the same thing — WRONG  - Protestantism breaks apart because they believe all authority can and should be questioned  Islam:  

- 2nd largest religion  

- 1.5 billion people  

- not an Arab religion  

- biggest country for this religion is Indonesia  

- 5 Pillars of Islam:  

- 1. There is no god but god, and Muhammad is his messenger  

- god is referred to as “Allah”  

- Islam’s god is the god who created the world, god of Abraham and god of the new/old testament  - tawhid — unity, oneness, concept of religion  

- this is very important to religion  

- people of the book — Jews and Christians  

- skirk — association; taking something that’s not god and putting it in god’s almighty place  - the Quran is god’s words that Muhammad spoke  

- what’s the difference between an angle and a god?  

- Islam arrives in 600s in Arabia  

- Islam isn’t a new religion — it’s the same religion practiced since the beginning of time  - Muhammad is the last prophet because this revelation hasn’t been corrupted by mankind  - Muslims considers Abraham and Moses Muslims  

- Muhammad made an appeal to origin, just as Christians did during the Protestant Reformation  - Islam made an attempt to return to the original religion  

- Radicalism disguised as traditionalism

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- revolutions almost always become the thing people sought to overthrow in the first place  - ex. no taxation without representation  

- but what are we doing right now with Guam and Puerto Rico?  

- there is no need for a mediator between god and humans in Islam, like Jesus in Christianity  - 85% Sunni  

- 15% Shia  

- the split between Sunni and Shia happened in 680  

- this was originally a political split  

- Sunnis and Shias don’t get along  

- some Sunnis don’t consider Shias real Muslims  

- Saudi Arabia doesn’t recognize Israel’s right to live, but they allow them to fly through their air space  to bomb Iran  

- Saudi Arabia is mainly Sunni  

- Iran is mainly Shia  

- the holy places of Islam are in Saudi Arabia  

- Mecca, which has the Kaaba  

- Islam centers itself around  

- monotheism — God of Abraham  

- Muhammad is the final prophet  

- everything else comes from these things  

9/15 Lecture:  

- How do we make beliefs?  

- Why do people arrive at the conclusions they arrive at?  

- possible answers:  

- place of birth  

- culture  

- ethnicity  

- big events  

- experiences  

- education  

- one’s world-view  

- parents  

- trying to define something we can’t understand — the unexplainable  

- politics  

- Ex. Do you believe in gravity?  

- observable (experience)  

- testable  

- scientific construct that we believe in  

- belief vs. knowledge

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- belief — open-ended, trust, subjective  

- knowledge — fundamentals, based in fact  

- Evolution?  

- is evolution belief or knowledge?  

- 1+1=2 is a fact  

- murder is wrong.  

- is this an opinion or a fact?  

- just because someone doesn’t agree, doesn’t make it wrong  

- What makes the different kinds of killing different?  

- intent  

- motive  

- target  

- facts — things we have reason to believe are true  

- belief — a conclusion based on facts  

- survivors of the survivors  

- murder is wrong, but is it natural?  

- lions don’t kill members of their own pride  

- how far are people willing to believe a subjective truth?  

9/18-9/20 Lecture:  

Bible or Quran Activity — won’t be on test so it’s not included here  

9/22 Lecture:  

- Jewish Canon:  

- Torah:  

- Genesis  

- Exodus  

- Leviticus  

- Numbers  

- Prophets:  

- Former:  

- Joshua  

- Judges  

- Samuel  

- Kings  

- Latter:  

- Isaiah  

- Jeremiah  

- Ezekiel

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- The Twelve Minor Prophets (all combined in one book)  

- Writings:  

- Psalm  

- Job  

- Proverbs  

- Song of Songs  

- Ruth  

- Lamentations  

- Ecclesiastes  

- Esther  

- Daniel  

- Ezra-Nehemiah  

- Chronicles  

- canon — a collection of authoritative “something”  

- there is no such thing as a canon of a Bible  

- prophecy/prophets — people who offer an authoritative interpretation of the past and present  and occasionally accompanied by a prediction  

- in the Jewish Canon, Daniel isn’t a prophet  

- a Jewish Canon was fully comprised at approximately 100 C.E.  

- an argument took place about 4 books at this time — does reading these books make your  hands unclean?  

- Ezekiel  

- Song of Songs  

- Esther  

- Sirach  

- Esther has no mention of God  

- Song of Songs is a dirty dirty sex book; love poetry; translates as relationship between God  and man  

- Ezekiel 40-48 — Ezekiel giving laws that contradicts the Torah  

- Ezekiel and Jeremiah predicted (correctly) the fall of Israel by the Babylonians  - Sirach — wisdom book; it was written too late; at the point the book was written, there is no  more biblical inspiration  

- Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther  

- 5 scrolls  

- written for specific holidays  

- Christian Old Testament  

- Septuagint  

- Greek translation  

- oldest translation  

- 200-250 B.C.E.  

- this was the basis for Christianity  

- Law:  

- Genesis

23

- Exodus - Leviticus - Numbers - Deuteronomy  

- History: - Joshua - Judges - Ruth - 1&2 Samuel - 1&2 Kings - 1&2 Chronicles - Ezra - Nehemiah - Esther - Tobit - Judith - 1&2 Maccabees - Poetry: - Job - Psalm - Proverbs - Ecclesiastes - Song of Songs - Wisdom of Solomon - Wisdom of Sirach - Prophecy: - Isaiah - Jeremiah - Lamentations (Baruch) - Ezekiel - Daniel - Hosea - Joel - Amos - Obadiah - Jonah - Micah - Nahum - Habakkuk - Zephaniah - Haggai - Zachariah - Malachi

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- Tobit and Judith talk about exile  

- Daniel and Esther in the Christian Old Testament are completely different than the Hebrew  Bible  

- Marcion believes Christians shouldn’t read the Hebrew Bible  

- Marcion’s canon is Luke and Paul’s letters  

- Marcion’s claim is the god of the Jews isn’t the god of the Christians  

- New Testament:  

- Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John), History, Paul’s Letters, Catholic Letters (letters to all  churches), Apostles  

- there are other gospels floating around, such as Thomas  

- Who wrote …?  

- James  

- 1&2 Peter  

- 1, 2&3 John  

- Jude  

9/25 Lecture:  

- the extra books included in every canon except in the Protestant Canon (Martin Luther didn’t  like them)  

- Apocrypha (by Protestants)  

- Deuterocanonical (by Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox)  

- the books were printed in the Protestant Bible (King James Version), but in a separate section  - Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestants have the same basic New Testament  Canon  

- Didache — seems extremely Orthodox, but not included in New Testament  - means the teaching of the 12 apostles  

- written in the early 2nd century (early 100s)  

- Deuterocanonical means 2nd  

- Apocrypha means hidden  

- Where did this Bible come from?  

- translation:  

- translators makes decisions for you about what something means  

- most texts in Hebrew are ambiguous  

- every translation is an interpretation  

- by reading a translation, the translator’s bias and thoughts matter  

- Septuagint — oldest translation of the Bible  

- Matthew 1:23  

- cites Isaiah 7:14  

- Matthew 1:23’s problem is that Matthew has only read the Greek translation which says  “parthenos,” which means “virgin”  

- Hebrew has a different word for virgin, it only says “young girl”  

- Read Isaiah 7  

- virgin birth isn’t THE tradition of Christianity, it’s A tradition

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- Hebrew/Aramaic was what the Old Testament was written in  

- the New Testament was written in Greek  

- people copied things by hand  

- translators of the Bible work from manuscripts  

- Greek Manuscripts  

- over 10,000 and none are the same  

- 1.5 mistakes per word in the New Testament  

- Iotacism — all vowels sound like “I”s in Greek  

- word order doesn’t matter in Greek  

- spelling + word order = 95% of mistakes in the Bible  

- haplogrphay — scribes leave out stuff by accident  

- most mistakes were made by ACCIDENT  

- people also added stuff into the Bible  

- How do you decide what the text should actually be? How do you pick which of the 10,000  manuscripts you want?  

- typically choose oldest one as the foundation  

- textual criticism — the art/science of deciding what a text originally said  - oldest complete text of the New Testament is 4th Century C.E.  

- this is so far removed from the original that mistakes are inevitable  

- John 7:53-8:11  

- “let he who committed no sin cast the first stone”  

- not in ANY early translation  

- often moved around in John  

- after Mark 16:8 there are 2 endings  

- original ending — the women ran away in fear and didn’t say anything  - short ending — women went and told disciples  

- long ending — really weird, didn’t talk about it  

- 1 John 5:7-8  

- King James:  

- in heaven — Father, Word, Holy Ghost and in earth — spirit, water, blood  - NRSV:  

- spirit, water, blood  

- this isn’t a difference in translation, it’s a difference in manuscript  

- how to decide which manuscript to use?  

- oldest — what does it say?  

- when the early church was making decisions and arguing for their lives to prove the  Trinity, they don’t cite 1 John 5:7-8  

- how’d 1 John 5:7-8 get in the Bible? — 2 options  

- someone added it to the New Testament to support Trinity  

- Gloss in the margin of 1 John  

- accidentally added the margin writing into the text  

- translators HAVE to decide what words mean what in English  

- Deuteronomy 32:8 — divided the world depending on the number of…

26

- Septuagint — sons of Israel  

- angels of God  

- Dead Sea Scrolls — sons of gods  

- the last 2 options mean the same things  

- which of the options is most likely?  

- oldest complete manuscript of Hebrew Bible was from the 10th Century  - Dead Sea Scrolls are 1000 years older than the oldest manuscript of the Hebrew Bible  - the process of the Bible is super complicated  

9/27 Lecture:  

- discussing Quran like we discussed the Bible  

- Quran has very different issues than the Bible  

- the Bible is a collection of books - not 1 book — it’s a library with lots of different genres  - Quran is more of a single book  

- Quran has 114 chapters — Suras  

- not organized chronologically  

- chapters 2-114 are longest to shortest  

- each Sura says at the beginning if it was given in Mecca or Madina  

- Mecca (pre-Hijra) — 93 Suras  

- Madina (post-Hijra) 21 Suras  

- both these sections are equal because the Mecca Suras are much shorter  - usually Mecca Suras have more to do with theology  

- post-Hijra (Madina) Suras have to do with practicality/orthopraxy  

- how do you actually live out your beliefs  

- 622 — Hijra — actual Muslim community established  

- the Quran wasn’t written — Muhammad spoke it  

- tradition: Muhammad was illiterate  

- because the Quran was so poetic, it is an example of why it’s a revelation because an  illiterate man wouldn’t have come up with it  

- Quran isn’t the words of Muhammad  

- the “I” in Quran = God  

- Muhammad is just the messenger  

- Once a year Muhammad would meet with the angel Gabriel to check if the Quran was  accurate  

- this happened in the 9th month of the Muslim calendar  

- month of Ramadan  

- Quran is 3/4 the size of the New Testament  

- Uthman gathered people who new the Quran and compiled a written one  - manuscripts are found within 10 years of this date  

- not a lot of variations in the Quran  

- due to it being written not that long ago (compared to the beginning of time)  - Quran is a self defining Canon  

- what Muhammad was told by Gabriel

27

- 1. Quran is only the Quran in Arabic  

- translations are interpretations  

- reading the Quran not in Arabic is the only true way to read the Quran  - the spread of the Quran caused the spread of Arabic language and culture  - 2. Quran is pre-existent  

- the words already existed  

- Quran contains what Moses and Jesus would have said if they hadn’t been corrupted by the  world  

- there has to be a ritual cleansing before reading or touching the Quran  - Quran is not inspired by God, it is the actual words of God  

- another source of authority in Islam is the Hadith  

- Hadith — stories about Muhammad  

9/29/17 Lecture:  

- Hadith Tradition:  

- accounts of what Muhammad did  

- tagged with a chain of transmission  

- when Suras were revealed  

- associated with Muhammad’s wife Iesha  

- Iesha is one of the 12 wives after Kadisha  

- Muhammad lived the Quran  

- written in the 8th century  

Hebrew Bible — Pentateuch  

- Moses is not the author  

- it talks about Moses’ death  

- written in 3rd person  

Deuteronomy:  

- written on “other side of the Jordan”  

- to the right  

- City of Dan wasn’t known as that during Moses’ life  

- known as Laesh  

- Genesis:  

- God: YHWH — Lord — God 

- Jews: first monotheist  

Creation:  

- whoever wrote Genesis believe a pool of water surrounded the earth. there were holes in the  sky. rain went through the holes. holes were seen at night (star)  

- different writer in Genesis 2  

- Genesis 2:18 “helper” — strength/heroine

28

- helper = equal  

- Adam and Eve:  

