Final Study Guide
∙ History of Jails and Prisons: Introduction o Intro:
Prison—facility designed to house individuals for a period of times as a form of punishment
for breaking the law.
∙ Relatively new concept of punishment.
Jails began to emerge in the Americas at the same time that the English settlers first
∙ Not typical form of punishment.
o Stocks We also discuss several other topics like How does perfect correlation exist?
o Physical labor
∙ Small in size.
∙ Paid their own way including food.
∙ Lacked basic necessitates such as heating,
water, or plumbing.
∙ No segregation.
∙ High levels of death and disease.
Walnut Street Jail
∙ Opened in 1776.
∙ Became military prison till 1784.
∙ Serve out sentences by 1789.
∙ Solitary confinement and hard labor.
∙ History of Jails and Prisons: The Pennsylvania System
We also discuss several other topics like How to minimize these unwanted effects?
o The Pennsylvania System
Characterized by larger cells.
Separate and silent system.
o Eastern State Penitentiary
Inmates worked in cell.
Filled to capacity and beyond.
Solitary confinement has negative impact.
∙ History of Jails and Prisons: The New York System o The New York System:
Some similarities to Pennsylvania system.
∙ Smaller cells than Eastern State.
Congregate labor systems—work side by side.
∙ Prohibited from communicating with each
Became more popular.
Able to house more individuals.
Benefits from prison labor on a larger scale. We also discuss several other topics like How are ions charged?
∙ Used prisoners from auburn prison to build
Still experienced overcrowding and disciplinary issues.
∙ Opened in 1831.
∙ 800 cells and more added later.
∙ Corporal punishment.
∙ Abuse of prisoners in the name of
∙ Made famous by use of electric chair.
o 614 executed between 1891-1973.
∙ History of Jails and Prisons: The Reformatory Era o Emerged in 1876. If you want to learn more check out What is nonviolent action?
o New York’s Elmira Reformatory.
Good time credits—allowed inmates to earn time off of their sentence for good behavior.
∙ Incentive system.
o Early release from prison
∙ History of Jails and Prisons: The Punishment Era o Punishment Era:
Dominated between $1900 AND $1940
Prison labor became popular again.
High security facilities.
∙ San Quentin, Statesville.
Shift away from punishment model post WWII. ∙ Rehabilitation remerges (again)
∙ Rehabilitation falls out of favor again in Don't forget about the age old question of What came out of the primordial soup experiment ?
Punishment returns to center stage in 1980s ∙ Jails: Introduction
Jails today house individuals awaiting criminal prosecution.
∙ Not eligible for bail.
∙ Cannot afford bail.
Can house inmates on short-term sentences. Transfer facility.
Mental health issues.
Probation or parole violations.
Community based programs.
∙ Work release.
∙ Day reporting.
∙ Alternatives to incarceration.
Managed by local city or county governments. 4We also discuss several other topics like What are some practical examples of rationalization?
Staffed by local police or sheriff.
∙ Jail: Jail Inmates
o 2014: 744,600 housed in local jails.
o California housed the largest number of jail inmates over the year.
o Female inmate population increased 18.1% between 2010 and 2014.
Male inmate population decreased by 3.2%
o Whites make up majority of all inmates (47%) in local jails.
o 7% are veterans.
o 11.4 million persons admitted to local jails between June 2013 and June 2014.
o 37% convicted of crime.
o 63% waiting for cases to proceed through system.
o 79 jails operated by Tribunal authorities and Bureau of Indian Affairs.
o 27% in custody for violent crimes.
∙ Jails: Jail Challenges:
o Short-term facilities face constant population change.
Difficult to provide meaningful management of these offenders.
o Psychological distress in month prior to their time in jail.
Inmates with disability.
Women and cognitive disability.
o Inmates dying in custody.
967 inmates died in custody in 2013.
Suicide is most common.
homicide by other inmates.
Homicide by staff.
∙ Types of Prisons: Introduction
Several different types of prisons.
∙ Federal prison system—convicted of
violations of federal law.
∙ State maintains own prison system.
∙ Used private prisons.
∙ Military prisons.
