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PENN STATE / Biobheavioral health / BB H 119 / What are the pathological traits?

What are the pathological traits?

What are the pathological traits?

Description

School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Biobheavioral health
Course: Behavior, Health, and Disease
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: smoking and alcohol
Cost: 50
Name: BBH 119 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
Description: study guide for upcoming exam 3
Uploaded: 12/02/2017
27 Pages 76 Views 6 Unlocks
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BBH 119 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE  


What is the pathological traits?



CHAPTER 8: ADDICTION & DRUG USE

 ADDICTION: a chronic, progressive disease of the  brain’s reward, motivation, memory, and related  circuitry.  

o Addiction is progressive without treatment.  WHAT ARE THE 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF ADDICTION?

 Craving

o Uncontrollable craving despite negative  

consequences.  

 Loss of pleasure associated with the activity o A compulsion to relieve the physical discomfort and emotional anguish experienced when abstaining.  Escalating loss of control We also discuss several other topics like What are the categories for the power of congress?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why are ethics always ambiguous?

o Addict begins to feel controlled by their addiction o Increased sensitivity to stressors, anxiety, and  emotional pain.


What are the characteristics of addiction?



 Denial

o Person does not acknowledge their addiction.  WHAT ARE THE 4 BEHAVIORAL ADDICTIONS?  BEHAVIORAL ADDICTIONS: a compulsion to engage in an activity rather than a compulsion to use a substance.   PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING (APA DEFINED)  o 2 million have a gambling addiction (1% of adults  in US)

o 6% of college students have a gambling problem o Pathological traits:

 Preoccupied with gambling  

 Needing to gamble with increasing amounts of  money

 Feeling irritable with attempting to reduce or  stop gambling

 Gamble to escape


What are the effects of chronic drug use?



 Lying to hide extent of problem

 Borrowing or stealing to finance habit.

 HYPERSEXUAL DISORDER (APA DEFINED)  o 3-6% of adults could meet criteria.

o Characteristics We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of personal power?

 Recurrent and intense sexual fantasies, urges  and behavior that consume excessive time

 Cannot control despite negative consequences  such as STI, unplanned pregnancy, broken  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of the constitution?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the ideology of the chicano movement?

relationships and financial problems.  

 COMPULSIVE SPENDING (APA DEFINED) o 1 in 20 adults, most are young with incomes below  $50K

o 8% of college students

o Pathological Traits

 Uncontrollable buying binges

 Senseless and impulsive purchases

 Feel depressed after shopping

 TECHNOLOGY ADDICTION (APA DEFINED) o Internet Use

 18% of regular internet users

 Interferes with academic success, work,  

relationships, hours of sleep or exercising  

 Use internet to alter mood; escape from  

depression or anxiety.

o Texting: Bad Habit vs. Addiction

 5 billion texts sent and received daily

 18-24 year olds send about 50 messages per  day

 Continue to text despite negative  

consequences

∙ Repetitive use injuries, traffic accidents. We also discuss several other topics like What is the commercial paper funding facility?

 DRUG:

o A chemical substance that alters the body  

physically or mentally for a non-nutritional purpose.  DRUG MISUSE

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o Inappropriate use of a legal drug; different purpose  or person.

 PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG

o Drug capable of altering feelings, mood,  

perceptions, or psychological functioning.  

 ILLCIT DRUG

o Drugs regulated by the US Drug Enforcement  Agency (DEA) as unlawful substances.  

INITIAL EFFECTS OF DRUG IN THE BRAIN

 Speed of access to brain; amount of first pass metabolism o Speed of access to brain= how fast you feel euphoric o Amount of first pass metabolism= how much drug  doesn’t reach the brain.  

 Rapid release of dopamine causes euphoria.

 Overstimulation of brain primes repetition of drug use.  BUT brain adapts to maintain normal function

 So when no drug is present users feel bad.  

EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DRUG USE

 Repeated drug use further alters the brain’s structure and  function.

