BBH 119 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 8: ADDICTION & DRUG USE
ADDICTION: a chronic, progressive disease of the brain’s reward, motivation, memory, and related circuitry.
o Addiction is progressive without treatment. WHAT ARE THE 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF ADDICTION?
o Uncontrollable craving despite negative
Loss of pleasure associated with the activity o A compulsion to relieve the physical discomfort and emotional anguish experienced when abstaining. Escalating loss of control We also discuss several other topics like What are the categories for the power of congress?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why are ethics always ambiguous?
o Addict begins to feel controlled by their addiction o Increased sensitivity to stressors, anxiety, and emotional pain.
o Person does not acknowledge their addiction. WHAT ARE THE 4 BEHAVIORAL ADDICTIONS? BEHAVIORAL ADDICTIONS: a compulsion to engage in an activity rather than a compulsion to use a substance. PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING (APA DEFINED) o 2 million have a gambling addiction (1% of adults in US)
o 6% of college students have a gambling problem o Pathological traits:
Preoccupied with gambling
Needing to gamble with increasing amounts of money
Feeling irritable with attempting to reduce or stop gambling
Gamble to escape
Lying to hide extent of problem
Borrowing or stealing to finance habit.
HYPERSEXUAL DISORDER (APA DEFINED) o 3-6% of adults could meet criteria.
o Characteristics We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of personal power?
Recurrent and intense sexual fantasies, urges and behavior that consume excessive time
Cannot control despite negative consequences such as STI, unplanned pregnancy, broken Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of the constitution?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the ideology of the chicano movement?
relationships and financial problems.
COMPULSIVE SPENDING (APA DEFINED) o 1 in 20 adults, most are young with incomes below $50K
o 8% of college students
o Pathological Traits
Uncontrollable buying binges
Senseless and impulsive purchases
Feel depressed after shopping
TECHNOLOGY ADDICTION (APA DEFINED) o Internet Use
18% of regular internet users
Interferes with academic success, work,
relationships, hours of sleep or exercising
Use internet to alter mood; escape from
depression or anxiety.
o Texting: Bad Habit vs. Addiction
5 billion texts sent and received daily
18-24 year olds send about 50 messages per day
Continue to text despite negative
∙ Repetitive use injuries, traffic accidents. We also discuss several other topics like What is the commercial paper funding facility?
o A chemical substance that alters the body
physically or mentally for a non-nutritional purpose. DRUG MISUSE
o Inappropriate use of a legal drug; different purpose or person.
o Drug capable of altering feelings, mood,
perceptions, or psychological functioning.
o Drugs regulated by the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as unlawful substances.
INITIAL EFFECTS OF DRUG IN THE BRAIN
Speed of access to brain; amount of first pass metabolism o Speed of access to brain= how fast you feel euphoric o Amount of first pass metabolism= how much drug doesn’t reach the brain.
Rapid release of dopamine causes euphoria.
Overstimulation of brain primes repetition of drug use. BUT brain adapts to maintain normal function
So when no drug is present users feel bad.
EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DRUG USE
Repeated drug use further alters the brain’s structure and function.
o Reduced sensitivity to a drug
o Requires increased amounts of drug to achieve the usual effect.
DEPENDENCE: Need regular use of a substance to function. o PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE:
Withdrawal symptoms occur when stop using a drug.
o PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE:
A mental attachment to a drug
Belief that the drug is needed to relieve stress, anxiety, or another mental discomfort.
HOW DRUGS LEAVE THE BODY
Factor’s affecting drug metabolism determine the extent and duration of a drug’s effect.
Drugs are metabolized by
o Digestive system
o Liver enzymes
o Some can be stored in body fat.
Drugs are excreted by
o Kidneys via urine and bowels via feces
o Breath, sweat, and saliva
Drug metabolism affected by
o Body size
Differences in types of enzymes
DRUGS HAVE DIFFERENT METABOLIC PROFILES
A drug remains active in the body for a specific amount of time based on
o DISTRIBUTION HALF-LIFE
Time is takes for a drug to move from the
bloodstream to body tissues
o ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE
Time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from the body
o Interactions with other drugs:
Based on mechanism of the drug
∙ Can increase effect of drug (addictive
∙ Can decrease the effect of the drug
Based on metabolism
∙ Metabolism of one drug can alter the
metabolism of other drugs
o the dose of which drug becomes poisonous to the body; can cause temporary or permanent damage or death.
COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS
Over- the- counter drugs (OTC)
o Now more than 700 OTCs available that contain ingredients previously available only by prescription. Prescription Drugs
o 2 most common abused
Stimulant such as Ritalin and Adderal
∙ 1 million Americans in 2014; abuse typically
starts in 18-25 years old.
