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TULANE / Psychology / PSYC 1000 / what is James-Lange Theory?

what is James-Lange Theory?

what is James-Lange Theory?

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory psych
Professor: Thomas hebert
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: December 6th study guide
Description: This is a study guide for our third exam on December 6th, NOT the final. It includes Chapters 12-15. We also need to know Chapter 16, but it is not covered in this study guide.
Uploaded: 12/01/2017
12 Pages 10 Views 10 Unlocks
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Chapter 12:


what is James-Lange Theory?



Emotion: 

- Bodily arousal (ex. Heart pounding)  

- Expressive behaviors (speed walking)  

- Conscious experience (thoughts and feelings)

Theories of Emotion: 

- James-Lange Theory: arousal leads to emotion and cognition (ex. We  are sad because we cry)

- Cannon-Bard Theory: arousal and emotion occur simultaneously - Shachter and Singer “Two-Factor” Theory: 

o Arousal + cognitive label of emotion = feeling

o Emotions are both physical and cognitive  

o Labelling one’s emotions is important because it allows our body  to differentiate between emotions that seem biologically similar  (ex. Being excited and being nervous both increase our heart  rate)

- Spillover effect: when your arousal is up, you have increased potential  to feel any emotion

Emotions in the Brain: 

- “High road” emotions: stimulus goes through the thalamus to the  brain’s cortex, where it is analyzed and labeled. High road emotions  usually have to do with hatred and love


what is Cannon-Bard Theory?



Don't forget about the age old question of spit blood tcu

- “Low road” emotions: take a neural shortcut that bypasses the cortex,  going straight to the amygdala, which produces a quicker response.  Low road emotions are usually related to likes, dislikes, and fears.  - Bad feelings  more activity in the right frontal lobe

- Positive feelings  more activity in the left frontal lobe  

Gender Differences in Emotion: 

- Women tend to be better at reading non-verbal emotions faster and  are also usually more emotionally available and empathetic - Anger tends to be more common in men  We also discuss several other topics like

Facial and Behavioral Feedback Effects: Don't forget about the age old question of @sino.tk

- Facial: you can slightly influence your emotions by the way you  position your face (ex. Smiling makes you a little happier, even if you  are in a bad mood)

- Behavioral: behaving a certain way can also influence how you feel (ex. Acting confident makes you feel more confident)


what is Shachter and Singer “Two-Factor” Theory?



Culture and Emotion:

- Carroll Izzard: 10 basic emotions that look the same around the world:  joy, excitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear,  shame, guilt)

- Facial expressions tend to stand for the same emotions universally, but some cultures express their emotions more than others  We also discuss several other topics like noricon

Anger: 

- Occasional flashes of anger can give us the energy to take action - Persistent/chronic anger is bad for your health  increased likelihood of  having a heart attack  

- Catharsis myth: you can reduce anger by “releasing” it  this is not  true. Taking out your anger will only make you more angry We also discuss several other topics like aria stewart
If you want to learn more check out posc 362 study guide

Happiness: 

- Happiness is a combination of nature and nurture  

- Feel good, do good phenomenon: doing good makes us feel good and  vice versa

- Relative Deprivation: we compare ourselves to others  our happiness  is in part based on how successful the people around us are  - Happiness set point: our base level of happiness that comes from a  combination of our genes, culture, experiences, and outlook on life - High self-esteem, optimism, engaging work (“flow”), active  faith/religion, good sleep, exercise, good relationships, all lead to  happiness.  

- Age, gender, attractiveness  not correlated to happiness

Wealth and Happiness: 

- Having money that allows us to meet all basic needs makes us happier, but this effect diminishes as wealth increases  

- Adaption Level Phenomenon: when we adapt to a certain level of  satisfaction, we need more stimuli to make us actively happy.  

Stress: 

- Stress can be positive in the short-term (acts as a motivator), but in  the long term it is bad for our physical and mental health

- 3 stress categories: catastrophes, life changes, daily hassles - Stress hormones: epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol

- Long-term stress can weaken the body’s ability to fight disease  because it detrimentally effects your immune system

- Chronic pessimism and depression also lead to heart problems  - General Adaption Syndrome: 1) Alarm reaction 2) resistance (coping  with stressor)  

3) exhaustion

 - Psychoneuroimmunology: the study of how stress affects our  immune system

Coping with Stress: 

- Problem-focused coping: when we feel in control of the stressful  situation and feel capable of handling the outcomes

- Emotion-focused coping: when the stressor feels outside of our control, we reach out to others for emotional support

- External locus of control: other forces control my like fate or luck.  People with external loci of control tend to be more anxious and less  motivated.