 TOLERANCE:

o Reduced sensitivity to a drug

o Requires increased amounts of drug to achieve the  usual effect.

 DEPENDENCE: Need regular use of a substance to function. o PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE:

 Withdrawal symptoms occur when stop using a  drug.

o PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE:

 A mental attachment to a drug

 Belief that the drug is needed to relieve stress,  anxiety, or another mental discomfort.

HOW DRUGS LEAVE THE BODY

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 Factor’s affecting drug metabolism determine the extent and duration of a drug’s effect.

 Drugs are metabolized by  

o Digestive system

o Liver enzymes

o Some can be stored in body fat.  

 Drugs are excreted by  

o Kidneys via urine and bowels via feces

o Breath, sweat, and saliva

o Breastmilk

 Drug metabolism affected by  

o Body size  

o Ethnicity  

 Differences in types of enzymes

DRUGS HAVE DIFFERENT METABOLIC PROFILES

 A drug remains active in the body for a specific amount of  time based on

o DISTRIBUTION HALF-LIFE

 Time is takes for a drug to move from the  

bloodstream to body tissues

o ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE

 Time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from the  body  

o Interactions with other drugs:

 Based on mechanism of the drug

∙ Can increase effect of drug (addictive  

interactions)

∙ Can decrease the effect of the drug  

(antagonistic interactions)

 Based on metabolism

∙ Metabolism of one drug can alter the  

metabolism of other drugs

 TOXICITY

o the dose of which drug becomes poisonous to the  body; can cause temporary or permanent damage or  death.  

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COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS

Medications

 Over- the- counter drugs (OTC)

o Now more than 700 OTCs available that contain  ingredients previously available only by prescription.   Prescription Drugs

o 2 most common abused

 Stimulant such as Ritalin and Adderal

∙ 1 million Americans in 2014; abuse typically  

starts in 18-25 years old.  

 Opioids for pain relief (i.e. narcotics)  

∙ 4.3 million Americans in 2014 ( up from 1.8  

million in 2012).

∙ Originally derived from opium (a milky fluid  

found in the unripe seedpods or the opium  

poppy; ost ar now synthetic.  

∙ Morphine for surgical and severe pain

∙ Codeine for the milder pain and severe  

coughs

∙ Hydrocodone (Vicodin) and oxycodone  

(Percodan and Percocet).

 Heroin

o Most widely abused nonprescription opiate.

 In 2014, 435,000 Americans used in past year.

o Typically sold as a white or brown powder or as a sticky  black substance known as “black tar heroin”, “smack”,  “H”, or “junk”.

o Route of administration; injected or smoked.  

o Highly addictive

 Rapid access to brain, very intense “rush”

 ¼ of people who try heroin become dependent

o Very severe withdrawal symptoms

 Begin in only few hours

 Includes drug craving, restlessness, muscle and  bone pain, diarrhea, and vomiting.

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 Last from 1 week to several months.  

 Marijuana  

o Most commonly used illicit drug in the US

 22 million Americans used in last 30 days

o Illegal at Federal Level, decriminalized by 4 states and  D.C. in 2016

o Route of administration: smoked, ingested in food,  drunk as tea.

o Active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) o Short-term Effects:

 Cannabinoid receptors in brain ultimately trigger  dopamine release high

 Increased hear rate, dilated bronchi in lungs,  

blood vessels in eyes expand, dry mouth, hunger,  and sleepiness.

 Impaired coordination, confusion, reduced  

reaction time, decreased cognition and memory.  

 30% of college students report driving after using  marijuana (8% after drinking).  

o Level of addiction

 9% of all users become addicted.

 25-50% of daily users become addicted.  

o Long-term effects

 Can lead to addiction

 Increased risk of chronic cough, bronchitis.

 Increases risk of schizophrenia in vulnerable  

individuals

 May increase risk of anxiety and depression

 Impairs attention, memory, and learning.

 Smoke contains more cancer-causing chemicals  than tobacco.

 Increased risk of testicular cancer.  