- Eve was formed from Adam  

- either rib or penal bone is what was used to form Eve  

- Genesis 32:25  

- Jacob —> Israel  

- 4 completely separate narratives within the Pentateuch  

- with 4 different writers  

- Els hadad  

- God  

- Lord God  

Documentary Hypothesis:  

J — always uses Gods name; written in Judah  

E — name not known until Moses; written in Israel  

P — priestly source; Elshadad (Leviticus)  

D — Deuternonmist; completely different from all other books  

- Exodus 32:4  

- your gods — yet one calf  

- reflecting on Jeroboam story, not Aaron’s  

- Levites are not allowed to be a priest  

10/2/17 Lecture:  

J- Judah 

- YHWH throughout 

- Mt Sinai 

- No Joshua 

- Garden of Eden  

- Sodom and Gomorra  

E- Israel  

- Elohim till Moses 

- Mt. Horab  

- No ark 

- Golden calf 

- Isaac sacrifice 

P- Judah 

- El Shadday till Moses 

- Mt. Sinai 

- Ark 

- Joshua 

- Centralization

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- no sacrifice till Aaron  

- animal sacrifice = murder 

D- Centralization 

- Book of the Law 

- written by court affiliated Levites  

Golden Calf 

1. Why a golden calf?  

2. Why only one? (Referred to it as gods)

3. Aaron is a bad guy in the story. (Tries to lie about making the golden calves) 4. Moses comes down the Mt. and Aaron told the best story (threw gold in the fire and a calf  popped out)

- God and Moses both blame each other  

- J + E texts combined = JE Text  

- E writer actually kills Isaac (by Abraham)  

- but J over powers the E text in regards to this story  

- after destruction of Israel, Jerusalem quadrupled in size  

- JE Text came when Israel fled south  

- people in Jerusalem don’t like the JE Text  

- in the JE Text — the authority of Aaron  

- in the P story — no golden calf; only source of revelation is accessed through the priesthood  - get to Moses through Aaron  

- 2 Kings 22:2-28 and 23:21-24  

- passover hadn’t been celebrated since they lived in Canaan  

- Josiah destroyed all places for worship except Jerusalem’s temple  

- Josiah found the Deuteronomy Law Code  

- Deuteronomy Book of the Law: published during Josiah’s reign  

- Deuteroistic History:  

- prove that D. is the word of God by showing that when the Israelites followed D. things  went well  

- all put together (Tora)  

- Ezra 7  

- you can’t throw anything out  

JE — everyone knows the stories  

P — priests were still everywhere  

D — tied to aristocracy and prophets  

- final compilation — takes chronological order of P, and fits JE into the order and puts D at the  end  

- God and Moses are both dynamic, but only when all sources are put together  - only descendants of Aaron can be priests:  

- Aaronid’s Jobs:  

1. move tabernacle around  

2. make sure people don’t enter the temple

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P — importance on centralization and state control  

- Josiah says the Law Code was from Moses  

- closest parallel to Torah = Roman literature  

- Gospels = good news; a book that tells the story of Jesus  

Matthew  

Mark Matthew, Mark and Luke are the Synoptic gospels  

Luke  

John Jesus talks in metaphors about himself  

Synoptic Gospels:  

- different characteristics about Jesus  

- Jesus walks around for 1 year, but John has it for 3 years  

- chronological order differs  

- day Jesus died is one day apart (Passover and 1 day before)  

Synoptic Problem:  

- identical — same words and wording  

- have a literary relationship  

10/4 Lecture:  

- Synoptic Gospels — same words in same order  

- Matthew:  

- written after Mk. (~70-90)  

- connects Jesus with the Hebrew Bible  

- has a birth narrative for Jesus (born in Bethlehem —> Egypt —> Nazareth)  - Jesus’ story is the recreation of the Moses story  

- has resurrected Jesus appear in Galilee  

- Mark:  

- oldest — ~70 C.E.  

- no birth narrative for Jesus  

- starts with baptism  

- no stories about resurrected Jesus  

- doesn’t care a lot about what Jesus says  

- cares about what Jesus does  

- Messianic Secret  

- when Jesus healed or cast out demons and people say “I know you’re the son of God"  and Jesus says “shhhhh”  

- Luke:  

- after Mk (~70-90)  

- has a brith narrative for Jesus (went to Bethlehem for a census then home to Nazareth)  - written as a history book (constructing a probable account of the life of Jesus)

31

- only non-Jewish writers  

- resurrected Jesus in Jerusalem  

- directed for a non-Jewish audience  

- Mk. 11:1-6 — grand theft donkey and random people asked about it  

- Lk. 19:29-35 — borrowed donkey (owners allowed it)  

- Matt. 21:1-7 — 2 donkeys (both stolen); adult and baby; puts cloak on BOTH and rides both  - written this way to fulfill Zachariah prophecy that Matt. took literally  

- Synoptic Problem:  

- Triple Tradition  

- Matthew, Mark and Luke all agree  

- Double Tradition  

- Matthew and Luke agree on stuff that’s not in Mark  

- Unique Material  

- things are unique in each book  

- Mark 1:1-11  

- Good news!!  

- Isaiah quote (actually from Malachi)  

- John in wilderness  

- people come to be baptized  

- “one more powerful than I”  

- Jesus baptized  

- skies open a  

- Matthew 3:1-17  

- John in wilderness  

- Isaiah quote — actually from Isaiah  

- people come to be baptized  

- Pharisees and Sadgicees  

- “brood of vipers”  

- “one stronger than I”  

- winnowing fork  

- Jesus comes to John and John tries to stop Him from being baptized  

- skies open  

- Luke 3:1-22  

- history information  

- John in wilderness  

- Isaiah quote — LONG quote  

- crowd comes  

- brood of vapors  

- a ax at root  

- crowd asks if John’s Messiah  

- John teaches

32

- one more powerful  

- winnowing fork  

- Jesus also was baptized  

- skies open  

- baptism is for the repentance of sin  

- gospel/text of Mark — 80% occurs in Matthew and Luke  

- looks like Matthew and Luke took Mark and “re-did” Luke  

Explanation of Synoptic Problems:  

3 Main Options:  

- Mark came first and Matthew and Luke had Mark in front of them while writing  5. Matthew and Luke copy from each other  

- but why do Matthew and Luke disagree on some things like birth narrative  6. we’re missing a source (Q)  

- Q contained teachings of Jesus  

- Matthew and Luke combined Mark and Q.  

10/9 Lecture:  

- Short answer  

- Discussion (6 options, choose 4)  

- know Quran’s Doctrine of Warfare  

Homosexuality in Abrahamic Scripture:  

- we haven’t completely separated church/state  

- BIGGEST ARGUMENT: same-sex argument  

- in 2014, a group of Christian missionaries created a bill — same-sex marriage = death  penalty or life in prison  

- Homosexuality in the Bible:  

- in the Hebrew Bible — Lev. 18:22 and Lev. 20:13 (priestly texts)  

- in the New Testament — Romans 1:18-32; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11; 1 Timothy 1:8-11 (written  by Paul)  

- Genesis 19 — Sodom and Gomorra  

- sodomy — sexual practice with no reproductive purpose  

- angels went to Lot’s house  

- crowd wanted to rape them  

- we don’t know the gender of the angels  

- the crowd consisted of everyone in the town  

- the Sin of Sodom — Ezekiel 16:49  

- pride, extra food and the ease of security and didn’t help the poor and needy  - Quran:  

- Sin of Sodom — homosexuality  

- Lot explicitly accuses the crowd of homosexuality  

- Lev. 18:22 and 20:13  

- You (masculine) will not lie with a male the lyings of a woman. It is taboo.

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- female sexuality isn’t addressed  

- we don’t know what “the lyings of a woman” means  

- the lyings of _________ = something that belongs to that person  

2 Optional Explanations of “the lyings of ______”  

- don’t lie with a man like you would life with a wife  

- if you’re married, don’t have sex with a man  

- Lev. 20:10  

- abomination = bad translation of what the writer was attempting to say  - taboo is better — taboo: culturally determined wrong  

- we don’t know what this verse means  

- we know it’s prohibiting something about sex, but we don’t know what it’s specifically  prohibiting  

- Middle Assyrian Law Code:  

- if 2 men are having sex and are equal and are caught, the penetrating partner will have to be  the receiver in “state-sanctioned rape”  

- reproduction isn’t a factor in forbidding sex in the Bible  

- Romans 1:24-27  

- 1 Corinthians 6:9-11 malakoi — “soft ones” (male prostitutes)  - 1 Timothy 1:9-11 arsenokoites (male.bed-lying)— Paul made this word   up, and it’s forbidding what Leviticus talks about  - both of those terms were directed at men, not women  

- Romans 1:16-27  

- wrath of God on anyone who surpasses the truth  

- everyone knows God exists because of creation  

- people worshipped creations, not the creator  

- God gave them degrading desires  

- women — exchanged natural lust/intercourse for unnatural  

- men — non-natural lying with women, and sex with other men  

10/11/17 Lecture:  

- exam hints:  

- similarities and differences between Bible and Quran  

- the word “Bible” doesn’t really mean anything  

- Quranic Doctrine of Warfare:  

- Right to Fight if you are kicked out of your home  

- Right to Fight if a treaty is broken  

- Self defense  

- if your enemy wants peace, give them peace  

- women in Abrahamic Scripture:  

- according to the scripture of Judaism, Christianity and Islam are men and women equal?  - Genesis 1:26-27  

- men and women were both created at the same time both in the image of God

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- Quran 4:1  

- a cell was created —> a mate was created for the cell —> men and women were created  at the same time  

- order of creation doesn’t define hierarchical order of men and women  

- but serpent talks to women (suggests she’s in charge)  

- in priestly worldview: no fall of man kind  

- Adam and Eve, straight to the flood story  

- only in J texts has man/woman creation  

- Judges  

- Deborah is in charge  

- 2 Samuel 21  

- a women comes on the wall and talks to army commander; she delivers the head of the  wanted man  

- commander doesn’t question why he’s talking to a woman  

- commander trusts the woman to hold up her agreement  

- women in charge is not a strange thing in the Old Testament  

- Bible is a patriarchal text  

- but patriarchy does not = misogyny 

- scripture — text that has relevance today, outside of the context it was written in  - no one reads scripture to make arguments about the past — scripture is read to have relevance  for TODAY  

- Galatians 3:26-28  

- 1 Timothy 2:8-15  

- why is women not teaching men so relevant in today’s society but the verses right about  that command about women not wearing fancy clothes and jewelry not relevant anymore?  - Ephesians 5:21-33  

- is this equality?  

- complementarianism — men and woman are ontologically equal, but functionally different;  men and women have different roles to fill; certain gender roles defined by God; separate but  equal  

- egalitarianism — equal is equal  

- Romans — there was an address to a lady named Junia (head of the apostles), but her name  was changed to a man’s name so the practice of women not leading could be consistent  - there is no truly biblical worldview  

- it cannot exist because a biblical worldview is full of contradictions  

- Epistles of John = examples of women leading churches  

- what does equal really mean?  

- Quran 81:7 and 16:57  

- day of judgment  

- condemn female infanticide (killing of baby girls)  

- anyone who did this will be questioned by their dead child on judgement day  - Quran allows women to file for divorce and get inheritance  

- Quran 24

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- adultery  

- how do you hold a trial for a woman accused of adultery?  

- must have 4 witnesses  

- condemns men for accusing women of cheating in order to get a divorce  - previously, men didn’t have to pay their divorced wives anything  

10/13/17 — TEST DAY  

10/18 Lecture:  

- article review topic due October 30:  

- use libs.uga.edu 

- how to search something more specific than “Christianity”  

- multi-search  

- database A-Z  

- JSTOR or ATLA  

- history, not theology  

- 3 Sections to Article Review:  

- summary of what article is arguing  

- what evidence are they using for an argument  

- what did you find convincing ?  

- what did you find unconvincing?  

PART 3 OF THE COURSE: Kingdoms of Israel and Judah 

- in Hebrew Bible, we get a series of books:  

- Deuteronomy - Joshua - Judges - Samuel - Kings  

- Deuteronomostic Historian — who put these books in this order and went back and gave  explanations  

- What does he want us to know about history of Israel/Judah and why?  - what we know:  

- Josiah found Book of Law (Law Code in Deuteronomy 12-26 and 28)  - Deuteronomostic Historian:  

- Josiah is awesome (Reign of Josiah)  

- trying to prove Book of Law is word of God  

- if you look at Judah/Israel, when they followed the Book of the Law, things went well.  - Includes series of speeches  

- but uses the same language over and over again  

- many narrative asides  

- speeches we need to know about:  

- Deuteronomy is one long speech by Moses  

- Joshua 23  

- Judges 2:11, 3-5  

- 2 Samuel 7  

- 1 Kings 8

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- 2 Kings 17  

Things important to D. Historian:  

1. Monotheism (cares differently about it than other writers)  

2. centralization - only one place you can sacrifice (the temple in Jerusalem)  

- Ishtar of Nineveh — goddesses in the Syrian records (possibly the same goddesses)  - Ishtar of Arbela  

- YHWH of Samaria  

- is this the same persona as the one who lived in Jerusalem? (talking about all 3 gods above)  - but they have the same name?  