∙ Psychiatry prisons—prisoners seen as
∙ State Prisons
o 2014—1,350,958 in state prisons nationwide.
o 612 adults per 100,000 residents—rates of incarceration.
o Number of individuals incarcerated in prisons has increased substantially.
o 92.6% of all state inmates are male.
o Texas has the largest number of inmates
o Mississippi saw greatest decrease in prison
o 53.2% of all inmates are in state prisons for violent offenses.
o 15.7% for drug crimes.
o 11.0% for public order offenses.
o Women are more likely to be incarcerated for property and drug related offenses.
o Men are more likely to be incarcerated for violent crimes.
o Blacks have higher rates of incarceration for violent offenses.
o Whites have higher rates of incarceration for property crimes.
o Significant changes to sentencing laws.
o Expensive investment.
∙ Types of Prisons: Federal Prisons
o Federal Prisons:
Designed to hold violators of federal crimes.
The Bureau of Prisons (BOP) was established in 1930.
o Sentencing Reform Act of 1984
Number of institutions exploded.
Inmate population exploded.
o 2015—198,953 inmates housed in federal prisons.
o Majority of inmates are males (93.3%) and white (58.9%)
o Majority offenders are between the ages of 31 and 40 (36.4%)
o Majority of offenders are incarcerated for drug related crimes.
∙ Types of Prisons: Private Prisons
o Private Prisons:
2014—131,300 inmates housed in privately-run facilities in 30 states.
New Mexico is lead in this category (44%).
o Corrections Corporations of America (CCA) Largest entity of private prisons.
California is largest state client.
State pays $214 million to CCA.
o Federal government paid $752 million to house inmates.
o 130 private prisons nationwide offer 157,000 beds for hire.
o Due to dramatic prison population growth.
o Competitive bidding practices.
o Not subjected to same levels of bureaucracy. ∙ Types of Prisons: Military Prisons
o Military Prisons:
House individuals convicted of a crime while a member of the armed forces.
2014—1,409 members of the armed forces
Majority from Army (54%)
43% incarcerated due to violent crime.
24.4% convicted of violent sexual offense
37.2% of nonviolent sex offense.
61.7% of all for sexually-based offenses.
Consolidate service branches or separate
Alcatraz Island was a military prison.
Fort Leavenworth in Leavenworth, Kansas.
No executions under military authority since 1961.
∙ 6 prisoners currently on death row.
∙ Prison Security Levels: Security Organization o Security Organization:
Organized by security level.
Four categories of prison security.
Refers to how restrictive the security of a
Differ in terms of—
∙ Physical design
∙ Types of operational policies.
o Minimum Security Level Prison
o Medium Security Level Prison
o Maximum Security Level Prison
∙ Issues in Incarceration: Overcrowding o Overcrowding:
Occurs when there are more individuals in
prison than a facility is designed to house.
o Bureau of Prisons and 18 states are dealing with this issue.
o Federal facilities are operating at 128%.
Struggle to provide adequate space to house offenders.
Larger spaces repurposed to create more
Job and rehabilitative programming can be
Increased tension between inmates.
Increased levels of misconduct.
Can impact health and welfare of the prison staff.
o Assembly Bill 109.
Reclassified certain felonies.
Permits some offenders to serve their time in county jails.
Good time credits.
Participate in specialized programming.
∙ Issues in Incarceration: Prison Misconduct o Prison Misconduct:
Threaten safety and security of a facility.
o Several different forms of misconduct behind bars— Violence.
Security related violations.
∙ Legal Rights of Prisoners
o Retain several constitutional rights.
Right to consult inmate lawyers.
Adequate library facilities.
May not be indifferent to overcrowding, poor lighting, poor ventilation, and unsanitary
Prisoners don’t have a right to privacy. Cells can be searched by prison staff.
∙ Correctional Officers
o Correctional Officers
Central component of the criminal justice
Security of the correctional institution and
safety of inmates.
Involved with every aspect of the inmate life. Duties range from—
∙ Enforcing the rules and regulations of the
∙ Responding to inmate needs.
∙ Diffusing inmate conflicts.
∙ Supervising the daily movement and
activities of the inmates.
2013—434,420 correctional officers working in prison facilities nationwide.
On the job stress.
High degree of bureaucracy contributes to job dissatisfaction.
Risk of harm from the inmates.
Feel stuck in roles.
o Management of jails and prisons comprises a significant part of state and Federal correctional budge.
o Overcrowded prison.
o Difficulty delivering inmate services.
o Threats to safety and security of the facility, the residents, and the staff.
o Policymakers will need to reevaluate how these institutions will be used as form of punishment and whom to house.
∙ Community Corrections
o Two distinct populations:
Those who have been sentenced for a crime.
Those who have been charged with offenses and are waiting for their cases to be resolved
by the criminal justice system.