STIMULANTS

 A class of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system,  causing the acceleration of mental and physical processes in the body.

 Class of drug includes

o Nicotine, Caffeine, Cocaine, Amphetamine,  

Methamphetamine.

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 Addictive effects of all include:

o Euphoria caused by increased release of dopamine. o Increased alertness and concentration.

o Increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration  that can improve physical appearance.  

o Decrease in appetite.

 Differences in addictive potential are due to. o How fast the drug affects dopamine

o How robust the effect on dopamine release it.

o How long the effect lasts.  

 CAFFEINE

o Most popular psychoactive drug in the world

o Route of administration: ingestion

o Addictive effects:

 Occur within 1 hour of consumption

 Can consume small amounts safely

 Side effects of excessive consumption

o Side effects of excessive consumption

 Dehydration, abnormal heart rate, rhythms,  

headaches, restlessness, irritability, anxiety and  insomnia.  

 Can double risk of miscarriage.

o Withdrawal symptoms

 Headache, anxiety, fatigue, drowsiness and  

depression

 Lasts 2-9 days.

 Cocaine

o Derived from South American coca leaves  

o “Coke” is white powder from; freebase cocaine is  purified coke;

o “Crack” is further purified freebase cocaine.

o Route of administration:

 Inhaled

 Injected

 Smoked

o Addictive effects

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 Confusion, paranoia, chest pain, abnormal heart  rhythm, abdominal pain and nausea, seizures,  

coma, and death.

 Problems associated with routes of administration  o Withdrawal symptoms

 Anxiety, drowsiness and depression

 No physical symptoms as seen with heroin.

 Amphetamines

o Chemically similar to adrenaline and noradrenaline o Route of administration:

 Oral

 Inhaled

 Injected

o Addictive effects:

 Increased alertness, decrease in appetite and  

sleep.

o Side effects:

 Heart attacks

o Withdrawal symptoms

 Excessive hunger, stomach pain, lack of  

coordination, shaking and potential for seizures.

 Panic attacks, increased paranoia and mood  

swings.

 Methamphetamines

o Chemically similar to amphetamine but more potent  and harmful

o “Crystal Meth” is clear, chunky, crystal form

o Route of administration:

 Smoked

 Inhaled

 Injected

o Side effects are does dependent:

 Small doses—similar to amphetamine

 Large doses—elevated body temperature,  

convulsions, cardiovascular collapse and death.

o Long-term effects:

 “meth mouth”, acne, open sores

 aggressiveness, memory loss, and hallucinations. 8

HALLUCINOGENS 

 Drugs that alter perception and cause auditory and visual  hallucinations.

 LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

o A powerful hallucinogen manufactured from lysergic  acid

 A substance found in a fungus that grows on rye  and other grains.

 PCP (phencyclidine)

o A dangerous synthetic hallucinogen that reduces and  distorts sensory output.

o Can unpredictably cause both euphoria and dysphoria.  Psilocybin (magic mushrooms)

o A hallucinogenic substance obtained from certain types of mushrooms.

o Can cause psychosis in some users.

CLUB DRUGS 

 MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) known as  ecstasy, E, X, XTC.  

 A synthetic drug that works as a stimulant and a  hallucinogen

 Increases serotonin levels and affects levels of dopamine   Physiological/ Mental Effects:

o Increases energy

o Suppresses appetite  

o Increases body temperature.  

 Side effects/ withdrawal symptoms

o Negative effects are similar to those amphetamines  and cocaine.

o Damage to serotonin- producing neurons.

DEPRESSANTS 

 Drugs that depress central nervous system activity  Alcohol

 Barbiturates:

o Causes sedation

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 Benzodiazepines:

o Previously used to treat anxiety and panic attacks. o Used to treat seizures.