- Solution — centralization/monotheism  

Joshua:  

- book of conquest  

- D.H. creates a problem for himself  

- he has to answer a question — people around him are doing things he doesn’t like (ex.  sacrificing somewhere else other than Jerusalem)  

- how can you tell us this is wrong when we’ve been doing it for such a long time? it’s a  tradition  

- this problem is seen in Jeremiah  

- Jeremiah isn’t part of the D.H. though  

Judges:  

- D.H. comes up with the idea:  

- fiction of foreign worship — things you do aren’t traditional it’s foreign; Canaanites used  to do them; they taught us these things  

- this isn’t true  

- they actually are a tradition  

Samuel:  

- monarchy  

- one of the oldest prose history books in the world  

- author has idea for levels of historical events:  

- human events  

- divine level  

- human explanation, divine causation  

Kings:  

- temple built by Solomon  

- contributes to centralization  

- before, people sacrificed everywhere  

- tells history of Judah and Israel  

- bounces back and forth between them  

- Jeroboam breaks centralization with golden calves  

- original sin of Israel  

- Judah  

- each king gets evaluated

37

- can do good, but still doesn’t get rid of high places (other places people sacrificed)  - Hezekiah (kinged in 701)  

- 1st king to get rid of high places  

- took bronze snake Moses made and crusted it to dust  

- people were burning incense to the snake  

- rejection of tradition  

- could’ve hidden it, but destroyed it  

- very public and radical act to destroy it  

- took 200 years to destroy the high places  

- going back to what Moses intended  

- lie, tradition was sacrificing everywhere  

- kicking tradition in the face  

- he is the 1st reformist  

10/20 Lecture:  

- Deuteronomy  

- Law Code  

- 12-26; 28  

- Joshua  

- Conquest Story  

- God’s people  

- God referred to himself as “we” or “us” 3 times  

- Judges  

- pre-monarch  

- Samuel  

- founding of the monarchy  

- Kings  

- Solomon builds temple in Jerusalem  

- Judah Israel  

 - escapes destruction 722 BCE — Assyrians destroyed Israel   because Hezekiah destroyed  

 high places  

 - Manasseh (really bad) - only mostly  

 destroyed Judah (except Jerusalem)  

 - Josiah takes out the sun/moon/star gods  

 - Josiah’s reform (book found in the temple)  

 - Josiah destroyed the temple Solomon built for his wives  

 - Josiah defiles the alters by digging up priests  

 bodies and burning them on the alter banking it forever unclean  

- Deuteroistic History — importance on centralization and monotheism  - Original Ending — Josiah’s reform fixed everything  

- 2nd ending — Manasseh was so bad that god would kill/destroy Judah no matter what

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- What’s the difference between angels and gods?  

- class answers:  

- angels serve higher gods  

- gods have specific jobs  

- but most angel’s names mean ______ of God  

- Josiah and Hezekiah got rid of the sun, moon and hosts of heaven (stars) gods  - Judges 5 — hosts of heaven fought for Israel  

- Joshua 5 — Joshua meets the host/captain of God's army  

- YHWH sbaot — Lord of hosts  

- the “El” who makes the hosts exist  

Josiah gets rid of the worship of the host (stars, sun and moon)  

- Israel’s Pantheon:  

- YHWH — almighty; special; unique  

- lots of little gods under the almighty  

- ^is this concept monotheism or polytheism?  

- 2nd Isaiah — 2nd half of Isaiah; written by someone else (first half is written by Isaiah)  - Isaiah 45  

- this is extreme monotheism  

- everything that exists is a manifestation of the high God  

- God is responsible for good and bad  

- 3 mentions that God calls himself “we/us”  

- Genesis 1  

- Genesis 3  

- Tower of Babel  

- Psalm  

- God sentences the gods to death because they failed to do their jobs  

- Didache — early Christian manual; how to baptize, do communion, eat, etc.  - meat sacrificed to idols = meat sacrificed to dead gods  

2 Explanations of multiple gods:  

1. used to be gods, but our God killed them  

2. we just call the lesser gods angels  

Monotheism vs. Polytheism  

- M — one god emerged outside the system  

- P — all gods interact within a system  

- Goddess in Ancient Israel = Asherah  

- Josiah did everything that a Messiah was supposed to do but he died in battle not in peace  - the prophetess said the city was doomed anyways  

- they blamed Manasseh because Josiah was the good guy  

10/23/17 Lecture:  

- The Problem of Evil

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- Theodicy — the justice of God  

- Assumptions/Attributes about God:  

- God is omnipotent (all powerful)  

- God is omniscient (all knowing)  

- God is omnibenevolent (all good)  

- Observation: bad things happen  

- how do you explain why bad things happen while abiding by the 3 assumptions?  - What do we mean by “good”?  

- Solutions to the problem of evil:  

Solutions

Problems with the Solutions

So people praise God

Does a good God force people to love him?

Satan

God isn’t all powerful if Satan has some of it

Without bad we wouldn’t know good

Good isn’t the absence of bad

Free Will

Do humans have to have free will to have a loving  relationship with God?

Higher purpose/greater good

good God created the evil God

that means there is more than one God

- Process theology — throwing out omniscient  

- Dualism — good and bad power  

- does good and evil exist before Adam and Eve eat the fruit of the knowledge of good and evil?  - the snake  

- the tree of the knowledge of GOOD and EVIL  

10/23/17 Lecture:  

- The Problem of Evil  

- Theodicy — the justice of God  

- Assumptions/Attributes about God:  

- God is omnipotent (all powerful)  

- God is omniscient (all knowing)  

- God is omnibenevolent (all good)  

- Observation: bad things happen  

- how do you explain why bad things happen while abiding by the 3 assumptions?  - What do we mean by “good”?  

- Solutions to the problem of evil:

Solutions

Problems with the Solutions

So people praise God

Does a good God force people to love him?

Satan

God isn’t all powerful if Satan has some of it

40

Solutions

Problems with the Solutions

Without bad we wouldn’t know good

Good isn’t the absence of bad

Free Will

Do humans have to have free will to have a loving  relationship with God?

Higher purpose/greater good

good God created the evil God

that means there is more than one God

- Process theology — throwing out omniscient  

- Dualism — good and bad power  

- does good and evil exist before Adam and Eve eat the fruit of the knowledge of good and evil?  - the snake  

- the tree of the knowledge of GOOD and EVIL  

10/25 Lecture:  

- 587 BCE — Babylonians destroyed Judah  

- because people in Judah stopped paying their taxes  

- they attacked mostly the upper classes  

- private prayer is unusual during this time  

- sacrifice is the dominant form of worship  

- Josiah’s reform says that people can only sacrifice at the temple  

- so when Jerusalem is destroyed and people are deported out of Judah, lots of questions  were asked…  

- Where are people supposed to worship and sacrifice?  

- prayer took the place of sacrifice; singing as worship; reading scripture as worship  - Did God break his promise to David that there would always be a son of David on the  throne?  

- NO — there is another Messiah that would come along and restore a descendent of  David to the throne  

- How was Judaism supposed to continue to exist?  

- Was the God of Israel defeated by the Babylonians?  

- NO — God is still in charge, this is just the Israelites’ punishment  

- in this period, the Messiah isn’t seen as a divine character  

- that’s a Christian concept  

- people also began to value Jeremiah and Ezekiel more during this time  ANOTHER IMPORTANT SHIFT  

- emergence of individual’s moral responsibility  

- Jeremiah says soon people will be responsible for their own actions  

- Ezekiel believes that people have always been responsible for their own actions  - emergence of the idea that “where are the good rewarded and bad punished if it doesn’t  happen in real life?”

41

- this happens in the afterlife  

- Judaism survives because it adapts  

- religions must adapt if they want to survive  

- Israelites didn’t adapt and they basically disappeared  

539 BCE — Cyrus conquers Babylon:  

- Persian Imperial Policy: lets Jews return home, pay to repair temples, treat them well so they  don’t rebel; make them institute a local law code and bring them into a larger empire  - Persians want money and control  

- some people don’t want to leave Babylon — they’ve developed businesses, families and  homes; Judaism becomes international  

- Jews no longer just stay in Judah or Israel, but they migrate to Mesopotamia and Egypt as well  - Increases in diversity  

- there is an increase in Jews who can’t read the Torah  

- this is why we have the Septuagint  

515 BCE: Temple is Rebuilt  

332 BCE: Alexander the Great comes along and brings Hellenism  

- conquers a lot of the known world  

- conquered but never governed  

- left the conquered places to his generals  

- Seleusus  

- Ptolemy  

- armies end up marching through Judah a lot  

- S and P argue over an area of land (Ptolemy gets Egypt, and Seleusus gets Syria — in  between land = Judah, and that’s what they’re fighting over), and switch who is king a lot  over the piece of land that is Judah  

- armies treat people in Judah poorly  

- Greek institutions emerge in Judah  

- some people in Judah are so immersed in Greek Hellenism they would undergo reverse  circumcision to better fit in  

- this begins arguments in Judah over what people should follow for their religion  167 BCE: Antiochus IV  

- descendent of Jeleveus  

- on campaign to capture Egypt  

- gets his ass kicked  

- rumor gets to Judah that he died  

- Judah declares independence  

- Antiochus shows back up in Judah  

- he outlaws Judaism in Judah because he thinks the Jews rebelled because they weren’t Greek  enough  

by 165 BCE, Maccabees reclaim Jerusalem

42

10/30/17 Lecture:  

BCE:  

- 332 — Alexander the Great  

- 167 — Antiochus IV outlaws Judaism  

- 165 — Maccabees capture Jerusalem  

- 63 — Pompey the Great captures Jerusalem  

CE:  

- 66 — Jewish Revolt begins  

- 70 — 2nd temple destroyed by Romans  

- world powers bring culture with them  

- spread of Hellenism  

- conflict over Jerusalem between Ptolemy and Seleveids  

- rumor that Antiochus IV died in battle and Judah took the opportunity to revolt  - Antiochus IB is mad because the Jews revolted and because they thought he was dead  - Antiochus IV thought the problem with Judah is they weren’t Greek enough  - Antiochus IV outlawed Judah  

- rededicated temple to Zeus  

- no circumcision allowed  

- outlawing Judaism caused the Maccabean/Hasmonean Revolt  

- Hasmonean — family of priests and ran to the countryside  

- Antiochus IV sends soldiers after those that fled  

- this brings a hard question — is it okay to fight on the Sabbath?  

- Yes, those who didn’t fight died off  

- 1 and 2 Maccabees = 2 completely separate works  

- martyrs — people willing to die for their religious beliefs  

- martyrs were tested by asking Jews to eat pig  

- Hasmonean Revolt is “stupid successful” against the foreign Greek armies  - Hasmoneans make treaties with Rome and Spartans  

- 2 years into the revolt — Maccabees/Hasmonean Revolt recaptures Jerusalem and rededicated  the temple (tore down the Zeus statue)  

- this was celebrated as Hanukkah  

- Hasmoneans become the kings and high priests during the revolt  

- 1st time every — Hasmonean king forced lesser kingdoms to convert to Judaism —> one of  these descendants became King Herod  

- 1st time in 400 years, Judah was an independent country  

- as Hasmonean’s take on more priestly/kingly duties, they become more Hellenistic/Greek  (super Ironic because the Hasmonean’s HATED Greek stuff)  

- in 63 BCE, Pompey the Great captures Judah (tricking the 2 heirs to the throne of Judah into  weakening their armies so he could become king)  

- Pompey brings Judah into the larger Roman Empire  

- Hellenism is here to stay so Jews have to figure out how to live in a Hellenized world

43

- 2 Groups:  

Sadducees

Pharisees

Aristocracy

middle/lower class

priests

not priests (lay people)

purity for priests:

 - lay — only at the temple

 - the stuff that make you clean/unclean

purity regulations should be observed everywhere

Torah alone and literally

Torah is the most important, but other books are  important as well; believed in the traditions of the  fathers (not separate from the Torah; they’re ways  of interpreting the Torah)

rejected traditions of the fathers

Canon beyond the Torah (Oral Torah)

no afterlife or resurrection of the dead

Rome — live and let live — as long as they leave  religion alone

accommodation

had no problem with Roman rule as long as they  stayed out of the temple

- in Synoptic Gospels — Jesus argues with Pharisees, but it’s the Sadducees that want him dead  - other Jewish Groups that arose:  

- Essenes:  

- Monastic  

- continued to grow  

- don’t believe in marriage or sex  

- give up all money to feed/support community  

- Dead Sea Scrolls may have come from here  

- self-sufficient  

- Zealots:  

- anti-Rome  

- paying taxes to Rome equates to idolatry  

- Sicarii:  

- Zealots with violence  

- insights riots  

- Messianic Movements:  

- someone to restore the line of David to the throne  

- 66 CE — Big Jewish Revolt  

- Sadducees stopped making sacrifice for Roman Emperor  

- 73 CE — fall of Masada (end of the Revolt)  

- Rome wipes out Essenes, Zealots and Sicarii movements

44

- Messianic Movements die out  

- temple in Jerusalem is destroyed  

- the end of the Sadducees  

- Pharisees have an answer to how to practice Judaism without the temple  - the Pharisees movements is the only one that survived  

- Rabbis came from the Pharisees  

- Doctrine of the Fathers = The Oral Torah  

- the Pharisees became the mainstream form of Judaism  

11/1/17 Lecture:  

- 303 — Diocletian outlaws Christianity  

- 313 Edict of Milan  

- 325 — Council of Nicaea  

Prof. Kelly doesn’t like these words; used as a judgement value; really just means who lost the  argument  

- Heresy  

- Heretic  

- Who and What Jesus is?  