∙ Pre-Trial Release: Bail
Financial commitment provided to the court in exchange for the promise to appear at a later
Remain at home while waiting for court date. Release on own recognizance.
∙ Personal promise to return to court.
∙ Diversion: Introduction
Refer offenders to program instead of
processing through the system.
Often used with first-time low-level juvenile offenders.
∙ Anger management
∙ Substance abuse education
∙ Community service.
o Four primary benefits—
Reduce number of cases.
Provide skills that aid in rehabilitation.
Avoid stigma associated with criminal
Mixed research on their ability to reduce crime and recidivism.
∙ Diversion: Specialized Courts
o Specialized Courts:
Target specialized populations
∙ Mental health courts.
∙ Drug courts.
o First court set up in Miami.
May lack adequate budget.
Eligibility requirements eliminate many
∙ Probation: A Brief History of Probation
o Supervision of offenders in the community in lieu of incarceration.
o Dates back to Middle Ages and English Criminal law. o John Augustus—
First volunteer probation officer in 1841.
o 1925—National Probation Act
Established the U.S. Federal Probation Service.
o The Federal Probation and Pretrial Officers Association
Provide policy analysis and advocacy on a
variety of issues.
∙ Officer safety.
∙ Probation: Probation in the 21st
o Account for the greatest population of all individuals in community corrections.
o Average length of probation is under two years.
o 2014—while the majority of inmates complete their probation, 35% do not, for various reasons, and many end up incarcerated.
∙ Probation: Types of Probation
o Several different types of probations sentences. o Vary by jurisdiction and needs of offender. o Involves specific terms and conditions.
o Supervised probation—most common type Required to check in.
o Most common conditions—
Report to probation officer as directed.
Permission to change residence.
Report any arrests or contact with police or probation officer.
Maintain attendance in school.
Follow house arrest procedures.
Participate in specific programs ordered by court.
∙ Anger management
∙ Detox/ rehab.
No contact with victim.
Not possess any weapons.
No contact with individuals on probation,
parole or that have a criminal record.
Submit to reasonable searches and seizures. o Intensive Probation
More intensive form of supervision.
Closely monitor daily activities of their
Smaller caseloads for officers.
Electronic monitor or GPS tracker.
o Split-sentence probation
Short-term incarceration sentence with
traditional probation sentence.
Designed to serve as a stronger deterrent
against criminal behavior.
Encourage greater compliance with a probation sentence.
o Crime-specific supervision
Organizes caseload by specific offense types. Focus on unique needs of specific population. Type of intensive probation.
o Unsupervised probation:
Not required to check in with probation officer. Meet certain terms and conditions set by court. Used in cases of minor level offenders.
Can be recalled by court if reoffend.
∙ Probation: Duties of the Probation Officer o Duties of probation officer:
May be involved throughout every stage of
∙ Make recommendations about pretrial
∙ Supervise offender during pretrial
∙ Involved in management of offender case
as part of program.
∙ Managing community sanctions or
∙ The Pre-Sentence Investigation Report (PSI) o One of primary tasks of probation officer.
o Conducts interview with offender, parents, legal guardians, school officials or treatment providers for juvenile cases.
o Provides court with detailed information regarding background of offender.
∙ Where they live.
∙ Education level
o Probation officer opinions.
o Assessment of offender’s needs.
∙ Probation: Probation Revocation
o Defendant violates the terms and conditions of their probation or they commit a new crime.
o Subject to having their probation sentence revoked by court.
o Courts have two options:
Decide to continue the offender on probation.
Revoke the sentence of probation and
resentence the offender to a new punishment. ∙ Intermediate Sanctions: Introduction
o The category of intervention between probation and incarceration.
o Used in conjunction with probation or parole supervision.
o Additional sentencing options.
o Tailor to unique needs of offender.
∙ Intermediate Sanctions: House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring
o Requires offenders to remain in homes in lieu of a jail or prison.
o Permitted to leave for short-term approved
o Global positioning system (GPS) technology: Locate and monitor the movement of
∙ Intermediate Sanctions: Day Reporting Centers and Work/Study Release Programs.
o Day reporting Centers:
Requires an offender to attend a program or center during the day.
Allows them to live in their own homes during evenings.
o Work/ study release program
Currently housed in a local jail.
Offenders can leave facility during the day to go to work or school.
Remain in jails during the evening and
∙ Intermediate Sanctions: Halfway Houses
o Transitional living arrangement for ex-offenders upon their release from jail or prison.
o Residences provide supervision of offenders.
o Require residents to participate in programs to aid in reentry process.