 Effects:

o Calmness

o Muscle relaxation

o Slurred speech

o Loss of motor coordination

o Slows breathing

o Coma  

o Death

 Long-term use:

o Memory loss

o Irritability

o Disturbing dreams

 Withdrawal symptoms

o Fever

o Delirium

o Seizures

o Cardiovascular collapse

PREVENTING DRUG ABUSE 

 Attempt to reduce contributing factors and promote  protective factors.

 Public Awareness

o Millions of dollars spent to discourage drug use

o Are they effective?

 NIDA reports rates of abuse go down when  

perceptions of harm go up.

 Drug testing

o Used by schools, employers, athletic organizations, law  enforcement, and military.

 Federal policies

o Increase monitoring of prescription drugs

o Increased availability of drug treatment medications  and programs.  

TREATMENT FOR DRUG PROBLEMS 

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 Historically, seen as a moral problem not a public  health problem; arrest/punishment not treatment  NOW, balance punishment and recovery

o More people enter treatment programs without the  legal system  

 Problem of cost of treatment

o Lack of insurance

 Community-based and support groups

o 12 Step programs

 Addiction recovery self-help programs

 Clinical options

o Body clears itself of drug, undergoes withdrawal with  medical and social/psychological support

o Help individuals disengage from drug seeking with  behavioral interventions

 Outpatient programs and residential programs

 Relapse is the most difficult problem to address.  

CHAPTER 9: ALCOHOL & TOBACCO USE &  ABUSE

 The legal drinking age is 21 years old.  

 BINGE DRINKING  

o It is a pattern of drinking resulting in blood alcohol  concentration (BAC) of 0.08 or above.  

o Having 5 or more drinks (for men) on occasion (w/in 2  hours)

o 4 or more drinks (for women) on occasion (w/in 2  hours)

o At least 1 time in the last 30 days

o 44% are 12 years old or older

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o Caucasians: 24%

o Mixed Race: 21%

o African Americans: 22%

o Hispanics: 25%

o Native Americans: 28%

o Asian Americans: 15%

o 20% are older than 26 years old and have a BS or BA o 24% have no degree

o Binge drinking is most common in 18-24 year olds   But college bound high school seniors report less  binge drinking than non-college bound students.  

 Once at college, students report more binge  

drinking counterparts that go directly into the  

workforce.

o Binge drinking most common in athletes, sports fans,  fraternity and sorority members and extremely social  students.

o Binge drinking is least common in women, minorities,  religious individuals, married and older students.  

 HEAVY DRINKING

o Having 5 or more drinks on occasion (w/in 2 hours for  men)

o Having 4 or more drinks on occasion (w/in 2 hours for  women)

o At least 5 times in last 30 days

o 12% are 12 years old or older

o 5% are older than 26 years old and have a BS or BA o 6% are older than 26 years old and have no degree.

 ALCOHOL

o A chemical substance that is toxic to the body.

 ETHYL ALCOHOL (ETHANOL)

o Intoxicating ingredient in beer, wine, and distilled liquor o Fermentation is a process that generates ethanol.  Natural sugars are converted into alcohol and  

carbon dioxide by yeast.

o Distillation increases the concentration of ethanol 12

 Heating and cooling fermented liquid to create  hard liquor

 Proof value

∙ Measurement of alcoholic strength that is 2X  

the alcohol percentage (151 proof = 75.5%  

alcohol)

ALCOHOL ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM

 Alcohol is absorbed into bloodstream.

 Alcohol is metabolized into acetaldehyde.

 Some alcohol is metabolized in the stomach by  dehydrogenase which is an alcohol enzyme.

 Some alcohol is absorbed through the stomach. o Food in the stomach slows the absorption of alcohol.  Most alcohol is absorbed in the small intestine.   Most alcohol is metabolized in the liver. (80% making this  the primary spot for metabolizing)

o It can only metabolize only a small amount of alcohol at a time, roughly one standard drink at a time.  