- do you have to be Jewish to be Christian? — what’s the relationship?  

- what do you do with the Old Testament?  

- Gnosticism (doesn’t exist)—> Pharisee  

- extreme dualism (in a Greek sense; material and spiritual world are separate; material world  is completely bad)  

- material is evil  

- this causes a problem because then Jesus would be bad in the flesh  

- spirit is good  

- Gnosticism  

- a group of beliefs that are similar  

- very early non mainstream Christian view points  

- addressed in the New Testament itself  

- Docetism — Jesus only seemed physical, but Jesus was actually a spirit  - everything is an allusion  

- world was created of docetism  

- the thing that created the earth; a lesser god  

- problem that the god that created the world is evil, and that’s not the same god who sent Jesus  - the world was created of demiurge  

- a being that created the earth and is a “lesser god,” who was evil  

- Father God sent Jesus to save the world  

- saved through special knowledge  

- Marcion of Sinope — believed Judaism and Christianity were different

45

- wrote the first Christian Bible  

- excluded Old Testament  

- only included the New Testament — Luke and Paul  

- Marcionism is a rejection of the old testament  

- condemned by early Christianity  

- there is continuity between Christianity and Judaism  

- God of Jews is the same as the God of Christianity  

- Christians will take the texts of the old testament and divide them into moral laws, civic laws  and ceremonial laws  

- for Christianity — only the moral laws count, everything else was written for a specific  time  

- moral  

- civic Old Testament —> Christianity NT is the “perfected” version of  - ceremonial the Hebrew Bible  

- Adoptianism:  

- associated with Paul of Samosata (ex-communicated)  

- early Christian approach to who/what is Jesus  

- Bishop at Antioch  

- Jesus was a regular human being until his adoption at the Baptism  

- when God declares Jesus his son, that’s the moment he became the son of God  - he redoes the life of the first Adam, and does it correctly  

- then became God’s representation on Earth  

- Recapitulation Theory — Jesus relives the life of Adam  

- idea condemned in 269 CE  

- 303 CE — at the time, Rome split with a different emperor  

- Dietician outlaws Christianity because it’s not religion enough; cult like; wants to return to  Roman religion  

- 324 CE — Constantine become emperor of the entire Roman Empire; draws Christianity  together; drives Christianity to bring the religion of Roman Empire; Christianity becomes the  center of power in an imperial system  

- when Christianity became an imperial religion, Christians have to make decisions and these  decisions have to be enforced  

- it’s about defining who is not a Christian in order to tax them more  

- you know have to deal with subjects that haven’t been addressed before — ex. imperial war  (is there a Christian approach to war); Christians weren’t responsible for going to war  before this; what does a Christian law code look like when enforcing laws  

11/3/17 Lecture:  

- 325 — Council of Nicaea

46

- 381 — 1st Council of Constantinople  

- 431 — Council of Ephesus  

- 451 — Council of Chalcedon  

- 315 — Council of Nicaea decided if you have to believe in Jesus to be a Christian  - Tax Policy is being decided by practical theological practices  

- the councils were questions about mostly belief, but some about practice  - ex. leavened or unleavened bread  

- when should Easter be celebrated?  

- Arian Controversy:  

Arius

Alexander (Bishop of Alexandria)  

Athanasius (everyone thinks he’s an  asshole; Alexander’s successor)

Jesus isn’t God, He’s a special divine creation

Jesus is God, both con-substantially and  coeternally

Jesus was the1st thing created and through  Him everything else came into being

This side isn’t a minority belief

- the Arian Controversy is centered around the question “who and what is Jesus?”  - Arius doesn’t think Jesus is a human being  

- John 1:1  

- “In the beginning was the Word…and the Word “is God” or “is a god”  - this argument isn’t about the physical Jesus, it’s about the previously existing spiritual/eternal  Jesus  

- Arius believe if Jesus is the Son of God, there must be a beginning point, which means threw  as a time before Jesus  

- Consubstantial:  

- Jesus is made out of the same stuff as God  

- Coeternal:  

- Jesus has been around as long as God  

- if Jesus isn’t God, Christians are idolaters  

- we don’t have any of Arius’s writing  

- we know about his teaching from quotes from the people who hate him  - Constantine:  

- locked both sides of the argument in a room and they had to make a decision about what  Christianity would look like, and if they can’t make a decision Constantine will kill them all  and find people who can agree on a decision  

- Council of Nicaea:

47

- Santa Clause punched Arius  

- Arius is wrong  

- Nicene Creed  

- credō: “I believe”  

- Arius refuses to back down from his beliefs and gets exiled by Constantine  - Constantine was Arian  

- when people don’t agree with the Nicene Creed Constantine asks Athanasius if there’s room  for Arian beliefs in the Nicene Creed  

- Constantine reverses the exile for Arius and send Athanasius to exile  

- but Arius died on his way back  

- Athanasius wouldn’t compromise (neither would Arius) and he’s difficult  - by 381 at the 1st Council of Constantinople it was decided that Jesus is God  - this was held on the orders of an emperor who really believes in the Nicene Creed  - the emperor wants the N.C. to be looked at and approved again  

- it was rewritten a little  

- emperor enforces the N.C. and revokes church property if people don’t agree  - If Jesus is God, but also a human who lived and died, how do we relate human Jesus to divine  Jesus?  

Diphysite

Monophysite

2 nature

1 nature

Jesus — who is god and human

Jesus is god and human mixed together into  something new

- Nestorius believes in the Diphysite view  

- Nestorius was the Bishop of Constantinople  

- human Jesus and divine Jesus are separate and are in competition with each other and cannot  agree  

- 431 — Council of Ephesus  

- Nestorius is wrong, but we don’t know what’s right  

- Nestorium Schism:  

- a group of churches broke apart and practice Nestorius’s beliefs  

- at the Council of Ephesus, it was determined that the Nicene Creed is still good and valid  

- Eutyches:  

- his contemporaries don’t think he’s trying to be a heretic, he’s just dumb  - the Diphysite view must be wrong because that’s what Nestorius believed  - he came up with a Monophysite view  

- a few drops of human Jesus, mixed into a divine Jesus  

- it would be like dropping a few drops of oil in an ocean

48

- 451 — Council of Chalcedon  

- Monophysites are wrong  

- Diphysite View, but not Nestorius’s view  

- Chalcedonian Definition — a document produced at the Council of Chalcedon; Jesus is  both God and human welded together, but they don’t mix; neither the human or divine is  diluted  

- Oriental Orthodox Churches —> still believes Jesus is a  

monophysite  

Rashi’s Commentary

- this is when Orthodoxy begins to exist  

- Nicene-Chalcedonian Christianity  

- even Protestant Churches accept this view  

11/6/17 Lecture:  

- talked about movies and books  

- nothing important  

11/8/17 Lecture:  

- 70 CE: Destruction of the 2nd temple  

- 132-135 CE: Bar Kochba Revolt  

- ~200 CE: Mishnah compiled  

- end of 3rd Century: Demographic Change  

- 324 CE: Constantine  

- ~500 CE: Gemara Completed  

- Pharisee leaders = Rabbis  

- this is where Rabbinic Judaism comes from  

- a Jewish school founded at Yavneh by a teacher from Judah  

- the teacher was snuck out of the city in a coffin (Yohanan ben Zakai)  - Yohanan ben Zakai asked a Roman general for permission to have land to build a school so  their religion won’t die out  

- the general asked why — Yohanan ben Zakai predicted that the general would become  emperor by the end of the month and it came true  

- this school became the center for Jewish authority  

- people came to ask all sorts of questions  

- Rabbinic sends people out to recruit people to teach and to ask for money  - very missionary focused  

- center of political authority (contact with Romans through this school)  - Pharisees —> Traditions of the Fathers  

- the Traditions of the Fathers are the Oral Torah  

- they weren’t just “some” traditions, it’s “THE” tradition  

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- Bar Kochba Revolt  

- the main guy — Simeon bar Cosiba or Simeon bar Kochba (Son of the Star)  - the head of this revolt was thought to be the Messiah  

- Jewish-Christians wouldn’t join the revolt because they already had a Messiah (Jesus)  - this was a split between Jews and Jewish-Christians  

- Rome makes it illegal for Jews to live or be in Jerusalem after the Bar Kochba Revolt, except  on the day the temple was destroyed  

- Rome changes the name of the province  

- Judah —> Yehud (Persians) —> Judah (Maccabees) —> Judaea (Roman Province) —>  Palestina (Rome)

- the Romans called the province Palestina because is was the closest thing the Romans  can come to saying “Philistines” — that was a “f***” you Rome  

- Rome sends an expensive army to put down any rebellion and then taxes the province to pay  for it  

- after this, Jews fled to other lands because it was easier to live  

- communities other than Judah become the center of Judaism  

- specifically Babylonian-Jews  

- Christianity becomes the religion of the Roman Empire  

- Jews were forced into ghettos  

- Jews had restrictions on what occupations they could have  

- Jews had land and property sized based on lies Christians told  

ACCUSATIONS MADE AGAINST JEWS:  

- blood libel — Jews stole Christian babies, murdered them and used their blood for Passover  rituals  

- this accusation is untrue because…  

- kidnapping is against the 10 commandments  

- no child sacrifice  

- Jews don’t eat blood (against everything the Bible says)  

- it was not good to be a Jew under the Christian-Roman Empire  

- this time period was filled with anti-Judaism, not antisemitism 

- when Jews convert to Christianity, it takes away all the problems  

- antisemitism isn’t about religion, it’s about race/ethnicity  

- Hitler doesn’t care what you believe, it you’re a Jew, you die  

ANOTHER ACCUSATION AGAINST JEWS:  

- Christians accused Jews of killing God  

- because the Jews were responsible for killing Jesus  

- Rabbis insist the Oral Torah is a return to the original practices of the religion  - 2 Torahs: both given at Mt. Sinai  

- Oral Torah wins argument any time  

- Oral Torah lives/adapts/changes as time changes  

- Judah the Prince:

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- head of Rabbinic School  

- writes down the Oral Torah in the Mishnah  

- Mishnah: names of rabbis and the decisions they made  

6 Orders of the Mishnah:  

- seeds (labor)  

- women (domestic life)  

- damages (civil/criminal trials)  

- purity (how to live the purity in Leviticus)  

- holidays/festivals (how to celebrate holidays)  

- holy things (if there was a temple, how would things be done in it)  

- studying/thinking about the law is just as important as practicing the laws  - people write commentaries on the Mishnah  

- any time you close a canon, you open the opportunity for an interpretive canon that will  eventually be closed  

- Mishnah and Gemara = Talmud  

- there are 2 Talmuds — the Babylonian Talmud is more influential  

- the Talmud is not a book — it is several hundred years of conversation with tons of short hand  written in  

Page Layout of the Talmud:

other commentary

Mishnah

Gemara

11/10/17 Lecture:  

Extra Credit Opportunities:  

51

- Pick Judith or Tobit  

- write 2 pages over main message  

- why would you want it in your canon or why not  

- due last day of class  

- November 14 @ 7:-8:30 pm  

- Room 248 @ MLC  

- Rabbinic Interpretive Tradition  

- Story of Abraham and his dad  

- Halakah — legal interpretation  

- Aggadah/Midrash — stones  

- Abraham’s dad makes statues of gods (idols)  

- Abraham’s dad asks him to watch his workshop  

- Abraham says yeah, but goes in and smashes all statues but one; his dad comes back and  Abraham blames it on the one statue; but his dad says no, that’s just a statue  - Abraham says “ha dad, that’s not a god, that’s a statue” and his dad converts to monotheism  - this is a story in the Quran  

- when Muhammad dies, people have questions:  

- do we need a leader?  