∙ Parole: A Brief History of Parole
o Developed during the 19th century.
o Alexander Maconochie
Credited with the rise of parole as correctional strategy.
System of credits based on
o Sir Walton Crofon
Inspired by Maconochie’s efforts.
Implemented practice at the Irish Prison
System in 1854.
Developed supervision program for offenders after being released.
Provided supervision, accountability, and
assistance finding jobs.
∙ Parole: Parole in the 21st
o Sentencing Reform Act of 1984
Abolished parole for Federal levels.
Many states followed this trend.
∙ Issues in Reentry: Introduction
High needs for incarcerated returning to
Recent scholars have focused on reentry to
discussions on how to successfully transition
offenders back into their communities.
Can be traumatic.
Issues emerge in creating a successful reentry experience.
∙ Issues in Reentry: Employment Challenges o Face “ex-offender” status identity.
o Disclose whether they have ever been arrested for a crime on applications.
Can exclude applicant from consideration.
o Lack of education or training makes it difficult. ∙ Issues in Reentry: Drug Addiction
o One of the primary reasons offenders are involved in criminal activity and sent to prison.
o Issues of addiction can lead to recidivism.
o Impacts ability to maintain stable employment and secure housing.
o Struggle with gaining access to services.
o Many offenders will return to the addictions and lifestyles.
∙ Issues in Reentry: Access to Healthcare 20
o Limited access to physical and mental health care. o Inability to pay.
o Lack of knowledge about where to obtain
o Can impede ex-offender’s successful reentry process.
o Overemphasis on the use of prescription
o Limited availability of therapeutic interventions. ∙ Issues in Reentry: Access to Resources o Unavailable or limited resources
o The Welfare Reform Bill of 1996
Denies service and resources for those with a criminal record.
Denies to felony drug-related charges.
Lifetime ban for TANF.
∙ Temporary Assistance to Needy Families.
∙ Food Stamps, WIC, etc.
∙ LA Chip
Barred from living in public housing
Limit availability of Section 8 housing options. o Jeopardize efforts.
o Community correctional programs support offenders in the community, either in lieu of an incarceration sentence or following a sentence in jail or prison.
o Price of net-widening and increased supervision of offenders.
o Unclear whether this increased supervision helps to prevent crime.
o Programs represent a significant cost-savings to the state and federal criminal justice systems.
o Still significant progress to be made.
∙ History of the Juvenile Justice System: Overview
o First juvenile court was established in 1899 in Chicago.
o Allow delinquent youth cases to be heard outside of the criminal courts.
o Large degree of discretion.
∙ Structure of the Juvenile Court: Delinquency Cases & Dependency Cases
o Delinquency Cases:
Jurisdiction over two different populations—
Delinquency and dependency cases.
Court is responsible for cases involving charges of delinquency.
∙ Delinquency refers to act considered
criminal and status offenses.
∙ Status offender—act that is prohibited
under the law for only individuals under a
o Illegal drinking under the age of 21,
Truancy, Running away, etc.
o Responses to status offenses vary by
o Dependency Cases:
Second type of case managed by juvenile
Dependency cases—youth who have been harmed or neglected by their parents.
Parents cannot or unwilling to care for their
Juvenile court steps into accept legal custody of youth.
Legal custody—court is now responsible for all decisions made about child.
Physical custody—youth sent to live with
temporary home or foster care family.
∙ COURTY MAY ASSIGN physical custody to
another family member or friend of family.
∙ Structure of the Juvenile Court: Juvenile Justice Process
o Juvenile Justice Process:
∙ Juveniles enter system through this
∙ Review report submitted by police.
∙ Determine what should happen in each
∙ High degree of discretion.
∙ Officer options
o Place youth in temporary shelter or
o Remand a youth to custody.
o Release youth to parent’s care.
o Sent to diversion
Diversion—allow for youth to
complete a set of requirements
in lieu of being processed.
o Referred to juvenile court.
∙ Many cases are handled on an informal
basis or are sent to diversion.
∙ Some referred to juvenile court.
∙ Majority remain in custody of parents or
∙ Judge is active in process.
∙ Delinquency petition—allows for juvenile
courts to retain jurisdiction over a case.
∙ Judge renders decision in case.
∙ Proved beyond reasonable doubt.
∙ Terminology helps distinguish differences
between how cases are handled compared
to adult court.
∙ If adjudicated, court holds a disposition
hearing—determines the plan of action.