 Alcohol that is not metabolized will return to the blood and  circulate throughout the body, including the brain.  BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BAC)

 This is the grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood.  Factors affecting BAC

o How much and how quickly you drink

o What you drink

 Water in beer and wine buffer alcohol versus

 Mixer used can make a difference

∙ Water and fruit juice

∙ Carbon dioxide in soda (champagne and  

beer)

 Temperature of drink  

∙ Warm drinks  

o Your sex

 Women have a higher BAC than men

o Your age

 As you age, you become more sensitive to alcohol o Your weight

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 The less you weight, the less blood and water you  have in your body to dilute alcohol.

o Your physical condition

 People who are fatigued or stressed out tend to  more affected by moderate amounts of alcohol.  

o Your food intake

 Eating a meal before drinking, especially one high  in protein and fat, helps slow the absorption of  

alcohol into the bloodstream.  

o Medications

 Aspirin and other medications, including many  

sold over the counter, prevent ADH enzyme from  breaking down alcohol.  

 ALCOHOL INTOXICATION

o The state of physical and/or mental impairment brought on by excessive alcohol consumption (in legal terms, a  BAC of 0.08% or greater.).

SHORT- TERM SYMPTOMS OF INTOXICATION

 Dehydration

 Gastrointestinal problems

 Sleep disturbances

 Alterations in the metabolic state of the liver and other  organs.

 The most feared being… a hangover

 Which of the following statements about the  short-term effects of alcohol are TRUE?

o Alcohol causes dehydration because it is a diuretic. o 50 proof rum will irritate the lining of the stomach  more than 150 proof rum.

o Drinking alcohol before bed increases the length of  time you sleep.

o Alcohol consumption increases blood sugar.

BAC LEVELS

 Mild Impairment (0.0-0.5%)

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o Feelings of relaxation and slight exhilaration

o Very mild impairments in speech, memory, attention,  and coordination.

o Sleepiness in some people

 Increased Impairment (0.06-0.15%)

o Relaxation gives way to increasing intoxication

o Decrease in fine-motor skills

o Increased aggression in some people

o Significant impairments to driving skills

o Increasing speech, memory, attention, coordination and balance impairment.

o Moderate memory impairments

o Increased risk of injury to self and others.  

 Severe Impairment (0.16-0.30%)

o Significant impairment of memory, speech,  

coordination, attention, and balance

o Severely impaired decision making and judgment o Blackouts

o Vomiting

o Loss of consciousness

 Life Threatening (0.31- 0.45%)

o Danger of death due to suppression of vital functions o Coma  

o Alcohol poisoning

HANGOVER

 Alcohol withdrawal symptoms caused by an earlier bout of  heavy drinking.  

 Symptoms include:

o Headache

o Nausea

o Vomiting  

o Diarrhea

o Dizziness

o Depression

o Vertigo

o Dry mouth

o Redness of eyes

o Muscle aches

o Irrability  

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 Begins within several hours after drinking has stopped  Can last up to 24 hours.  

 True or false: BAC begins to decrease as soon as a  person “passes out” while drinking.  

 Which of the following statements about the  short-term effects of alcohol are TRUE?

o Drinking alcohol increases risk of cancer because  it’s metabolite, acetyldehyde damages DNA. 

o Alcohol decreases triglycerides in the blood. o Alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is progressive  inflammation of the liver.

o Fetal alcohol syndrome associated with excessive  drinking during pregnancy causes only physical  abnormalities.

THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON THE BRAIN

 Alcohol can cause severe and possibly lasting damage to the brain in people under age 21.

 It can negatively affect the two brain areas involved in  learning and behavior.  

 Reduces reason and caution  

 Gives you a slow reaction time

ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

 Nausea

 Sweating

 Shakiness

 Tremors

 Seizures

 Anxiety

o All experienced after stopping drinking.

RISK FACTORS FOR ALCOHOLISM

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 Genetic

 Physiological  

 Psychological  

 Social factors

 Family  

o Risk is higher for people who have a parent who abused alcohol.

 Low self-esteem

 Peer pressure

 Poverty

 Victim of physical or sexual abuse

 A need for approval

 Under chronic stress

 Age

o People who begin drinking as teenagers are more likely  to develop problems.