- Muhammad was the last prophet, would we have another leader?  

- should it be a political leader?  

- this occurs during 632-661 — Rightly Guided Caliphate  

- there are also external issues  

- are treaties between Muhammad and others still valid?  

- this is the time the Quran is compiled and when the Sunni and Shias split  - Muslims decide they do need another leader  

- and it should be one of the Muhammad’s companions  

- Ali stood out as extremely qualified  

- he was the 1st male convert to Islam  

- Muhammad’s cousin/adoptive son  

- Muhammad’s son-in-law  

- Ali wasn’t chosen right away though  

- Shia  

- split because of political disagreement over who should be the leader  

- chose their leader by voting  

- Abu-Baker — 1st post Muhammad leader of Islam  

- older  

- related to Muhammad (his father-in-law)  

- died of natural causes  

- there was an idea that there should be only one Muslim community  

- both politically and religiously  

- Abu-Baker didn’t like the fact he was elected in because it caused fractures in the community

52

- he decides the solution is to appoint the next leader himself  

- he doesn’t choose Ali  

- he chooses Umar  

- Umar was stabbed/poisoned (murdered)  

- so now, Abu-Baker appoints a committee  

- Ali is on the committee  

- committee ends up voting for Uthman (even Ali votes for him according to Sunnis)  - Egypt and Iraq don’t like the fact they don’t have leadership in the Muslim community  - their armies attacked Medina; Uthman’s home is broke into and he is beaten to death  - armies decide to pick a puppet (they will get him to do what they want)  - no one wants to be the puppet  

- Ali agrees to be the puppet  

- some people think Alike helped the armies kill Uthman  

- Aisha goes to Ali to find out who killed Uthman, but he refuses to tell (either he did it or the  people he works for did it)  

- Aisha begins to raise an army under guidance of Muawiyyah  

- Battle of the Camel — the camel Aisha rode on during battle  

- Ali and Aisha fight until they reach a standstill  

- until Ali is assassinated in 661  

- he was assassinated by his followers who were mad that he didn’t continue battle but  struck a deal with Umayyads  

- Muhammad was married to Aisha after Khadijah died  

- Rightly Guided Caliphate  

1. Abu-Baker  

2. Umar  

3. Uthman  

4. Ali  

Umayyads:  

- Sunni:  

 5. Muawiyyah  

- Shia:  

 5. Hassau /// sons of Ali  

 6. Hussayn  

- Hussayn launches a caravan to M.  

- Hussayn ambushed because M hears they’re coming  

- kill Hussayn and everyone with him (including sons)  

- causes the the actual split between Sunni/Shia  

__________ are in power until _________  

Imam: a special notion Shia. they should be leaders of Islam religiously. Ali was 1st Imam;  believed that because of Ali’s connection to Muhammad he best understood the Quran and other  decrees

53

Ashoura  

- people argue over who is closet dependent to Muhammad  

11/13/17 Lecture:  

Ramifications of the Sunni and Shia Split in Today’s time:  

- 2015 Paris shootings:  

- 137 dead  

- 413 injured  

- Why did ISIS do this?  

- fear  

- power  

- to show their seriousness  

- if ISIS knew France would start bombing Syria, why did they bomb Paris?  - recruitment strategy (people would feel bad because Syria was being bombed and join ISIS  as a pity job)  

- reaction (just to piss someone off)  

- why do people join ISIS?  

- promised fortune  

- community  

- paycheck *** (to feed your family; Syria is in shambles and there’s almost no way to  support your family without joining ISIS)  

- Where did ISIS come from?  

- What does ISIS do? and What do they sell to people?  

- Iran: Shia majority country with a Shia government (since 1979)  

- revolutionary government  

- dislikes us because we put up a dictator in Iran for 25 years (for our own political gain —  because he didn’t like Russia)  

- Syria: Sunni majority country with a Shia government (Iran supports Syrian government)  - Saudi Arabia: Sunni majority country with a Sunni government (fundamentalist rulers)  - Iraq: where ISIS started; Shia majority country  

- Saddam Hussain — led Sunni party in a Shia country  

- Hussain kept the area stable during the Iraq/Iran war  

- Hussain didn’t say he didn’t have weapons of mass destruction because he didn’t want Iran  to keep invading Iraq  

- USA removed Saddam Hussain from power and forbid anyone in the Bathest party from  taking power  

- this was a problem because the Bathest party was the group of people who knew how to  run the government  

- by setting up a democratic government, a Shia leader was elected

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- by basically making Iraq and Iran friends, Iran was able to expand their nuclear weapons and  other weapons of mass destruction  

- now we have a minority Sunni population that’s vulnerable in government (no representatives)  - they blamed the US for removing Sunni’s from power  

ISIS sells…  

- “remember when the Sunnis were in power before the US put the Shias in power and allied us  with Iran (who are the enemy)”  

- they also appeal to Syria because they’re all about overthrowing an oppressive government  - ISIS overflows to Iraq and Syria  

- ISIS wants to start a state/caliphate, but they have no desire to actually rule  - ISIS thrives on chaos  

ISIS wanted France to bomb Syria — it was a recruitment strategy:  

- “we can offer you a paycheck and security”  

- “see they really hate us”  

- “we’re actually doing something”  

ISIS wants people to believe that Islamic values and Western Values are incompatible  

how do you actually stop a stateless group like ISIS?  

- they don’t care if anyone dies  

- no ties to a country  

- not pressured by a government  

*** stop the flow of money to ISIS  

- 11/29/17 Lecture: Protestant Reformation  

- 1500 C.E.  

- Protestant Reformation gives birth to ideas that are used in ways the creator couldn’t have  imagined

- Enlightenment, Scientific Revolution  

- Protestant Reformation 

- protest; anti-something 

- designed to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but just left when changes wouldn’t  happen  

- Catholic Reformation  

- same thoughts/ideas as the Protestant Reformation  

- worked through the Church for a long time to try and change the church’s hierarchy  - Martin Luther — 1517 

- 95 Thesis  

- Luther was excommunicated from the church in 1521 

- 1492 — Columbus sailed the ocean blue and Spain kicked out all its Jews

55

- the world became twice as large as initially thought  

- 1492 — Spanish Inquisition  

- Europe is changing  

- 1453 — Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks: end of Christian Roman Empire  - 1450 — Europeans discovered the printing press  

- by 1500, 300 printing shops existed equivalent to the discovery of the internet  - Martin Luther was successful because he could print pamphlets and spread them around, his  audience grew beyond what he could see

- John Wycliffe — 1300s  

- English Reformer  

- followers — lollards  

- unhappy with Church’s involvement in secular things (Pope telling Kings what to do)  - criticized how clergy men lived and that they should be more educated  - 1st translation of the Bible into English  

- Latin Translation of the Bible = official and only translation of the Roman Catholic Church  - 1611 — King James Version of the Bible was published  

- Jan Hus  

- Czech Republic  

- similar to Wycliffe’s views  

- fairly successful  

- burned at the stake  

- there was a movement to wipe out his followers  

- Martin Luther was in Germany (or where Germany was at the time)  

- it was a group of small kingdoms  

- Luther struggled with being a guilty person because he thought of himself as a bad person  - every one of Luther’s ideas is a response to the Roman Catholic Church  - Indulgences:  

- 95 Thesis reacts to this 

- some people are better at being Christian and they created enough good that there’s a  surplus of good to be distributed  

- they were sold for a lot of money  

- stopped people from actually atoning for their sins and doing good works  - Consolidation of power in Pope = a problem  

- one person shouldn’t be in charge of determining theology  

- Luther wanted a new council to change the Pope  

- Luther doesn’t think the Pope’s authority is absolute and binding because so many bad/evil  practices have continued  

- if the Pope is a representation of what God is, then if the Pope allows evil things, the Pope is  compromised  

- Luther:  

- didn’t want the Pope to be the authority

56

- didn’t want a council because Jan Hus was condemned by a council  

- he decided that the Bible is the ultimate authority and the individual has to interpret it  - decrease in Pope’s authority = increase in King’s authority  

- Sola Scriptura  

- Luther was argued into this idea  

- Luther defines what the Bible is (and he got rid of books that disagreed with his theology)  - the individual is responsible for interpreting the Bible  

- Luther is cynical and sincere  

- Luther believes God is the leader of the church and since Christians are lead by God, they will  all get the same interpretation  

- Luther gets rid of all traditional sources of authority  

- only individual’s relationship with the Bible has authority  

- Protestant Reformation is a rejection of tradition  

- Luther is staunchly conservative (favors the status quo)  

- Müntzer — takes Luther’s ideas and says “fuck the king” and leads a peasant revolt against  the king  

- but Luther doesn’t like this and tells the king to kill Müntzer

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8/16/17 Lecture:  

- religion — basis of beliefs/morals; sense of identity; community; purpose; relationship with  supernatural; conformity or control; sense of worldview; emotional connection to something  more (greater entity with power); common belief; FAITH based (believing what you cannot  see); understanding of creation and after life; prayer  

- cult — acted out practices of a religion  

- atheism is a proposition of the supernatural  

- deism — God created the world but hasn’t had anything to do with it sense; religion of the  founding fathers  

- many people want to distort their radicalism by wanting to return to their origin (ex. saying  people want to return to the religion of the founding fathers)  

- know the difference between redirect vs. reality  

- what people say vs. what people mean  

- religion is tied with economics, politics and standards  

- religion is inseparable from the rest of reality  

- what truly is religion?  

- we must look at history to observe/study religion  

- we don’t REALLY know what ALL happened in the past  

- we collect evidence and create a model that accounts for all the evidence  - definitions of history:  

- what really happened  

- probable reconstruction based on evidence  

- genre of writing  

- there is a difference between a history book vs. a novel  

- a history book can be wrong, but that doesn’t make it fiction — new facts and evidence  come up which causes our probable reconstruction to be wrong  

- what kinds of evidence do we need to confirm the Bible?  

- what evidence do we use to write history? eye witnesses, physical evidence, written texts and  comparing texts  

8/18/17 Lecture:  

- Hebrew Bible = Old Testament  

- Testament = contract  

- Christian Bible = Old and New Testament  

- Torah: Law/teaching = Pentateuch = 5 books of Moses  

- Genesis — “In the Beginning”  

- Exodus — “Names”  

- Leviticus — “And he called”  

- Numbers — “In the wilderness”  

- Deuteronomy — “Words”  

- the story of the Torah isn’t complete until Joshua

2

- Joshua is the first book of prophets in the Jewish Bible  

- Joshua is the first book of the history in the Christina Bible  

- God = YHWH (Adonai)  

- pronounced Yahweh — but we shouldn’t say the name of God, call Him Adonai instead  - Israel’s location is so valuable because of geography — in between Africa, Europe and Asia  — the MOST valuable trade route  

- Philistines = Greeks (group of city-states)  

- the Phoenicians were a mediating force between the Greeks and the near east  - Aram = region name, made up of city-states  

- Assyria and Babylon — really far away, first world empire, boarders north of Israel  - Israel is NOT the beginning of the world  

Important Numbers:  

- 7: you can see 7 things in the night with the naked eyes — Sun, Moon, Saturn, Venus,  Jupiter, Mercury, Mars — there are also 7 days  

- 40: typical time period of a generation  

- 12: number of times the moon goes through its cycle, number of months in a year  - our biology is determinative of how we view the world (2 hands = good or bad, if we had  more than two hands we may think there are more options)  

- Solomon built the temple in the middle of the 10th century (950 BCE)  - numbers in the Bible do not necessarily mean a quantitative amount — they are often  symbolic  

Genesis 12:  

- God called Abram from Mesopotamia  

- God promises Abram descendants and land 

- PROBLEMS WITH THE PROMISE OF DESCENDANTS: Abram had no kids at the age  of 75  

- PROBLEMS WITH THE PROMISE OF LAND: people already lived in the promise land  - the book of Genesis deals with the problem of no descendants and the rest of the Pentateuch  deals with the problems of no land  

- the author mentions Canaanites, which shows they are no longer in the land anymore  - God made a covenant => treaty/contract  

Genesis 15:  

- Abraham’s kids will be oppressed for 400 years  

- In Genesis 15:5, God told Abraham to count the starts then in Genesis 15:12 is becomes night  time (only one star was in the sky — the Sun)  

- we should look for things that are out of the ordinary when reading the Bible, they are there  for a reason  

- Abraham had a son with Hagar (his servant) but that wasn’t the promised descendant  - Abraham had a son with Sarah (Isaac)  

- Isaac had two sons — Esau and Jacob (Israel)  