Opioids for pain relief (i.e. narcotics)
∙ 4.3 million Americans in 2014 ( up from 1.8
million in 2012).
∙ Originally derived from opium (a milky fluid
found in the unripe seedpods or the opium
poppy; ost ar now synthetic.
∙ Morphine for surgical and severe pain
∙ Codeine for the milder pain and severe
∙ Hydrocodone (Vicodin) and oxycodone
(Percodan and Percocet).
o Most widely abused nonprescription opiate.
In 2014, 435,000 Americans used in past year.
o Typically sold as a white or brown powder or as a sticky black substance known as “black tar heroin”, “smack”, “H”, or “junk”.
o Route of administration; injected or smoked.
o Highly addictive
Rapid access to brain, very intense “rush”
¼ of people who try heroin become dependent
o Very severe withdrawal symptoms
Begin in only few hours
Includes drug craving, restlessness, muscle and bone pain, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Last from 1 week to several months.
o Most commonly used illicit drug in the US
22 million Americans used in last 30 days
o Illegal at Federal Level, decriminalized by 4 states and D.C. in 2016
o Route of administration: smoked, ingested in food, drunk as tea.
o Active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) o Short-term Effects:
Cannabinoid receptors in brain ultimately trigger dopamine release high
Increased hear rate, dilated bronchi in lungs,
blood vessels in eyes expand, dry mouth, hunger, and sleepiness.
Impaired coordination, confusion, reduced
reaction time, decreased cognition and memory.
30% of college students report driving after using marijuana (8% after drinking).
o Level of addiction
9% of all users become addicted.
25-50% of daily users become addicted.
o Long-term effects
Can lead to addiction
Increased risk of chronic cough, bronchitis.
Increases risk of schizophrenia in vulnerable
May increase risk of anxiety and depression
Impairs attention, memory, and learning.
Smoke contains more cancer-causing chemicals than tobacco.
Increased risk of testicular cancer.
A class of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system, causing the acceleration of mental and physical processes in the body.
Class of drug includes
o Nicotine, Caffeine, Cocaine, Amphetamine,
Addictive effects of all include:
o Euphoria caused by increased release of dopamine. o Increased alertness and concentration.
o Increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration that can improve physical appearance.
o Decrease in appetite.
Differences in addictive potential are due to. o How fast the drug affects dopamine
o How robust the effect on dopamine release it.
o How long the effect lasts.
o Most popular psychoactive drug in the world
o Route of administration: ingestion
o Addictive effects:
Occur within 1 hour of consumption
Can consume small amounts safely
Side effects of excessive consumption
o Side effects of excessive consumption
Dehydration, abnormal heart rate, rhythms,
headaches, restlessness, irritability, anxiety and insomnia.
Can double risk of miscarriage.
o Withdrawal symptoms
Headache, anxiety, fatigue, drowsiness and
Lasts 2-9 days.
o Derived from South American coca leaves
o “Coke” is white powder from; freebase cocaine is purified coke;
o “Crack” is further purified freebase cocaine.
o Route of administration:
o Addictive effects
Confusion, paranoia, chest pain, abnormal heart rhythm, abdominal pain and nausea, seizures,
coma, and death.
Problems associated with routes of administration o Withdrawal symptoms
Anxiety, drowsiness and depression
No physical symptoms as seen with heroin.
o Chemically similar to adrenaline and noradrenaline o Route of administration:
o Addictive effects:
Increased alertness, decrease in appetite and
o Side effects:
o Withdrawal symptoms
Excessive hunger, stomach pain, lack of
coordination, shaking and potential for seizures.
Panic attacks, increased paranoia and mood
o Chemically similar to amphetamine but more potent and harmful
o “Crystal Meth” is clear, chunky, crystal form
o Route of administration:
o Side effects are does dependent:
Small doses—similar to amphetamine
Large doses—elevated body temperature,
convulsions, cardiovascular collapse and death.
o Long-term effects:
“meth mouth”, acne, open sores
aggressiveness, memory loss, and hallucinations. 8
Drugs that alter perception and cause auditory and visual hallucinations.
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
o A powerful hallucinogen manufactured from lysergic acid
A substance found in a fungus that grows on rye and other grains.
o A dangerous synthetic hallucinogen that reduces and distorts sensory output.
o Can unpredictably cause both euphoria and dysphoria. Psilocybin (magic mushrooms)
o A hallucinogenic substance obtained from certain types of mushrooms.
o Can cause psychosis in some users.
MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) known as ecstasy, E, X, XTC.
A synthetic drug that works as a stimulant and a hallucinogen
Increases serotonin levels and affects levels of dopamine Physiological/ Mental Effects:
o Increases energy
o Suppresses appetite
o Increases body temperature.
Side effects/ withdrawal symptoms
o Negative effects are similar to those amphetamines and cocaine.
o Damage to serotonin- producing neurons.