 Gender

o Statistics show that men are much more likely to  become dependent on alcohol than are women.  

ALCOHOLISM TREATMENT

 Medications (3 are FDA approved)

o Antabuse

o Naltrexone

o Acamprosate

o They offset changes in the brain caused by alcoholism  and reduce craving for alcohol

o They don’t make us sick if we drink

WHAT IS THE RELAPSE RATE IN PEOPLE TRYING TO STOP  DRINKING?

 90% of drinkers when they first try to quit relapse.  TOBACCO  

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 Identify whether the following statements are true or false:  

o Smoking is the world’s most preventable cause of  death.

o Smoking decreases life expectancy by 10 years. o The Surgeon General’s report on Smoking & Health  (1964) had no effect on smoking rate in the U.S. o There is a significant genetic contribution to  smoking. (TRUE)

o Only about 50% of adult regular smokers began  smoking before the age of 19. (FALSE)

WHY DO TOBACCO COMPANIES PUT IN ADDITIVES?

 To hide the taste

 Ammonia boosts the delivery of nicotine into the lungs  and bloodstreams.  

WHAT IS IN A CIGARETTE?

 Tobacco

 –50% shredded leaf; 30% reconstituted tobacco; 20%  expanded tobacco  

 Nearly 600 additives  

 Nicotine  

o an alkaloid derived from tobacco plant

o When a cigarette is smoked it releases:

 more than 60 carcinogenic chemicals

 arsenic, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, benzene  carbon monoxide inhibits delivery of oxygen to body  Tar forms when tobacco is burned and its chemical  particles condense.

CHAPTER 11: SEXUALITY, CONTRACEPTION, &  REPRODUCTIVE CHOICES

 SEXUALITY

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o The biological, physical, emotional, and psychosocial  aspects of sexual attraction and expression.

o Process by which people experience and express  themselves as sexual beings.

o Determined by

 Anatomy and physiology

 The current culture

 Relationships with others and developmental  

experiences throughout the life cycle.

o Includes:

 The perception of being male or female

 Private thoughts and fantasies

 Behavior

o Brings pleasure to oneself and one’s partner

FEMALE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

 The regular natural change that occurs in the female  reproductive system that makes pregnancy possible. o Regulated by hormonal changes

o Average duration is 28 days (range of 21-35 days)  MENARCHE

o The first onset of menstruation; US aver is 12 (range 8- 15)

 MENOPAUSE

o The time when a woman stops having menstrual cycles  usually begins in early 50s.  

 FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE

o A hormone released by the pituitary gland to get egg  ready.

 ESTROGEN

o As the egg matures, this hormone is released into the  bloodstream.  

o When it reaches the uterus, the menstrual phase ends  and starts proliferative phase.  

o Causes the thickening of uterine lining to prepare for  fertlilized egg.

 LUTENIZING HORMONE

o Comes from the pituitary gland

o Triggers ovulation or the release of the mature egg).  19

 PROGESTERONE

o After ovulation, it is released in preparation for the  fertilized egg.  

HOW CONCEPTION WORKS

 There is a 12-24 hour window for fertilization after the  released egg moves through fallopian tube towards the  uterus.  

 Fertilization occurs IF there are sufficient sperm present. o Fertilized egg produces human chorionic gonadotropin  (hCG), which is what pregnancy tests measure.

o 3-4 days for fertilized egg to reach uterus and implant  into uterine wall.  

 Fertlization occurs most likely during the secretory phase.  (days 15-28)

PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (PMS)

 Physical and emotional symptoms that occur seven to  fourteen days before menstrual phase.

 85% of women experience mild symptoms

 15% of women have symptoms severe enough to disrupt  their daily lives.  

 Reduce symptoms by:

o Avoid smoking, alcohol, caffeine, salt, and sugary food. o Eat balanced diet, exercise, get sufficient sleep.

PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER (PMDD)

 Severe, debilitating psychological symptoms experienced  just prior to menstruation.  