- Internal locus: I control my own life. People with this locus tend to be  better at coping with stress and have a more motivated and positive  outlook on life.  

- Social support  reduces blood pressure and stress, boosts immune  system

- Exercise  boosts spirit, strengthens heart, increases blood flow, lowers blood pressure

- Relaxation/meditation  can alleviate headaches, insomnia, anxiety - Religion  promotes healthy behaviors, social support, positivity  o Faith Factor: religious people tend to live longer  

Type A vs. Type B: 

- A: impatient, verbally aggressive, competitive, easily angered, more  likely to have a heart attack because of chronic anger

- B: easygoing, laid back  

Embodied vs. Expressed emotions: 

- Embodied: the physical arousal felt as we experience emotions (heart  and breathing rates go up)

- Expressed: how our emotions are expressed (ie. Facial movement,  smile, eyebrows draw together, frown)

Chapter 13:

Theories of Social Psychology: 

- Social psychology: studies situations and social influences that explain  why people act the way they do

- Attribution theory (Fritz Heider): the conclusion one draws about the  cause of a behavior or event

- Dispositional Attribution: people’s behavior comes from their genes - Situational Attribution: people’s behavior is a consequence of the  situation they are in  

- Fundamental Attribution Error: we overestimate the influence of  personality and underestimate circumstance when we are analyzing  people’s behavior. This influences how we perceive and judge people

Persuasion: 

- Peripheral route: persuading people through non-intellectual means (ie. A celebrity advertisement)  

- Central route: providing reason and evidence to persuade people to  think a certain way (ie. Data, logic, statistics), much more durable form of persuasion

- Automatic mimicry: we instinctually follow/copy others actions (we  yawn when someone else yawns)

- Conformity: we conform when we  feel incompetent, are in a large  group, are in a group where everyone agrees  

- Normative social influence: we conform to belong and avoid rejection - Informational social influence: we sometimes change our opinions to  match those around us  

Obedience: 

- Foot in the door phenomenon: start with a small action of obedience  (giving the person a small shock in the Milgram experiment) and  progressively it turns into a large act of obedience (giving a huge  shock)

- Obedience usually wins out over kindness

- We are more likely to obey when orders are given by: someone with  authority, someone associated with a prestigious institution, someone  standing close by

- We are more likely to obey when the victim is far away or when  everyone else is obeying as well  

Group Behavior: 

- Social facilitation: other people’s presence has the power to affect your performance for good (if you are good at what you’re doing) or bad (if  you get nervous easily or are bad at the task)

Social inequalities: 

- Just-world phenomenon: people get what they deserve

- Ingroup = us, outgroup = them (we have a natural instinct to form  groups)

- Ingroup bias: favoring your own group  

- Social loafing: slacking at something when in a group because you  assume the others will pick up your weight (group project) - Deindividuation: being in a large group makes you both aroused and  anonymous, (riot, flash mob) which can cause you to lose your self awareness and self-restraint

- Group polarization: the attitudes we bring to a group grow stronger  when we discuss them with people who agree with us (politics)

- Groupthink: our desire for harmony in a group sometimes trumps  making well thought out decisions (no one wants to disagree with the  majority, so they just sit quietly and allow bad decisions to be made)

- Minority influence and the power of the individual: sometimes  minorities can sway the majority, harder to do but still possible (Civil  Rights movement and MLK)

Prejudice: 

- Other-race effect: people are generally better at recognizing faces of  their own race  

- Judging based on vivid cases: we judge whole groups based on one  incident (9/11  Muslims are terrorists)

- Availability heuristic: stereotypes are formed from vivid cases, not real  statistics  

- Confirmation bias: you want to find world examples that prove your  stereotypes right (ie. Every time there is a convicted Muslim terrorist, it confirms your belief that Muslims tend to be terrorists)

- Cognitive dissonance: you conform your thinking to what those around  you think so that you don’t have cognitive dissonance (a difference  between the way you think and the way you act)

Aggression: 