Drugs that depress central nervous system activity Alcohol
o Causes sedation
o Previously used to treat anxiety and panic attacks. o Used to treat seizures.
o Muscle relaxation
o Slurred speech
o Loss of motor coordination
o Slows breathing
o Memory loss
o Disturbing dreams
o Cardiovascular collapse
PREVENTING DRUG ABUSE
Attempt to reduce contributing factors and promote protective factors.
o Millions of dollars spent to discourage drug use
o Are they effective?
NIDA reports rates of abuse go down when
perceptions of harm go up.
o Used by schools, employers, athletic organizations, law enforcement, and military.
o Increase monitoring of prescription drugs
o Increased availability of drug treatment medications and programs.
TREATMENT FOR DRUG PROBLEMS
Historically, seen as a moral problem not a public health problem; arrest/punishment not treatment NOW, balance punishment and recovery
o More people enter treatment programs without the legal system
Problem of cost of treatment
o Lack of insurance
Community-based and support groups
o 12 Step programs
Addiction recovery self-help programs
o Body clears itself of drug, undergoes withdrawal with medical and social/psychological support
o Help individuals disengage from drug seeking with behavioral interventions
Outpatient programs and residential programs
Relapse is the most difficult problem to address.
CHAPTER 9: ALCOHOL & TOBACCO USE & ABUSE
The legal drinking age is 21 years old.
o It is a pattern of drinking resulting in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08 or above.
o Having 5 or more drinks (for men) on occasion (w/in 2 hours)
o 4 or more drinks (for women) on occasion (w/in 2 hours)
o At least 1 time in the last 30 days
o 44% are 12 years old or older
o Caucasians: 24%
o Mixed Race: 21%
o African Americans: 22%
o Hispanics: 25%
o Native Americans: 28%
o Asian Americans: 15%
o 20% are older than 26 years old and have a BS or BA o 24% have no degree
o Binge drinking is most common in 18-24 year olds But college bound high school seniors report less binge drinking than non-college bound students.
Once at college, students report more binge
drinking counterparts that go directly into the
o Binge drinking most common in athletes, sports fans, fraternity and sorority members and extremely social students.
o Binge drinking is least common in women, minorities, religious individuals, married and older students.
o Having 5 or more drinks on occasion (w/in 2 hours for men)
o Having 4 or more drinks on occasion (w/in 2 hours for women)
o At least 5 times in last 30 days
o 12% are 12 years old or older
o 5% are older than 26 years old and have a BS or BA o 6% are older than 26 years old and have no degree.
o A chemical substance that is toxic to the body.
ETHYL ALCOHOL (ETHANOL)
o Intoxicating ingredient in beer, wine, and distilled liquor o Fermentation is a process that generates ethanol. Natural sugars are converted into alcohol and
carbon dioxide by yeast.
o Distillation increases the concentration of ethanol 12
Heating and cooling fermented liquid to create hard liquor
∙ Measurement of alcoholic strength that is 2X
the alcohol percentage (151 proof = 75.5%
ALCOHOL ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM
Alcohol is absorbed into bloodstream.
Alcohol is metabolized into acetaldehyde.
Some alcohol is metabolized in the stomach by dehydrogenase which is an alcohol enzyme.
Some alcohol is absorbed through the stomach. o Food in the stomach slows the absorption of alcohol. Most alcohol is absorbed in the small intestine. Most alcohol is metabolized in the liver. (80% making this the primary spot for metabolizing)
o It can only metabolize only a small amount of alcohol at a time, roughly one standard drink at a time.
Alcohol that is not metabolized will return to the blood and circulate throughout the body, including the brain. BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BAC)
This is the grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood. Factors affecting BAC
o How much and how quickly you drink
o What you drink
Water in beer and wine buffer alcohol versus
Mixer used can make a difference
∙ Water and fruit juice
∙ Carbon dioxide in soda (champagne and
Temperature of drink
∙ Warm drinks
o Your sex
Women have a higher BAC than men
o Your age
As you age, you become more sensitive to alcohol o Your weight
The less you weight, the less blood and water you have in your body to dilute alcohol.
o Your physical condition
People who are fatigued or stressed out tend to more affected by moderate amounts of alcohol.
o Your food intake
Eating a meal before drinking, especially one high in protein and fat, helps slow the absorption of
alcohol into the bloodstream.
Aspirin and other medications, including many
sold over the counter, prevent ADH enzyme from breaking down alcohol.
o The state of physical and/or mental impairment brought on by excessive alcohol consumption (in legal terms, a BAC of 0.08% or greater.).
SHORT- TERM SYMPTOMS OF INTOXICATION
Alterations in the metabolic state of the liver and other organs.