AMENORRHEA

 Having no periods for at least 3 consecutive months.   Normal during pregnancy and breastfeeding

 Abnormal if due to excessive weight loss or exercise, stress,  or hormonal imbalance.  

 Significant increase in risk of low bone density; estrogen  helps build bones.  

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THE SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE

 EXCITEMENT (desire/arousal):

o Erotic mental or physical stimulation that leads to  arousal.

o Nipple erection in almost all females and 60% of males. o “sex flush’ due to blood vessel engorgement.

o Penile erection, labia and clitoris swell vaginal walls  lubricate.

 PLATEAU

o Intense excitement building to orgasm.  

o Males secret pre-ejaculatory fluid; may contains some  sperm.

 Put on condom before this.

 ORGASM

o Peak or climax of sexual response

o Females

 Can have multiple with minimal recovery time

o Males

 Single orgasm with ejaculation

 Require longer recovery time

 Resolution is return to normal.

 ABSTINENCE

o Avoidance of sexual intercourse by active choice of  circumstance such as for religious morals or to avoid  pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections.

o Celibacy is long-term abstinence.

SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

 Sexual union involving genital penetration.

 VAGINAL INTERCOURSE

o Insertion of the penis into the vagina  

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o Risk of pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections.  ANAL INTERCOURSE

o Insertion of penis into the anus and rectum

o 40% of men and 35% of women aged 25-44 have had  anal sex with partner of opposite sex.

 While 24% of college students have

o No risk of pregnancy

o Risk of injury  

o Increased risk of sexually transmitted infections  Condoms break more frequently than during  

vaginal intercourse.

ORAL SEX

o Stimulation of genitals by tongue or mouth

 Fellatio is oral stimulation of the penis

 Cunnilingus is oral stimulation of the vulva,  

especially the clitoris.

 66% of college students have reported having oral sex

o Used as foreplay, to replace intercourse or avoided o No risk of pregnancy

o Risk of sexually transmitted infections

NON-INTERCOURSE SEXUAL ACTIVITY

 MASTURBATION

o Manipulation of one’s own genitals for sexual pleasure o College students-

 92% of males and 68% of females

o With or without:

 Sexual fantasies- sexual thoughts, daydreams and  imagined scenarios

 Pornography

∙ 43% of college males view 1-2 times per  

week

o No risk of pregnancy or STIs

 OUTERCOURSE

o Sexual intimacy without penetration of the vagina or  anus.

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o Includes kissing/making out, manual stimulation of the  genitals, and mutual masturbation.  

o No risk of pregnancy  

o Minimized risk of sexually transmitted infections  SEXTING

o Sending sexually explicit photos, videos, and messages  electronically.  

o Risks of sexting

 Make sure all parties are consenting adults

 Sexting under the influence can have unintended  consequences

 Don’t succumb to pressure from peers or a partner  Remember that a sext is forever

o No risk of pregnancy or STi

 CONCEPTION

o Fertilization of a female egg with male sperm

 CONTRACEPTION

o Any method used to prevent pregnancy.

 ABORTION:  

o A medical or surgical procedure used to terminate a  pregnancy.  

 Which statements about safe sex options are  TRUE?

o Nearly 50% of college students use condoms during vaginal intercourse.

o Condoms are the most effective protection against  transmission of sexually transmitted infections  (STIs). 

o Birth control pills are more effective for  

contraception than withdrawal & fertility awareness. o Spermicides provide protection against STIs.

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 Which of the following statements about different  sexual activities are TRUE?

o Condoms break more frequently during vaginal  intercourse than during anal intercourse.

o Some people engage in oral sex rather than  intercourse.

o Sexual fantasies can reflect personal desires a  person is not comfortable acting out in real life. o More female college students masturbate than do  male college students.

o Sending sexually explicit text, photos, or videos  electronically is known as sexting. 