- Jacob had 12 kids — the namesakes of 12 tribes  

- one of Jacob’s kids was Joseph  

- we have no way to know if this story is historically true — there is so much dialogue

3

- why is the Pharaoh anonymous? other Pharaohs’ are named in 1st and 2nd Kings  

8/21/17 Lecture:  

Timeline:  

- Late 13th Century — Merneptah Steele - 1st mention of Israel, but only as an ethnic group  with no governing control) and the Pharaoh claims to destroy everyone  

- 12th Century — 1st evidence for Israel in any land; the earliest text is Exodus 15 and  Judges 5  

- approximately 1020 — Monarchy is established (Saul fails to establish a dynasty: David  becomes the next king, then his son Solomon takes the crown then his son Rehoboam (asks  friends for advice about ruling strategies); the kingdom splits into two because Rehoboam is  a jerk  

- 922 — Division of the Kingdom  

- 853 — Battle of Qarqar  

- 722 — Assyrians destroy the North Kingdom of Israel  

- 701 — Judah is invaded  

- 622 — Book of the Law is found during Josiah’s reign  

- 587 — Babylonians destroy the South Kingdom of Judah  

- 539 — Decree of Cyprus  

- approximately 515 — 2nd temple completed  

- 332 — Alexander the Great conquers near east  

- 167 — Antiochus IV outlaws Judaism  

- 165 — Maccabees capture Jerusalem  

- 63 — Pompey captures Jerusalem  

- Israel was enslaved in Egypt  

- American slavery vs. Ancient slavery is very very different  

- American slavery was known as chattel slavery (one person owns another, used for  industrializing agriculture)  

- Ancient slavery — slaves had FEWER rights; owned labor, not owned people  - At Mount Sinai a new covenant was made between a specific god (Adonai) and a specific  group of people  

- the new covenant was NOT A UNIVERSAL LAW CODE  

- this was a code written for the Israelites written by the God of Israel  

- ^ is known as the Mosaic Covenant: God defining for Israel what their religion should be; the  foundation for Judaism  

Judaism vs. other religions today:

4

1. Religion and ethnicity/culture:  

- Jews don’t search for converts — only Israelites are bound by Jewish laws  - does “no other gods before me” mean not worshiping ANY other gods  2. Religion and Law  

- Jews take the law seriously  

- Jews don’t believe that following the law equals a good after life, it’s about doing good in  this life  

3. Religion of History  

- tells stories in a historical sense, not mythological sense  

4. Human-Centered  

- Judaism is far less theologically centered and more focused on human interaction  

- God is physically on Mt. Sinai with Moses  

- Moses appoints Joshua to be his successor  

- Moses’ gravesite is lost “until this very day” — which shows it was written about in the past  Problems with the Exodus Story:  

- over 1 million people would have left Egypt  

- the line would stretch from the promised land to Egypt  

- the peninsula would have been fertile from all the poop, but it’s actually a desert  - there are no records of the Israelites leaving Egypt  

- no Egyptian influence in the language or pottery  

Positives of the Exodus Story:  

- there Egyptian names in a small group of Israelites (the Levites, who became the priests)  - the Arch of the Covenant was a box carried on two poles that was covered in cherubs and  carried important texts — this looks a lot like the Egyptian barks (boats)  

Thanksgiving premise — Did something have to happen to everyone in a group of people in  order for it to be celebrated?  

- Israel goes in and destroys everyone in the land  

- Joshua is a book about genocide  

- Joshua is historically inaccurate — there is no large destruction layer, cities that were said to  be destroyed weren’t built yet, and certain cities continued to exist after the supposed  “destruction;” and some cities were already abandoned  

- the author of Joshua was not a liar — he believed that all the Israelis really did invade the  cities because there were ruins everywhere — he put two and two together: large group of  Israelites enter land + large ruins of destroyed cities = Israel did the destroying  

- Joshua 11 — Hasor: head of kingdoms was intentionally destroyed in this time period  - there was a population explosion  

- pottery and language of the Israelites are indigenous, not Egyptian  

- myth — story of cultural value to explain why something is the way that it is

5

8/21/17 Lecture:  

Timeline:  

- Late 13th Century — Merneptah Steele - 1st mention of Israel, but only as an ethnic group  with no governing control) and the Pharaoh claims to destroy everyone  

- 12th Century — 1st evidence for Israel in any land; the earliest text is Exodus 15 and  Judges 5  

- approximately 1020 — Monarchy is established (Saul fails to establish a dynasty: David  becomes the next king, then his son Solomon takes the crown then his son Rehoboam (asks  friends for advice about ruling strategies); the kingdom splits into two because Rehoboam is  a jerk  

- 922 — Division of the Kingdom  

- 853 — Battle of Qarqar  

- 722 — Assyrians destroy the North Kingdom of Israel  

- 701 — Judah is invaded  

- 622 — Book of the Law is found during Josiah’s reign  

- 587 — Babylonians destroy the South Kingdom of Judah  

- 539 — Decree of Cyprus  

- approximately 515 — 2nd temple completed  

- 332 — Alexander the Great conquers near east  

- 167 — Antiochus IV outlaws Judaism  

- 165 — Maccabees capture Jerusalem  

- 63 — Pompey captures Jerusalem  

- Israel was enslaved in Egypt  

- American slavery vs. Ancient slavery is very very different  

- American slavery was known as chattel slavery (one person owns another, used for  industrializing agriculture)  

- Ancient slavery — slaves had FEWER rights; owned labor, not owned people  - At Mount Sinai a new covenant was made between a specific god (Adonai) and a specific  group of people  

- the new covenant was NOT A UNIVERSAL LAW CODE  

- this was a code written for the Israelites written by the God of Israel  

- ^ is known as the Mosaic Covenant: God defining for Israel what their religion should be; the  foundation for Judaism  

Judaism vs. other religions today:  

1. Religion and ethnicity/culture:  

- Jews don’t search for converts — only Israelites are bound by Jewish laws  - does “no other gods before me” mean not worshiping ANY other gods  2. Religion and Law  

- Jews take the law seriously  

- Jews don’t believe that following the law equals a good after life, it’s about doing good in  this life

6

3. Religion of History  

- tells stories in a historical sense, not mythological sense  

4. Human-Centered  

- Judaism is far less theologically centered and more focused on human interaction  

- God is physically on Mt. Sinai with Moses  

- Moses appoints Joshua to be his successor  

- Moses’ gravesite is lost “until this very day” — which shows it was written about in the past  Problems with the Exodus Story:  

- over 1 million people would have left Egypt  

- the line would stretch from the promised land to Egypt  

- the peninsula would have been fertile from all the poop, but it’s actually a desert  - there are no records of the Israelites leaving Egypt  

- no Egyptian influence in the language or pottery  

Positives of the Exodus Story:  

- there Egyptian names in a small group of Israelites (the Levites, who became the priests)  - the Arch of the Covenant was a box carried on two poles that was covered in cherubs and  carried important texts — this looks a lot like the Egyptian barks (boats)  

Thanksgiving premise — Did something have to happen to everyone in a group of people in  order for it to be celebrated?  

- Israel goes in and destroys everyone in the land  

- Joshua is a book about genocide  

- Joshua is historically inaccurate — there is no large destruction layer, cities that were said to  be destroyed weren’t built yet, and certain cities continued to exist after the supposed  “destruction;” and some cities were already abandoned  

- the author of Joshua was not a liar — he believed that all the Israelis really did invade the  cities because there were ruins everywhere — he put two and two together: large group of  Israelites enter land + large ruins of destroyed cities = Israel did the destroying  

- Joshua 11 — Hasor: head of kingdoms was intentionally destroyed in this time period  - there was a population explosion  

- pottery and language of the Israelites are indigenous, not Egyptian  

- myth — story of cultural value to explain why something is the way that it is  

8/23/17 Lecture:  

Timeline Cont.  

BCE:  

- 4-3 — Jesus is born  

CE:  

- 30-33 — Jesus is crucified  

- 50 — Council of Jerusalem

7

- 64 — Great fire in Rome  

- 66 — 1st Jewish revolt begins  

- 70 — 2nd temple destroyed by Romans  

- 73 — Masada fails  

- 132-136 — Bar Kochba revolt  

- corvée — French word for tax labor  

- Rehoboam makes half the kingdom secede and Jeroboam becomes King of the Northern  Kingdom  

- Judah, the Southern Kingdom, is not important economically during this time  - Jeroboam made 2 golden halves and put them in the most north and south of Israel (Northern  Kingdom)  

- Elijah and Elisha didn’t address the golden calves when their mentioned in the Bible  - Jeroboam decentralized the religion — his government was in another city, which was the  beginning of the separation of Church and State  

- Solomon’s temple had 2 cherubs in the Holy of Holies  

- when there is an empty throne in a temple, it’s a symbol of where God should be  - the bulls Jeroboam made were spread out from the north to the south, which shows that  God is all over Israel and not just in one place  

- 722 — Assyrians destroyed the Northern Kingdom because they stopped paying taxes  - the Assyrians deport people they conquer to other lands and import people to the land they  conquer  

- this is because people wouldn’t have connections to the land so there is less of a chance  they would revolt  

- Jews = citizens of Judah  

- Judah (southern kingdom) survived, but Israel (northern kingdom) did not  - Sennacherib destroyed all of Judah except for Jerusalem  

- Assyria controlled most of the economic and domestic policies of the time because they were  so powerful  

- Josiah renovated the temple and found the book of the law and he said no one can sacrifice  anywhere except Jerusalem  

- 587 — Judah stopped paying taxes and united with Egypt  

- the Babylonians came and destroyed Jerusalem  

Questions to Ponder:  

- what does it mean if you believe in Josiah’s reform and the only place to worship is now  destroyed?  

- God promised that a son of David would always rule, but that doesn’t happen  - What does this mean theologically?  

- because people are being deported from Judah, the religion of the Jews had to adapt and  change or it would have dissipated  

- Cyrus allows Jews to return to Judah and paid to rebuild Jerusalem

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- Cyrus was from Persia, and the Persians were enlightened and believed in the concept of  hands off ruling — if Judah paid their taxes he left them alone  

- Judaism spread from Judah to Babylon  

- a new temple is built — which was super rinky-dink  

- in 515 the doctrine of Josiah takes a BIG hold  

- Alexander the Great was a disciple for Greek culture  

- Hellenism — the spread of Greek everything (clothes, food, culture, religion, etc.)  - Hellenism and Judaism don’t get along AT ALL  

- how do the current Jews hold on to traditions and adapt to Hellenism at the same time?  - Antiochus IV outlawed Judaism  

- a conservative group from Judah (Maccabees) revolt and succeed in their efforts — they re purified the temple and rededicated it to the Lord  

- the Maccabees made Judah an independent country with a monarchy  

- Judah makes a close connection with Sparta  

- Pompey the Great captured Jerusalem and make Judah part of the Roman empire  - 4-3: Jesus was born  

- BCE = BC and CE = AD  

- 30-33: Jesus is crucified  

- Why was Jesus crucified?  

- What crime did He commit?  