- No specific spot in the brain that controls for aggression, but it largely  stems from the amygdala and frontal lobes)

- High testosterone levels correlate with higher aggression, and also with irritability, assertiveness, and low tolerance

- Frustration-aggression principle: frustration  anger  aggression  - Outside stimuli like hot temperatures, pain, cigarette smoke, and large  crowds can heighten aggression  

- Aggression models: parents, tv, internet, video games

- These aggression models teach us to follow social scripts (the way we  “should” act in any given situation) and can desensitize us to  aggression and violence  

- Reinforcement: if being aggressive worked once, we are more likely to  be aggressive again  

Attitudes and Actions: 

- Attitudes affect actions  our feelings/beliefs affect how we react to  people, objects, and ideas

- Actions affect attitudes  when we act a certain way, our  thoughts/beliefs tend to align with our behavior  

Attraction: 

- Proximity/mere exposure effect: repeated exposure to a stimulus or  person increases our liking for it or them

- Attractive people are generally found to be: happier, more sensitive,  more successful, more well liked  

- Real opposites do not attract  friends and partners tend to share  similar beliefs, values, interests

- We like people who are like us, and who like us

Love: 

- Passionate love: rooted in arousal, may be more short-lasting - Compassionate love: deep attachment and affection, includes equity,  self-disclosure, and positive support. This kind of love is longer lasting  and indicative of a healthy relationship

Altruism: (genuine and unselfish concern for others)

- Bystander intervention: as bystanders, we often only help someone in  need if we: 1) notice a problem 2) believe it is an emergency 3) take  responsibility for helping  

- Bystander effect: there is a diffusion of responsibility when there are  more people available to help because everyone assumes that  someone else will do it  

- Happy people are more likely to help and people who are more likely to help are usually happier

Conflict: 

- Social traps: we harm our collective/communal wellbeing by pursuing  our own interests and being selfish  

- Mirror-image perceptions: people in conflict demonize each other.  These perceptions can lead to self-fulfilling prophecies  people will act the way they are expected by society to act  

Peace/Resolving Conflict: 

- The 4 C’s:  

o Contact (exposure and interaction with the other group) o Cooperation (creating shared goals)

o Communication (sometimes through a mediator)

o Conciliation (both sides being willing to give in a little bit and  admit that the “other” is not so bad or different)

Chapter 14:

Freud’s Psychodynamic Theories: 

- Unconscious mind  repressed thoughts, desires, and memories - Preconscious mind  thoughts that lay between conscious and  unconscious but could be recalled to memory

- Freud believed that personality was an interaction of impulse and  restraints

- Id  unconscious impulse to fulfill basic needs such as pleasure and  food consumption

- Ego  the mediator between the Id and the Superego, guides us in how to satisfy our needs in realistic ways. The ego also builds our defense  mechanisms, which lessen our anxiety and protect us from acting on  unacceptable impulses (conscious mind)

- Superego  moral compass, tells us how we should behave by society’s standards (preconscious mind)

- Psychosexual stages: a set of stages, each associated with its own  erogenous (pleasure) zone in the body. Kids pass through all the stages by around age 5.  

- Believed people could get stuck in one of the psychosexual stages, and this could affect them for the rest of their lives (ie. If someone was  stuck in the oral stage, they would forever be obsessed with putting  things in their mouths)

- Oedipus complex: Freud believed that boys in the phallic stage  developed unconscious sexual desires for their mothers and  consequently viewed their fathers as enemies. To resolve this inner  conflict, these boys would follow/identify with their dad (because their  dads were way bigger and stronger, and if you can’t beat em, join em.) This theory has been proven incorrect by researchers and scientists.  

- Free Association: Freud believed that if you allowed a person to be  open about how they were feeling, all of their repressed emotions  would surface (not really true)

- Projective tests: Freud era personality tests (ex. Thematic appreciation  test, ink-blot test), not very reliable

Evaluating Freud: 

- Freud was wrong that development is complete after childhood; we  now know development is lifelong  

- Freud overestimated parental influence and underestimated peer  influence

- Repression does not really occur; memories/experiences that were  especially traumatic tend to remain ingrained in our brains - Dreams and Freudian Slips do not indicate that a person has repressed  desires  

Humanist Theories: 