 Which of the following statements about abortion  are TRUE?

o Individual states within the U.S. can make abortion  illegal.

o Nearly all unintended pregnancies are terminated  by abortion.

o One of the arguments about abortion rights is the  issue of when life begins. 

o Abortion exposes girls & women to physical &  psychological harm. ( more of psychological  issue, physical complications are not an issue  for vast majority of women)

o If safe abortions were not legal, then unsafe &  unregulated abortions would still be performed. 

SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER IDENTITY

 SEXUAL ORIENTATION

o Romantic and physical attraction toward others. 24

o Experts believe that our natural tendency to be  attracted to men and women or both is shaped by a  confluence of biological, environmental, and cognitive  factors, with sexual orientation being neither a  

conscious choice nor something that can be readily  changed.  

o Alfred Kinsey, the sex researcher, theorized that sexual  orientation could be delineated on a continuum, divided into seven parts.  

 At one end are heterosexuals, people solely  

attracted to the opposite gender.  

 On the other end are homosexuals.

 In the middle are bisexuals.

 HETEROSEXUAL

o To be sexually attracted to individuals of the opposite  sex.

o It is the only sexual orientation that receives full social  and legal legitimacy in most countries.

 HOMOSEXUAL

o To be sexually attracted to individuals of the same sex.  o Used to be considered a mental illness, and still is in  some parts of the world.  

 BISEXUAL

o To be sexually attracted to both individuals of the same  sex and the opposite sex.  

 HOMONEGATIVITY

o Negative attitudes towards the idea and individuals who are homosexual.  

 HOMOPHOBIA

o The irrational fear, aversion to, or discrimination  against individuals who identify as homosexual or  homosexuality in general.  

 GENDER IDENTITY

o One’s innermost concept of self as male, female, a  blend of both, or neither.

 GENDER EXPRESSION

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o The appearance of a person’s gender identity (clothing,  voice, hair, etc.), that may or may not conform to their  biological sex.  

 TRANSGENDER

o A person whose gender identity or gender expression  does not represent their biological sex.  

o They choose to express their own sense of gender  identity rather than the one that matches their  

biological sex, they are considered to be going through  gender transition.  

 Transition is the process that can include the use  of new names and pronouns, dressing differently,  and/or asking to be socially recognized and  

accepted as their chosen gender.  

 TRANSSEXUAL

o A person who has permanently changed or its  

transitioning to the opposite gender through clinical  interventions such as hormone therapy and surgery.  

EFFECTS OF SMOKING

 SHORT-TERM

o Increased heart rate

o Increased blood pressure

o Shortness of breath

o Reduction in stamina

o Coughing

o Heightened alertness

o Decrease in skin temperature

o Increased blood glucose

o Dulled sense of smell and taste

o Bad breath

o Smelling like smoke

o Health risks to developing fetus

 LONG-TERM

o Increased risk of cancer

o Increased risk of cardiovascular disease

o Reduced lung function

o Periodontal disease

o Risk of gastroesophageal reflux

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o Increased risk of peptic ulcers

o Reduced liver function

o Increased risk of type two diabetes

o Erectile dysfunction

o Decreased fertility

o Loss of bone density

o Vision impairment  

o Premature aging and wrinkling of skin

o Stained teeth

o Nicotine addiction

SECONDHAND SMOKE

 Contains higher concentrations of some chemicals than in  smoke inhaled by smoker.

 Contains more than 250 toxic or carcinogenic chemicals  Sources of secondhand smoke:

o Sidestream smoke:  

 Smoke emanating from the burning end of a  

cigarette

o Mainstream smoke:

 Smoke exhaled by smoker

 Health effects

o Irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs

o Coughing, production of excessive phlegm, lung cancer o Premature death and disease

o In children, increased incidence of  

 Respiratory illness including asthma

 Ear infections

 Sudden infant death syndrome

WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

 Difficulty concentrating  

 Negative mood

 Urge to smoke

 Smokers are likely to relapse early in the quitting process  Symptoms peak within one or two weeks after quitting.

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