∙ Balances the issues of community safety
with best needs of the child.
∙ Landmark Cases for Juvenile Offenders: Overview o Overview:
Early juvenile courts were designed to treat
youth, not to punish them.
Juveniles did not have the same due process protections as adults in criminal courts.
Courts began to function as tool of punishment by mid 20th century.
Several Supreme Court decisions during the 1960s highlighted the need for due process in
∙ Kent v. United States (1966)—waiving
jurisdiction without a hearing is a violation
of the U.S. Constitution.
∙ In re Gault (1967)—juveniles must be
informed of their right to remain silent,
have right to attorney (including having
one provided for them if they cannot
afford one), have the right to reasonable
notice of the charges against them and
have the right to confront and cross
∙ In re Winship (1970)—the burden of
proof for juveniles’ adjudication hearings
must be beyond a reasonable doubt.
∙ Breed v. Jones (1975)—juveniles cannot
be tried for the same case in both the
juvenile court and the criminal court.
∙ McKiever v. Pennsylvania (1971)—
juveniles do not have the constitutional
right to a jury.
∙ Eddings v. Oklahoma (1982)—age
should be considered as a mitigating
factor in determining whether someone
should receive the death penalty.
∙ Landmark Cases for Juvenile Offenders: The Death Penalty
o The Death Penalty:
Remained unchanged nationally for 16 years. 2005- several states changed their laws.
∙ 31 jurisdictions prohibited the death
penalty for juveniles.
∙ 19 states set a minimum age for
punishment at 18.
∙ 12 states prohibited the practice for all
o Public support for executions of juveniles fell dramatically.
Evidence presented that juveniles may lack the appropriate brain development to understand
the consequences of their actions.
o Roper v. Simmons (2005)—execution of
individuals under the age of 18 was a violation of the 8th amendment protection against cruel and unusual punishment.
o Began to consider other sentences as cruel and unusual
Graham v. Florida (2010)—juveniles cannot be sentenced to life imprisonment without
possibility of parole (LWOP) for non-homicide
Miller v. Alabama (2012)—mandatory LWOP sentences for juveniles in homicide cases were unconstitutional.
Montgomery v. Louisiana (2016)—
determined that the ruling in Miller must be
retroactive, meaning that all offenders who
were sentenced to LWOP for a crime that they
committed as a juvenile either need to be
resentenced to a specific term or incarceration or be rendered eligible for parole.
∙ Demographics of Juvenile Offenders: Overview o Overview:
2013—juvenile courts nationwide managed
over one million cases.
Reduction from previous decades.
∙ 2013—handed 9% fewer cases than they
did in 1985.
∙ 2013—28% of delinquency cases were
made up of girls (72% boys)
o girls most likely to be involved in
crimes against person and less likely
to be involved in drug related
∙ Most cases involved white and black
o Whites—62%; blacks 35%
∙ Youth under the age of 16 made up 53% of
all delinquency cases.
∙ Issues in Juvenile Justice: Introduction
Push to treat serious and violent juvenile
offenders more like adult counterparts.
Policy makers influenced to introduce stricter laws about juvenile offending.
Altered which case would be heard by the
Shifted court to a more punitive model.
∙ Issues in Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Waiver o Juvenile Waiver:
Juvenile court may decide that they are not the appropriate place to manage a case.
Cases are transferred to the adult criminal
court for processing.
There are three ways that could happen:
∙ Legislative, prosecutorial, and judicial
o Legislative Waiver
Youths of a particular age, combined with a
specific category of offense (usually involving
serous and violent felonies) were automatically sent to criminal court.
Youth as young as 10 can be waived to adult court.
Philosophy of “do the crime, do the time.”
Once youth is sent to criminal court,
subsequent cases will be handled by adult
court, regardless of severity.
o Prosecutorial Waiver
Up to prosecutor to decide whether to file the case in juvenile court or in the criminal court.
Cases can be tried in either court and this is referred to as concurrent jurisdiction.
Pursuing case in criminal court is called a
∙ Traditional practices and sentencing
options normally available to juvenile
offenders are eliminated.
o Judicial Waiver
Also caused discretionary waiver.
Formalized in Kent v. United States (1966)
Requires that before a youth can be sent to the criminal court, the juvenile court must hold a hearing to assess whether youth could still
benefit from the resources available in juvenile court.
o Cases waived to adult court
Juvenile waivers peaked in the mid 1990s and declined every since.
1985—5800 youth judicially waived.
1994—13,600 youth judicially waived.
