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SOC 1003, Study Guide Exam 2

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by: KBeard2

SOC 1003, Study Guide Exam 2 SOC 1003

Marketplace > Arkansas Tech University > Sociology > SOC 1003 > SOC 1003 Study Guide Exam 2
Arkansas Tech University
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Social Structure, Groups, Bureaucracy, Deviance
Introductory Sociology
J Stobaugh
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by KBeard2 on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by J Stobaugh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 02/27/16
SOC 1003: Intro to Sociology  Dr. James Stobaugh Study Guide Exam 2       Major Concepts            Major People             Major Terms  Social Structure  Social Structure – typical patterns of a group that guides behavior Elements – frameworks that organize and limit behavior  Institutions   Social Practice   Social Class  Statuses and Roles  Groups  Norms Boundaries  Stigma – attributes that devalue one’s identity and disqualifies full social acceptance   Social Marginality – partial stigma  Social Class – large group of similar income, education, occupation, and prestige o Property o Power  o Prestige – respect or regard  Occupations   Salary  Education  Abstract thought  Autonomy   Status – position with expectations, rules, duties (“Who am I?”), how a one is defined o Ascribed Status – birth­given or involuntary   Sec, class, race, age o Achieved States – chosen, merited, or gained through direct effort  Criminality, occupation o Master Status – single most defining status  “Who/what are you?” “What do you do?” o Symbols – objects that indicate status  Cars, jewelry, clothes o Inconsistency – mixture of high and low ranks in elements of social class Roles – the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status  Dramaturgical Analysis – the idea that life is performed as a drama on a stage dictated  and directed by society, impression management o Front Stage – performing, the places where roles are acted and interaction occurs o Back Stage – privacy, the places no role or interaction occurs (e.g. bathroom,  bedroom)  Expectation – behaviors expected of status   Performance – acting the role  Conflict – competing commands by at least two statuses (e.g. worker, student, significant  other)  Strain – incompatible demands of a single status (e.g. working mother)   Exit – disengaging from essential status  o Doubt  o Searching for alternatives o Turning point o New identity   Face­Saving Behavior – attempt to change the perspective of an (often embarrassing, not  appropriate, or mistaken) action/event  o Studied nonobservance – acting as if an event didn’t occur Groups Groups – at least two people who interact and share a common identity  Primary – face­to­face and emotion­based interaction, small, less specialized o Family, friends  Secondary – larger, specialized, impersonal, goal oriented, limited length of existence o Classes, jobs, teams  In­Groups – strong identity and loyalty toward  Out­Groups – antagonistic feelings toward o Double standard (what is excusable for in­group member is inexcusable for out­ group members) Changing Societies  Hunter/gatherer  Pastoral/horticultural – domestication, tools, larger groups, labor division  Agricultural – plow, development of cities   Industrial – steam engine, transportation, fuel­powered machines  Post­Industrial – information, microprocessor Social Network   Clique – cluster within a larger group   Small World Phenomenon – connections between people who appear to have no direct tie o Milgram’s Six Degrees of Separation   Letter experiment, New Haven to New Jersey, average of six exchanges  Small Group – few enough members to enable direct interaction  Group Dynamics  Dyad – two, smallest possible group, most intimate and unstable most intimate   Triad – three, coalitions (members teaming up against other members) least stable  Groups of Four or more  – more relationships as group size increases  o Diffusion of Responsibility – assumption others will take action   Kitty Genovese – stabbed and raped, heard by apartment tenants, no one e  most stable helped, “someone else will do it”  Mandatory reporters o Peer Pressure (Asch’s Card Experiment)  Group think – narrowing of thought, collective tunnel vision  Conflicting opinions are seen as disloyal/threats  e.g. Pearl Harbor’s defense, Vietnam conflict, Iraq’s WMDs Voluntary Association  De Tocqueville termed the US a “nation of joiners”  Functions o Interest and enjoyment o Identity  o Governs o Promotes social order/change  Purpose – personal gain (e.g. enjoyment, conscience)   Olson’s “Free Rider” problem – tendency to take advantage without contributing)  o More common in larger groups  Iron Law of Oligarchy – tendency of small groups/subgroups to hold power/control  o Perpetuating, several generations of friends/family (Bush, Clinton, Kennedy)  Bureaucracy  Changing Times  Traditional Societies – self­produced, self­profit, “cottage industry”  Rationality – data, trends, efficiency  o Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism  Bureaucracy  Clear levels of authority, chain of command  Labor division  Written rules  Records   Impersonal interaction  Benefits – efficiency, no personal agendas   Disadvantages – dysfunction, lack of communication, errors o Red Tape – so bound by rules that requirements defy logic  Goal displacement – achieved goals lead to new goals (bureaucracies never die) o NATO, March of Dimes Deviance  Deviance – violation of significant norms (behavior, belief, condition)  Created and defined by audience, relative to time, place, and location  Degrees o Mild transgression of folkways  o Infringement of mores o Violation of laws Social Control – systematic practices to encourage conformity and discourage deviance   Internal – personal conscious, “right and wrong” (“Will I get caught?”) (e.g. knowing  parent will yell)  External – physical outside forces, police (parents yelling)  Labelling Theory – the significance of reputations on the path to or away from deviance Functionalist Perspective (function)  Enforcement/punishment clarifies rules  Unites groups (insiders/outsiders)  Benefits – promote social change by drawing attention to rules/concepts (e.g. Rosa Parks)  Negatives – possibility of threat (excess deviance can cause a society to collapse) Conflict Perspective (power and social inequality)  Criminal Justice System – tool designed to maintain the power of the powerful, and  oppress the poor (most prison inmates are low class)


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