- Romans were good at public displays of discouraging any resistance  

- Jesus Crucifixion Details:  

- Jesus’ crime was that he said he was “King of the Jews”  

- the ruler/governor was Pontius Pilate — he was a terrible person and a brutal ruler  - when — Passover (the holiday that commemorates the Exodus event and overthrow of  foreign rule)  

- what happened when Jesus got to Passover — people cried Hosanna and Son of David  - Hosanna — “save us from foreign rule”  

- Son of David = King  

- context of the situation — Jesus was not the first person who though He was the Messiah;  Romans literally killed those other Messianic movements  

- the Jewish leaders thought it was better to turn Jesus over than to let the movement get  out of hand and get a lot of people killed  

3 characteristics of religion:  

1. Religions are organic  

2. Religions are not monolithic  

3. The things people do make sense  

8/25/17 Lecture:  

Timeline Cont.:  

- approx. 200 — Mishnah is compiled

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- End of 3rd Century — Jews ceased to be majority in Palestine  

- 303 — Diochitan outlaws Christianity  

- 313 — Edict of Milan  

- 324 — Constantine becomes emperor of entire Roman empire  

- 325 — Council of Nicaea  

- 381 — 1st Council of Constantinople  

- 431 — Council of Ephesus  

- 451 — Council of Chalcedon  

- approx. 500 — Talmud Compiled  

- 570 — Muhammad was born  

- 610 — 1st Revolution to Muhammad  

- 622 — Hijran  

- 632 — Death of Muhammad  

- 644 — Uthman compiles the Quran  

- 661 — Ali Assassinated  

- 711 — Muslim conquest of al-Andalus  

- 732 — Battle of Tours  

- 750 — 3rd Fitna  

- 632-661 — “Rightly Guided” Caliphate  

- 661-750 — Umayyad Caliphate  

- 750-1258 — Abbasid Caliphate  

- Christianity began as a subset of Judaism  

- it took about a century for the 2 religions to fully break apart — which happened at the Bar Kochba Revolt  

- Christ = Messiah  

- but Messiahs aren’t supposed to die before they accomplish their “tasks” — ex. free Israel  from oppression  

- Christians “postponed” what Jesus (the Messiah) was supposed to do  

- Christianity spread by word of mouth and letters written  

- the people who originally developed Christian Orthodoxy were from North Africa  - 50 CE — Council of Judah:  

- the question asked here was “do you have to be circumcised to convert to Christianity?” in  other words — do you have to convert to Judaism before you can become a Christian  - the council decided NO  

- if they had said yes, Christianity would not have survived  

- Christianity gradually became more Gentilized (not Jewish)  

- 3 things new churches had to do in order to follow Christianity:  

1. you couldn’t eat meat sacrificed to idols  

- this was a problem because butchery happened in temples and that was the only way  people ate meat  

2. you couldn’t eat meat that’s been strangled (or still has blood in it)

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3. refrain from sexual immorality (sexual illicitness)  

- these three restrictions begin to separate Christianity from Judaism  

- 64 — Nero blamed Christianity for the fire of Rome and drove them out because they are  “man haters” and atheists  

- 66 — Judah revolts and fight a way for 7 years  

- 70 —temple is destroyed for the final time  

- before the temple was destroyed is known as Temple Judaism  

- after the temple was destroyed is known as Rabbinic Judaism  

- 73 — Masade was destroyed = Jewish fort on a hill; Rome built a hill next to them to get to  the top  

- 132-136 — Rome squashes another attempted revolt  

- this is the split between Christianity and Judaism  

- the leader of Bar-Kochba was considered to be the Messiah  

- Romans renamed Judah to Palestine (closest thing they could say to Philistine) — “F*** you  Jews”  

- approx. 200 — Mishnah is compiled  

- Mishnah — foundation texts for Rabbinic Judaism; written form of an “oral Torah” that was  spoken on Mt. Sinai  

- end of 3rd Century — Judaism = world religion  

- Diochitan outlaws Christianity  

- 313 — Constantine signs the Edict of Milan, which makes Christianity a “real” religion  - 325 — Council of Nicaea  

- is Jesus God or not? they came to the conclusion that he is  

- beginning of Orthodox Christianity  

- 381 — question is brought up - yes Jesus is God, but how does that work?  - 451 — the answer to the above question — Jesus is both God and man  - Nicene Creed and the Council of Chalcedon is what made Christian Orthodoxy  - 570 — Muhammad is born in Saudi Arabia to a poor family in a wealthy tribe; he was an  orphan raised by his aunt and uncle; he worked on his uncles caravan and quickly became  known for being trustworthy  

- When Muhammad was 25, an older, wealthy woman named Khadijah proposed to  Muhammad  

- Muhammad didn’t marry again until she died  

- Mecca was a metropolis at this time; it was a major religion and trade center  - Muhammad was on his pilgrimage and was in a cave and was spoken to by the angel Gabriel  - he went back to his wife and told him what had happened and that he thought he was losing  his mind — his wife took Muhammad to her cousin, who was a Christian, and he said not to  worry because it was God talking to him  

- 4 things Muhammad said:  

4. Monotheism — there is only one god  

5. submit and obey god  

6. charity — give to the poor  

7. there will be judgment befitting your actions

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- Muhammad’s god is the God of Abraham  

Lecture 8/28:  

Timeline Cont.:  

- 570 — Birth of Muhammad  

- 610 — 1st Revolution of Muhammad  

- 622 — Hijra  

- 638 — Muslim conquest of Jerusalem  

- 644 — Quran compiled by Uthman  

- 661 — Ali assassinated  

- 680 — Martyrdom of Hussayn at Karbala  

- 711 — Muslim conquest of al-Andalus  

- 732 — Battle of Tours  

- 750 — 3rd Fitna  

- 830 — House of Wisdom built  

- 1054 — Great Schism  

- 1099 -- Crusaders conquer Jerusalem  

- 1187 — Battle of Hattin  

- 1258 — Fall of Baghdad  

- 1453 — Fall of Constantinople  

- 1492 — Spanish Inquisition  

- 1517 — Luther posts 95 Thesis  

- 1545-63 — Council of Trent  

- 1789 — French Revolution Begins  

- 4 things Muhammad said:  

- monotheism  

- submit and obey god  

- charity  

- judgment  

- charity — there should be no division; there should be a construction of a community of  

equals  

- Muhammad is NOT Muslim Jesus  

- Muhammad is a prophet who delivers the most pure message from god  - Ali = first male convert; Muhammad’s nephew/son  

- Muhammad was protected by his uncle and wife

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- Kaaba — shrine in the middle of Mecca  

- has stuff for a lot of gods — polytheistic gods, Jesus, Mary  

- 622 — Hijra — Muslim community ran from Mecca to Madina  

- means flight/escape  

- this was the beginning of a new era  

- the moment when a Muslim community became prominent in their own city  - Treaty/charter of Madina — negotiates religion freedom for all religions  - you do you and I’ll do me  

- leaders of Mecca want Muhammad dead, which causes tension and war  - 632 — leaders of Mecca surrender the city and Muslims rededicate the Kaaba  - Muhammad is important, but he is not Jesus  

- according to Muslims, the large scale spread of Islam shows how Islam is truly a “religion of  

God”  

- 632-661 — Muslim conquests do not equal killing and forced conversion  - the Muslims only took over the government  

- 661-750 — Umayyad Caliphate - discourages conversion to Islam because non-Muslims had  to pay higher taxes  

- 632-661 — split of Sunni and Shias  

- initially a political split, but the religious differences came later  

- 644 — official Quran put together because Muhammad’s “companions” (like Jesus’ disciples)  

were dying off  

- Aisha (Muhammad’s second wife) was incredibly important during this time  - 661 — Ali was assassinated  

- this was the closest to a male heir for Muhammad  

- if Muhammad is the last prophet, how can someone take his place/role?  - 661-750 — Umayyads took over — only cared about money/power — discrimination of non Arab Muslim — this is a failure  

- 680 — commemorates the sadness of the Shias  

- Abbasid Caliphate — moved capital to Baghdad (where there had been no previous religious  

holds)  

- the Abbasid doesn’t care about expansion, they want to nurture the current empire  - they were all about scholars and academics  

- this was the golden age for the Western World  

- split between Eastern/Western Christianity  

- Eastern Orthodox — many leaders, not one center  

- Western Roman Catholic Church — one leader (Pope), one central location

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- Crusades — attempt to reclaim Jerusalem for Christianity  

- just war vs. holy war  

- just war — sometimes you have to go to war, but killing is still sinful  

- holy war — killing isn’t sinful, it cleanses your soul  

- Crusaders attacked Jews, Muslims and un-Orthodox Christians  

- 1258 — end of Caliphate and the thought that there is a single leader/government for all of  Islam  

- 1453 — end of the Roman empire  

- 1492 — reconquering Spain/Portugal for Christianity; kicked Jews and Muslims out of Spain  - 3 options of Jews/Muslims in this period:  

- convert to Christianity  

- leave  

- die  

8/30/17 Lecture:  

- Leviticus 17: difference between sacrificing domestic animals vs. wild animals  - no offering with a domestic animal is equal to murdering a human  

- there is no such thing as only killing an animal for food  

- this law shows there is some form of government that has the power to administer capital  

punishment  

- property crimes do not equal the death penalty  

- this differers from other near-eastern law codes  

- “eye for an eye” = Talion  

- a punishment cannot exceed the crime committed  

- a boundary on capital punishment  

- laws don’t actually tell you what people actually did  

- ex. just because there’s a speed limit that doesn’t mean people follow it  - Exodus 22:30 — sacrifice your first born  

- “son of God” alludes to child sacrifice  

- Psalm 115  

- did the Israelites really not understand other religions or did they know and just wanted to  

make fun of others?  

- 1 place you sacrifice — temple  

- temple -- house of god  

- a temple is not the same as a church, synagogue or mosque

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- everyone could enter the temple courtyard to sacrifice at the alter; no regular people in the  Holy Place, only priests; only the High Priest could go into the Most Holy Place (Holy of  

Holies) at certain times of the year  

- in the Most Holy Place there is a seat for God (of cherubs) and the Arch of the Covenant (his  footstool)  

- kings build temples and install priests  

- in Pagan religions, the Most Holy Place is where the statue was  

- the statue was the representation of the gods, not the ACTUAL god  

- the people weren’t stupid — they knew that the idol wasn’t actually a god, but it was a  

representation of the god they were worshiping  

- what is the God of Israel the God of?  

9/1/17 Lecture:  

Intro to Judaism:  

- the Hebrew Bible is not the same as Judaism today  

- 2000 years is a long time for stuff to change  

- these religions have grown and adapted — if they didn’t they wouldn’t have survived  - clean — unclean or pure — impure  

- these translation are totally different concepts  

- they do not mean something then the negation of something  

- these are not moral judgments  

- nothing to do with right and wrong  

- ex. touching a dead body makes you unclean, but you still have to bury people  - cultic state of being — the events happening have an impact on you  

- birth, sex, death, menstruation, etc. — all these events have to do with life and death  - there are other forces at work other than clean and unclean (for example — holiness)  - to bring an unclean force into contact with something holy is a dangerous combination  - this can lead to death  

- courtyard at the temple — place in front of God  

- women are equally involved in temple worship because they were concerned about being  

unclean  

- being clean/unclean affects your ability to participate in temple sacrifice  - 2 largest religions  

- 2.2 billion Christians  

- 1.5 billion Muslims

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- 15 million Jews (0.2% of world’s population)  

- this isn’t even close to the other two largest religions  

- Judaism is the parent of Christianity and Islam  

- Christianity and Islam are the world’s largest religions  

- they are NOT ethnicities  

- the most Muslims live in Indonesia  

- Christianity and Islam have religions claims/messages that they believe is for everything and  there is bad consequences in the afterlife if you reject the message  

- Judaism is a covenant with a certain god and certain people  

- Jewish claims aren’t for everyone  

- they aren’t universal  

- there no Jewish missionaries  

- getting to heaven is not the goal of Judaism  

- Rabbinic Judaism changes:  

- no more clean/unclean  

- prayer takes place of sacrifice  

- Judaism:  

- religion of history — still celebrate special events  

- man-centric  

- religion of law — Exodus 23-24  

- relationships between human being; study of Torah = center of religion; act of worship  - religion and an ethnicity  

- creed — what people believe  

- there is no creed in Judaism  

- Judaism is man-centric — it focuses on what’s going on here and now and your relationships  with people  

- there’s an oral Torah given to Moses then to Joshua that was never written down  - nothing in written Torah about marriage or "what is work”  

- there is a current debate about a light switch  

- they are taking serious the Torah  

- they are worshipping God through this debate  

- keep commandments because you owe God because He saved you in history  - thinking about what you eat and wear = transforming everyday activities into acts of  

worship for God  

- you keep commandments because that’ what you’re supposed to do  

- you go to Gehenna (bad place in afterlife) to be purified, but it’s not permanent

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- Gehenna is where you go before you stand God  

- 3 Branches of Judaism:  

- Reform Judaism  

- Orthodox Judaism  

- Conservative Judaism  

- Reform and Orthodox Judaism was formed in the late 1700s  

- these three branches debate on how much of the Torah should still be practiced  - French Revolution — end of locking people in ghettos; religion is no excuse to forbid people  

from living in a country  

- till 1850s — Jews couldn’t live in England  

- Reform Judaism decided it was okay to set aside dietary laws/dress code and adapt to the  

countries they’re in  

- Reform is the most common form of Judaism in America  

- this separates ethnicity from religion  

- ex. a French citizen who practices Judaism — not a Jewish person who lives in France  - Reform — most “liberal” Jews  

- different branches of Judaism is not like denominations in Christianity  - Orthodox — don’t like to throw away traditions; they continue to live out traditional Rabbinic  

Judaism  

- not the oldest because you can’t have Orthodox Judaism without something that contradicts  

it  

- Conservative — middle ground approach  

- okay with dispensing tradition, but preserve as much as possible while adapting to the  

current world  

- 43% of Jews live in Israel  

- 32% of Jews live in America  

- Secular Judaism — participates in culture, but aren’t religions  

- Torah — central to Judaism; not a lot about the afterlife  

- God speaks to Moses mouth to mouth  

- Tikkun-Olam — repair of the world  

- one of the reasons you follow the commandments  

- with the commandments the world is being repaired/getting better  

9/6/17 Lecture:  

- the Messiah is not a divine being in Judaism  

- the Messiah has to do with restoring independence to Israel  

- 2 Samuel 7 — there is a promise made that a descendant of David will always be king — did God  break His promise?