- Abraham Maslow: Self-Actualizing Person 

o Believed we are motivated by the Hierarchy of Needs 

o Studied people who were healthy and had good lives

- Carl Rogers: Person-Centered Perspective 

o Believed that people are inherently good, and will remain good if  placed in the right (nurturing) environment

o A good environment promotes the values of genuineness,  acceptance, and empathy for others  

o Self-concept: our answer to the question, “Who am I?” which  helps to define a person’s personality

o People whose ideal selves line up with their actual selves tend to  be happier

- Critics of Humanist theory say that this way of conceiving the self can  lead to self-centeredness

Traits: 

- Extraversion: people who are extraverted seek extra stimulation  because their normal brain arousal is low

- Introversion: often mistaken for shyness, introversion actually leads to  more introspection and listening

- “Big Five”: the main factors that researchers use to assess one’s  personality:

o Conscientiousness 

o Agreeableness 

o Neuroticism 

o Openness 

o Extraversion 

o Note: a way to remember these is their acronym, CANOE - By adulthood, traits become more stable, and we also become more  agreeable and less extraverted, neurotic, and open  

- Heritability makes up about 50% of variation for most traits  - Person-Situation Controversy: some situations make us act differently,  in ways that do not line up with our true beliefs  

- Albert Bandura: Social-Cognitive Perspective: 

o Our behavior is an interaction between our traits and the  situations we are placed in  

o Behavior is both social and cognitive, and personality is shaped  by how we react in different situations and interpret events  o Averaging one’s behavior over a broad range of situations can  reveal one’s real character

- Reciprocal Determinism: personality is reciprocally shaped by traits,  behaviors, and environment (meaning they all influence each other)

Chapter 15:  

Psychological Disorder: A syndrome classified by a significant disturbance in  a person’s behaviors, moods, or way of thinking in a way that interferes with  their day to day life (functional impairment).  

Pinel’s New Approach:

- It used to be commonly thought that those with psychological  disorders had been touched by the devil and had to be put away in  cages

- Pinel proposed that mental illness is not demonic possession but rather a sickness of the mind

- Decides that better treatment is to put people in insane asylums,  which was new and more “moral” treatment.  

- Medical model: a psychological approach that treats mental illness in  the same light as physical illness, as a disease with symptoms that we  can reduce with treatment

Classifying Disorders: 

- Classification aims to:

o Predict how the disorder will manifest in the future

o Suggest a good form of treatment

o Prompt further research into the cause and effect of the disorder  - Psychologists use the standardized disorder criteria of the DSM-5 to  diagnose patients

- The DSM is consistent and used by doctors worldwide

- Some worry that the DSM classifies too many behaviors as disorders,  thereby giving people the idea that they are mentally ill when they are  really not  

Understanding Disorders: 

- Poverty largely increases the risk of mental disorders

- The US has by far the highest rates of diagnosed mental disorders - Most people who are mentally ill display symptoms by early adulthood

Anxiety Disorders: 

- Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): person is uncontrollably and  excessively anxious for no apparent reason. Physical symptoms include sweating, rapid heartbeat, trouble sleeping  

- Panic Disorder: person has panic attacks (never know when they will  strike, may cause the person to feel as though they cannot breathe,  and/or that they are dying)

- Phobias: intense fears of everyday objects, activities, or certain  situations  

- Social Anxiety disorder: being excessively worried about being  judged/watched by others

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): 

- Obsessions = thoughts, compulsions = behaviors  

- Person becomes obsessed with minor things such as washing their  hands, cleanliness in general, not stepping on sidewalk cracks  - Strongly genetic

- Note: All of the above are extremely debilitating and adversely affect  the person to the extent that they cannot live their life and function  normally

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): 

- Person may have haunting memories or nightmares, feel numb,  anxious, or be incapable of sleeping as a result of a traumatic  experience

- Only 5-10% of people who experience trauma later get PTSD because  of survivor resiliency, which is the ability to recover from stressful or  traumatic events  

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): 

- Person seems to have multiple personalities which may be completely  unrelated to one another

- It is questionable whether this disorder is legitimate, as it is not  diagnosed worldwide, and it is possible that therapists could use  guiding questions to “force” people into saying they have multiple  personalities

Personality Disorders: 

- Interfere with social functioning

- Usually includes anxiety, abnormal behavior, inappropriate or  impulsive behavior  

Anti-Social Personality disorder: 