2011—5,400 youth judicially waved.
Disproportionately impacted youth of color.
∙ Issues in Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Confinement o 1997—116,701 youth were incarcerated.
o Youth in custody has declined 42% since 1997. o 2011—61,423 youth were incarcerated.
o U.S. still has one of the highest rates of youth incarceration in the world.
o Majority involves act of delinquency
o Small percentage institutionalized for status offenses.
o Majority committed by the court.
o Committed to a variety of different facilities Majority held in detention (short-term
residential) or long-term secure residential
o Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDOA)
Deinstitutionalization of juvenile delinquents, and specifically targeted the incarceration of
Mandates to remove youth from adult lockup facilities.
Insure youth are not housed next to adult cells Insure youth do not share public spaces.
Reauthorized several times.
∙ Terrorism: Introduction
Designed to elicit fear or terror in a particular group of people.
FBI definition- violent or dangerous activity that violates state and/or federal law and “appear
to be intended.”
∙ To intimidate or coerce and civilian
∙ To influence the policy of a government by
intimidation or coercion.
∙ To affect the conduct of a government by
mass destruction, assassination, or
Often linked to political agenda.
Can be an act of both physical and emotional violence.
∙ Terrorism: Types of Terrorism
o Types of Terrorism:
∙ Those acts that occur within the
jurisdiction of the U.S.
∙ “occur primarily outside territorial
jurisdiction of the U.S., or transcend
national boundaries in terms of the means
by which they are accomplished, the
person they appear intended to coerce or
intimidate, or the locale in which their
perpetrators operate or seek asylum.”
∙ State-sponsored terrorism
o Ex. Ordered bombing in response to
military action against Libya.
∙ Dissident terrorism
o Acts that are committed by non-state
groups against governments,
religious entities, and citizens. Occur
over long frustrations about how
∙ Religious terrorism
∙ Terrorism: Prevalence of Terrorism
o The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses of Terrorism (START)
Maintains the Global Terrorism Database on all known domestic and international terrorist
Contains information on over 140,000 terrorist attacks.
Information on 58,000 bombings, 15,000
assassinations and 6,000 kidnappings between 1970 and 2014.
Terrorism existed long before September 11 event.
∙ Homeland: Responses to Terrorism Post 9/11 o Responses to Terrorism Post 9/11:
Federal government responded 11 days later with the establishment of the Department of
Passed two key acts of legislation.
∙ Changed infrastructure on how cases were
∙ Changed infrastructure to the methods by
which such investigations could be
The Department of Homeland Security Act of 2002.
o The USA Patriot (United and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Require to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act of 2001— made a number of revisions to existing law.
Established a fund
Created new methods for gathering
Increased record keeping requirements for
banks to increase detection of money
New provisions to mandatory detention laws for individuals who engaged in terrorism or
who engaged in threating terrorism.
Expanded the numbers of crime that were
included under the definition of terrorism acts. o USA Freedom Act
Changed the way the phone data is collected by authorities.
Phone companies retain the data about phone records.
Require the government to receive permission by the courts to obtain information from
Still able to follow suspected terrorists with
roving wiretaps and use national security
∙ Border Control: Introduction
Border control—efforts that a country takes to regulate and maintain its borders.
Border control discussions have increased
∙ Main three issues:
o Transnational crime
o Act of entering a country for the purposes of work or residency.
o Involves both criminal justice agencies locally and nationally.
o Three primary Federal agencies.
Customs and Border Protection Agency
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services ∙ Transnational Crime
o Generally, are acts that—
Occur across the boundaries of different
Involve migration between borders as part of the criminal activity.
Take place in one country but involves a group that engages in similar activity in several
Takes place in one country, but has a
significant effect on another region.
∙ Human Trafficking
o Abduction of individuals for the purposes of exploitation.
o Second largest criminal activity.
o Fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world.
o 2008—approximately 2.5 million people from 127 countries are victims of trafficking.
o Several ways victims are trafficked
∙ Organized Crime
o Most common form of transnational crime.
o Involves coordinate efforts of individuals.
o Creating opportunities for financial gain.
o Developed countries of leadership.
o Some linked to terrorist activities and variety of other crimes.
o Crimes threaten national security.
o Bribery and corruption occurs within these groups.
o Agents of organized crime can use technology (cybercrime)
∙ Drugs and Arms Trafficking
o Drug Trafficking involves the cultivation,
manufacturing, distribution and sale of illegal drugs. 35
o Arms trafficking involves illegal transport of guns and ammunition.