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- no — the Messiah will reinstate this promise  

- Christianity — belief system based on propositions based on Jesus  

- belief is a central concept/component of Christianity  

- belief is intensified by the Protestant Reformation  

- other religions recognize actions as the center of their religions, not what you believe  - while Judaism and Islam do care about what you believe, they focus on how your beliefs manifest in  your everyday life  

- there is nothing in the Pentateuch about what to believe  

- claim of Christians: Jesus is the Messiah (Christ)  

- Messiah/Christ literally means someone who has had oil poured on their head  - the problem with Jesus being the Messiah is that he didn’t restore a descendant of David to the throne  - 2 Responses to this problem:  

- Second Coming — Jesus will do it later  

- Reinterpret His death  

- Paul’s writing:  

- he wrote letters to early churches  

- most are responses to letters we don’t have  

- wrote 13 of the 27 books of the New Testament  

- Paul’s writing are the earliest Christian texts (in addition to James)  

- from Paul’s perspective, all of his writing is expected to happen in the next 1-10 years  - some reinterpret Jesus’ death as a sacrifice  

- Paul has a solution — Jesus has relevance for everybody (Jews and Gentiles)  - but there is not problem for his solution  

- Romans didn’t care enough about Christianity to care about Jesus  

- Paul’s solution to not having a problem is that he tells the story of Adam and Even in the garden  - Paul says Jesus as a sacrifice solves the problem of Adam and Eve disobeying God  - this doctrine was adapted by Augustine and called “Original Sin”  

- Augustine was from North Africa, which was a center for early Christian thinkers  - Augustine questions the practice of baptizing babies:  

- it can’t be wrong if every church is doing it  

- babies have no sin  

- baptism is for the forgiveness of sin  

- 2 kinds of sin  

- Personal Sin: the crap you do that you’re responsible for  

- Original Sin: Adam and Eve’s sin that is a genetic trait for all humans  

- Jesus is born of a virgin, which removes him from Original Sin  

- Immaculate Conception — Mary was removed of Original Sin so that Jesus could be sinless from  Mary’s side and God’s side  

- you must believe something about Jesus for His sacrifice to work  

- this is different than EVERY other religion — sacrifices just work because they work  - Christianity is centralized on belief  

- Council of Nicaea — is Jesus God or is He some kind of divine creation made by God?  - this is an argument of belief, not practice  

- Council of Ephesus/Chalcedon — all questions about belief  

- Council of Jerusalem — do you have to be Jewish to be a Christian

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- this is a practical question with a practical solution  

- for Christians, practice does matter, but belief trumps practice  

- from the year 50 to 325 was the switch from practical questions to abstract questions about belief  - by 325 Jesus is for sure God  

- common argument — if Jesus is God then Christians are polytheistic  

- monotheistic — one god; Christians get this belief from Judaism  

- solution to the argument:  

- The Trinity — way of saying Jesus is God, but there is only one God  

- God exists in 3 persons  

- the Father is not the Son and the Son is not the Holy Spirit and the Holy Spirit is not the Father  — but all three are all God  

- Paul is a foundational thinker in Christianity  

- Why is monotheism so important to Christianity, Judaism and Islam?  

- what’s the difference in a monotheistic and polytheistic world-view?  

- surrounding countries’ religions look a lot like Judaism  

- Interpretation of Christ’s Death:  

- Recapitulation Theory (Iranaeus)  

- Jesus is Adam pt. 2  

- Adam screwed up at the tree of good and evil  

- Jesus is the second divine creation that didn’t screw up at the tree (cross)  

- Jesus represents all humans, just as Adam did  

- Ransom Theory  

- Satan kidnapped all humanity  

- God makes a deal with Satan saying He will trade a really awesome human (Jesus) for all of  humanity  

- Satan agrees  

- but Jesus is God and God can’t be held so Jesus escaped and tricked Satan  

9/8/17 Lecture: Intro to Islam  

- Christianity Cont.  

- Atonement Theories  

- Recapitulation Theory — Jesus is a New Adam  

- Ransom Theory — Satan has kidnapped all mankind  

- Moral Influence — created by Peter Agelard  

- looks at important of Life and death of Jesus  

- Jesus provides an example of how to live a moral, upright life  

- this example creates a pattern for people to follow  

- Satisfaction Theory — created by Canterbury  

- humans owe God everything because He made everything  

- Jesus is representing humanity and satisfied the debt to God  

- Penal Substitution — from the Protestant Reform  

- this is the most recent Atonement Theory  

- God made everything and humans owe God  

- God owes human an infinite amount of punishment for us not paying God back

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- Jesus took place of this punishment  

- Types of Christianity:  

- Roman Catholic  

- 50% of Christians  

- 1 leader of the church  

- Bishop of Rome — Pope  

- Protestantism comes from this  

- Protestantism is a reaction to the Roman Catholic Church  

- made popular by Martin Luther  

- Scientific Revolution comes from this  

- this comes from a rejection of authority  

- denominations come from protestantism  

- 800 million Christians in denominations  

- no protestant group outnumbers the Eastern Orthodox  

- Eastern Orthodox  

- approximately 200 million Christians  

- group of equal leaders that meet together to make decisions for the church  

- theosis — you don’t convert; you work to constantly become a Christian  

- “By Scripture alone…” — Martin Luther  

- but he threw out so many books of the Bible that Jews read  

- the individual must decide what they believe — not a Pope or council  

- Martin Luther thought if people only read the Bible they’d all believe the same thing — WRONG  - Protestantism breaks apart because they believe all authority can and should be questioned  Islam:  

- 2nd largest religion  

- 1.5 billion people  

- not an Arab religion  

- biggest country for this religion is Indonesia  

- 5 Pillars of Islam:  

- 1. There is no god but god, and Muhammad is his messenger  

- god is referred to as “Allah”  

- Islam’s god is the god who created the world, god of Abraham and god of the new/old testament  - tawhid — unity, oneness, concept of religion  

- this is very important to religion  

- people of the book — Jews and Christians  

- skirk — association; taking something that’s not god and putting it in god’s almighty place  - the Quran is god’s words that Muhammad spoke  

- what’s the difference between an angle and a god?  

- Islam arrives in 600s in Arabia  

- Islam isn’t a new religion — it’s the same religion practiced since the beginning of time  - Muhammad is the last prophet because this revelation hasn’t been corrupted by mankind  - Muslims considers Abraham and Moses Muslims  

- Muhammad made an appeal to origin, just as Christians did during the Protestant Reformation  - Islam made an attempt to return to the original religion  

- Radicalism disguised as traditionalism

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- revolutions almost always become the thing people sought to overthrow in the first place  - ex. no taxation without representation  

- but what are we doing right now with Guam and Puerto Rico?  

- there is no need for a mediator between god and humans in Islam, like Jesus in Christianity  - 85% Sunni  

- 15% Shia  

- the split between Sunni and Shia happened in 680  

- this was originally a political split  

- Sunnis and Shias don’t get along  

- some Sunnis don’t consider Shias real Muslims  

- Saudi Arabia doesn’t recognize Israel’s right to live, but they allow them to fly through their air space  to bomb Iran  

- Saudi Arabia is mainly Sunni  

- Iran is mainly Shia  

- the holy places of Islam are in Saudi Arabia  

- Mecca, which has the Kaaba  

- Islam centers itself around  

- monotheism — God of Abraham  

- Muhammad is the final prophet  

- everything else comes from these things  

9/15 Lecture:  

- How do we make beliefs?  

- Why do people arrive at the conclusions they arrive at?  

- possible answers:  

- place of birth  

- culture  

- ethnicity  

- big events  

- experiences  

- education  

- one’s world-view  

- parents  

- trying to define something we can’t understand — the unexplainable  

- politics  

- Ex. Do you believe in gravity?  

- observable (experience)  

- testable  

- scientific construct that we believe in  

- belief vs. knowledge

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- belief — open-ended, trust, subjective  

- knowledge — fundamentals, based in fact  

- Evolution?  

- is evolution belief or knowledge?  

- 1+1=2 is a fact  

- murder is wrong.  

- is this an opinion or a fact?  

- just because someone doesn’t agree, doesn’t make it wrong  

- What makes the different kinds of killing different?  

- intent  

- motive  

- target  

- facts — things we have reason to believe are true  

- belief — a conclusion based on facts  

- survivors of the survivors  

- murder is wrong, but is it natural?  

- lions don’t kill members of their own pride  

- how far are people willing to believe a subjective truth?  

9/18-9/20 Lecture:  

Bible or Quran Activity — won’t be on test so it’s not included here  

9/22 Lecture:  

- Jewish Canon:  

- Torah:  

- Genesis  

- Exodus  

- Leviticus  

- Numbers  

- Prophets:  

- Former:  

- Joshua  

- Judges  

- Samuel  

- Kings  

- Latter:  

- Isaiah  

- Jeremiah  

- Ezekiel

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- The Twelve Minor Prophets (all combined in one book)  

- Writings:  

- Psalm  

- Job  

- Proverbs  

- Song of Songs  

- Ruth  

- Lamentations  

- Ecclesiastes  

- Esther  

- Daniel  

- Ezra-Nehemiah  

- Chronicles  

- canon — a collection of authoritative “something”  

- there is no such thing as a canon of a Bible  

- prophecy/prophets — people who offer an authoritative interpretation of the past and present  and occasionally accompanied by a prediction  

- in the Jewish Canon, Daniel isn’t a prophet  

- a Jewish Canon was fully comprised at approximately 100 C.E.  

- an argument took place about 4 books at this time — does reading these books make your  hands unclean?  

- Ezekiel  

- Song of Songs  

- Esther  

- Sirach  

- Esther has no mention of God  

- Song of Songs is a dirty dirty sex book; love poetry; translates as relationship between God  and man  

- Ezekiel 40-48 — Ezekiel giving laws that contradicts the Torah  

- Ezekiel and Jeremiah predicted (correctly) the fall of Israel by the Babylonians  - Sirach — wisdom book; it was written too late; at the point the book was written, there is no  more biblical inspiration  

- Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther  

- 5 scrolls  

- written for specific holidays  

- Christian Old Testament  

- Septuagint  

- Greek translation  

- oldest translation  

- 200-250 B.C.E.  

- this was the basis for Christianity  

- Law:  

- Genesis

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- Exodus - Leviticus - Numbers - Deuteronomy  

- History: - Joshua - Judges - Ruth - 1&2 Samuel - 1&2 Kings - 1&2 Chronicles - Ezra - Nehemiah - Esther - Tobit - Judith - 1&2 Maccabees - Poetry: - Job - Psalm - Proverbs - Ecclesiastes - Song of Songs - Wisdom of Solomon - Wisdom of Sirach - Prophecy: - Isaiah - Jeremiah - Lamentations (Baruch) - Ezekiel - Daniel - Hosea - Joel - Amos - Obadiah - Jonah - Micah - Nahum - Habakkuk - Zephaniah - Haggai - Zachariah - Malachi

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- Tobit and Judith talk about exile  

- Daniel and Esther in the Christian Old Testament are completely different than the Hebrew  Bible  

- Marcion believes Christians shouldn’t read the Hebrew Bible  

- Marcion’s canon is Luke and Paul’s letters  

- Marcion’s claim is the god of the Jews isn’t the god of the Christians  

- New Testament:  

- Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John), History, Paul’s Letters, Catholic Letters (letters to all  churches), Apostles  

- there are other gospels floating around, such as Thomas  

- Who wrote …?  

- James  

- 1&2 Peter  

- 1, 2&3 John  

- Jude  

9/25 Lecture:  

- the extra books included in every canon except in the Protestant Canon (Martin Luther didn’t  like them)  

- Apocrypha (by Protestants)  

- Deuterocanonical (by Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox)  

- the books were printed in the Protestant Bible (King James Version), but in a separate section  - Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestants have the same basic New Testament  Canon  

- Didache — seems extremely Orthodox, but not included in New Testament  - means the teaching of the 12 apostles  

- written in the early 2nd century (early 100s)  

- Deuterocanonical means 2nd  

- Apocrypha means hidden  

- Where did this Bible come from?  

- translation:  

- translators makes decisions for you about what something means  

- most texts in Hebrew are ambiguous  

- every translation is an interpretation  

- by reading a translation, the translator’s bias and thoughts matter  

- Septuagint — oldest translation of the Bible  

- Matthew 1:23  

- cites Isaiah 7:14  

- Matthew 1:23’s problem is that Matthew has only read the Greek translation which says  “parthenos,” which means “virgin”  

- Hebrew has a different word for virgin, it only says “young girl”  

- Read Isaiah 7  

- virgin birth isn’t THE tradition of Christianity, it’s A tradition

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