- Person feels a lack of conscience and empathy for others (even in their own family)

- Do not feel fear or stress nearly as strongly as regular people - Smaller amygdala and less active frontal lobe  

- Not all people with this disorder are violent, but some are, because  they feel no remorse for their actions (socio/psychopaths)

- Highly genetic, but also depends on one’s environment

Eating Disorders: 

- Anorexia Nervosa: 

o When someone is obsessed with losing weight, feels fat even  though they are dramatically underweight  

o Mainly about having control over some aspect of their lives  o Girls are much more likely than boys (10:1) to have anorexia,  because US culture encourages women to be extremely thin  o Can be caused by: mothers who are overly focused on their own  or their daughter’s appearance/weight, family environments that  are very competitive and expect high achievement  

- Bulimia Nervosa: 

o Binge-eating followed by purging (throwing up or using laxatives) o People with bulimia often experience weight fluctuations, but  remain at normal or slightly above normal weight

o Often occurs when childhood obesity runs in the family  - Binge Eating: Person binge eats but does not purge afterwards, instead feels guilty or depressed  

Suicide: 

- People are actually more likely to commit suicide when they are  coming out of a depressive state because they actually have the  energy to follow through  

- Women are more likely to attempt suicide, and men are more likely to  actually succeed in killing themselves  

Understanding Anxiety Disorders: 

- Classical Conditioning: people who have learned associations (ie. Public speaking makes them anxious) can lead to generalization (being  nervous when talking in any large group.)

- Operant Conditioning: people with AD will automatically leave  situations that make them anxious because they have been  conditioned to feel better once they’ve left. However, this only  reinforces the anxiety when in a stressful situation

- Observational learning: If a parent or friend is anxious, you are more  likely to become anxious as well  

Evolutionary Perspective: 

- Fears that our ancestors had (the dark) have been passed down to us  because they helped us survive

- With some anxiety disorders, ancestral compulsive acts become  exaggerated (ex. Grooming in ancient times  anxious hair pulling)

Genes and the Brain: 

- A person’s temperament stems largely from their genes - Over-arousal of brain areas that are supposed to control impulses can  lead to or heighten anxiety  

- Traumatic events burn circuits into the amygdala, so that in the future  it will take less stimuli to trigger anxiety related to that event  

Mood Disorders: 

- Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): person must have at least 5 DSM  symptoms of the disorder that last for two weeks or longer in order to  be diagnosed  

- Bipolar Disorder: a combination of manic and depressive extremes o Manic: person feels overly excited, energetic, creative, risky,  does not sleep

o Depressed: opposite of mania, person feels lethargic, constantly  tired, uninterested in normal activities

o With depression and mania, the frontal lobe is more active when  the person feels positive emotions, and it shrinks during  

depressive episodes  

o Norepinephrine: a neurotransmitter that increases arousal and  boosts overall mood. Low levels of Norepinephrine in depressive  state, high levels in manic state

Social-Cognitive Perspective: 

- People’s expectations color how they view the world and what happens to them (ie. Depressed people are more likely to discount good things  that happen to them and have a pessimistic outlook on life)

- Rumination: staying overly focused on a problem and not being able to  let it go, can make people very anxious and/or depressed

- Explanatory Style: who/what people choose to blame for their failures.  Those who are more likely to blame themselves (“I suck at math and  didn’t study enough, which is why I did badly on the test”) and become depressed. Those who are able to put their failures in perspective (“I  studied a lot but that was a really hard test, other people probably  didn’t do that well on it either”) are less likely to become depressed.  

Schizophrenia and the Brain: 

- Positive symptoms: hallucinations, nonsensical speech, inappropriate  laughter, tears or anger

- Negative symptoms: monotone voice, lack of expression, stiff body  movement  

- Chronic schizophrenia: slow to develop, more negative symptoms,  usually untreatable

- Acute schizophrenia: occurs right after a serious trauma, more positive  symptoms, usually more treatable  

- People with schizophrenia have tons of extra dopamine receptors in  their brain, which leads to hallucinations  

- Also have low levels of activity in the frontal lobes, which are involved  in judgement and planning  

- Schizophrenia is highly genetic and will not appear in those who are  not related to someone with the disorder. With identical twins who  share placenta, if one has the disorder, the other is much more likely  (6/10 chance) to have it as well

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