SOC 1003, Study Guide Exam 2
SOC 1003, Study Guide Exam 2 SOC 1003
Arkansas Tech University
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by KBeard2 on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by J Stobaugh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
SOC 1003: Intro to Sociology Dr. James Stobaugh Study Guide Exam 2 Major Concepts Major People Major Terms Social Structure Social Structure – typical patterns of a group that guides behavior Elements – frameworks that organize and limit behavior Institutions Social Practice Social Class Statuses and Roles Groups Norms Boundaries Stigma – attributes that devalue one’s identity and disqualifies full social acceptance Social Marginality – partial stigma Social Class – large group of similar income, education, occupation, and prestige o Property o Power o Prestige – respect or regard Occupations Salary Education Abstract thought Autonomy Status – position with expectations, rules, duties (“Who am I?”), how a one is defined o Ascribed Status – birthgiven or involuntary Sec, class, race, age o Achieved States – chosen, merited, or gained through direct effort Criminality, occupation o Master Status – single most defining status “Who/what are you?” “What do you do?” o Symbols – objects that indicate status Cars, jewelry, clothes o Inconsistency – mixture of high and low ranks in elements of social class Roles – the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status Dramaturgical Analysis – the idea that life is performed as a drama on a stage dictated and directed by society, impression management o Front Stage – performing, the places where roles are acted and interaction occurs o Back Stage – privacy, the places no role or interaction occurs (e.g. bathroom, bedroom) Expectation – behaviors expected of status Performance – acting the role Conflict – competing commands by at least two statuses (e.g. worker, student, significant other) Strain – incompatible demands of a single status (e.g. working mother) Exit – disengaging from essential status o Doubt o Searching for alternatives o Turning point o New identity FaceSaving Behavior – attempt to change the perspective of an (often embarrassing, not appropriate, or mistaken) action/event o Studied nonobservance – acting as if an event didn’t occur Groups Groups – at least two people who interact and share a common identity Primary – facetoface and emotionbased interaction, small, less specialized o Family, friends Secondary – larger, specialized, impersonal, goal oriented, limited length of existence o Classes, jobs, teams InGroups – strong identity and loyalty toward OutGroups – antagonistic feelings toward o Double standard (what is excusable for ingroup member is inexcusable for out group members) Changing Societies Hunter/gatherer Pastoral/horticultural – domestication, tools, larger groups, labor division Agricultural – plow, development of cities Industrial – steam engine, transportation, fuelpowered machines PostIndustrial – information, microprocessor Social Network Clique – cluster within a larger group Small World Phenomenon – connections between people who appear to have no direct tie o Milgram’s Six Degrees of Separation Letter experiment, New Haven to New Jersey, average of six exchanges Small Group – few enough members to enable direct interaction Group Dynamics Dyad – two, smallest possible group, most intimate and unstable most intimate Triad – three, coalitions (members teaming up against other members) least stable Groups of Four or more – more relationships as group size increases o Diffusion of Responsibility – assumption others will take action Kitty Genovese – stabbed and raped, heard by apartment tenants, no one e most stable helped, “someone else will do it” Mandatory reporters o Peer Pressure (Asch’s Card Experiment) Group think – narrowing of thought, collective tunnel vision Conflicting opinions are seen as disloyal/threats e.g. Pearl Harbor’s defense, Vietnam conflict, Iraq’s WMDs Voluntary Association De Tocqueville termed the US a “nation of joiners” Functions o Interest and enjoyment o Identity o Governs o Promotes social order/change Purpose – personal gain (e.g. enjoyment, conscience) Olson’s “Free Rider” problem – tendency to take advantage without contributing) o More common in larger groups Iron Law of Oligarchy – tendency of small groups/subgroups to hold power/control o Perpetuating, several generations of friends/family (Bush, Clinton, Kennedy) Bureaucracy Changing Times Traditional Societies – selfproduced, selfprofit, “cottage industry” Rationality – data, trends, efficiency o Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Bureaucracy Clear levels of authority, chain of command Labor division Written rules Records Impersonal interaction Benefits – efficiency, no personal agendas Disadvantages – dysfunction, lack of communication, errors o Red Tape – so bound by rules that requirements defy logic Goal displacement – achieved goals lead to new goals (bureaucracies never die) o NATO, March of Dimes Deviance Deviance – violation of significant norms (behavior, belief, condition) Created and defined by audience, relative to time, place, and location Degrees o Mild transgression of folkways o Infringement of mores o Violation of laws Social Control – systematic practices to encourage conformity and discourage deviance Internal – personal conscious, “right and wrong” (“Will I get caught?”) (e.g. knowing parent will yell) External – physical outside forces, police (parents yelling) Labelling Theory – the significance of reputations on the path to or away from deviance Functionalist Perspective (function) Enforcement/punishment clarifies rules Unites groups (insiders/outsiders) Benefits – promote social change by drawing attention to rules/concepts (e.g. Rosa Parks) Negatives – possibility of threat (excess deviance can cause a society to collapse) Conflict Perspective (power and social inequality) Criminal Justice System – tool designed to maintain the power of the powerful, and oppress the poor (most prison inmates are low class)
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