The most feared being… a hangover
Which of the following statements about the short-term effects of alcohol are TRUE?
o Alcohol causes dehydration because it is a diuretic. o 50 proof rum will irritate the lining of the stomach more than 150 proof rum.
o Drinking alcohol before bed increases the length of time you sleep.
o Alcohol consumption increases blood sugar.
Mild Impairment (0.0-0.5%)
o Feelings of relaxation and slight exhilaration
o Very mild impairments in speech, memory, attention, and coordination.
o Sleepiness in some people
Increased Impairment (0.06-0.15%)
o Relaxation gives way to increasing intoxication
o Decrease in fine-motor skills
o Increased aggression in some people
o Significant impairments to driving skills
o Increasing speech, memory, attention, coordination and balance impairment.
o Moderate memory impairments
o Increased risk of injury to self and others.
Severe Impairment (0.16-0.30%)
o Significant impairment of memory, speech,
coordination, attention, and balance
o Severely impaired decision making and judgment o Blackouts
o Loss of consciousness
Life Threatening (0.31- 0.45%)
o Danger of death due to suppression of vital functions o Coma
o Alcohol poisoning
Alcohol withdrawal symptoms caused by an earlier bout of heavy drinking.
o Dry mouth
o Redness of eyes
o Muscle aches
Begins within several hours after drinking has stopped Can last up to 24 hours.
True or false: BAC begins to decrease as soon as a person “passes out” while drinking.
Which of the following statements about the short-term effects of alcohol are TRUE?
o Drinking alcohol increases risk of cancer because it’s metabolite, acetyldehyde damages DNA.
o Alcohol decreases triglycerides in the blood. o Alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is progressive inflammation of the liver.
o Fetal alcohol syndrome associated with excessive drinking during pregnancy causes only physical abnormalities.
THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON THE BRAIN
Alcohol can cause severe and possibly lasting damage to the brain in people under age 21.
It can negatively affect the two brain areas involved in learning and behavior.
Reduces reason and caution
Gives you a slow reaction time
ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS
o All experienced after stopping drinking.
RISK FACTORS FOR ALCOHOLISM
o Risk is higher for people who have a parent who abused alcohol.
Victim of physical or sexual abuse
A need for approval
Under chronic stress
o People who begin drinking as teenagers are more likely to develop problems.
o Statistics show that men are much more likely to become dependent on alcohol than are women.
Medications (3 are FDA approved)
o They offset changes in the brain caused by alcoholism and reduce craving for alcohol
o They don’t make us sick if we drink
WHAT IS THE RELAPSE RATE IN PEOPLE TRYING TO STOP DRINKING?
90% of drinkers when they first try to quit relapse. TOBACCO
Identify whether the following statements are true or false:
o Smoking is the world’s most preventable cause of death.
o Smoking decreases life expectancy by 10 years. o The Surgeon General’s report on Smoking & Health (1964) had no effect on smoking rate in the U.S. o There is a significant genetic contribution to smoking. (TRUE)
o Only about 50% of adult regular smokers began smoking before the age of 19. (FALSE)
WHY DO TOBACCO COMPANIES PUT IN ADDITIVES?
To hide the taste
Ammonia boosts the delivery of nicotine into the lungs and bloodstreams.
WHAT IS IN A CIGARETTE?
–50% shredded leaf; 30% reconstituted tobacco; 20% expanded tobacco
Nearly 600 additives
o an alkaloid derived from tobacco plant
o When a cigarette is smoked it releases:
more than 60 carcinogenic chemicals
arsenic, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, benzene carbon monoxide inhibits delivery of oxygen to body Tar forms when tobacco is burned and its chemical particles condense.
CHAPTER 11: SEXUALITY, CONTRACEPTION, & REPRODUCTIVE CHOICES
o The biological, physical, emotional, and psychosocial aspects of sexual attraction and expression.
o Process by which people experience and express themselves as sexual beings.
o Determined by
Anatomy and physiology
The current culture
Relationships with others and developmental
experiences throughout the life cycle.
The perception of being male or female
Private thoughts and fantasies
o Brings pleasure to oneself and one’s partner
FEMALE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
The regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system that makes pregnancy possible. o Regulated by hormonal changes
o Average duration is 28 days (range of 21-35 days) MENARCHE
o The first onset of menstruation; US aver is 12 (range 8- 15)
o The time when a woman stops having menstrual cycles usually begins in early 50s.
o A hormone released by the pituitary gland to get egg ready.
o As the egg matures, this hormone is released into the bloodstream.
o When it reaches the uterus, the menstrual phase ends and starts proliferative phase.
o Causes the thickening of uterine lining to prepare for fertlilized egg.
o Comes from the pituitary gland
o Triggers ovulation or the release of the mature egg). 19
o After ovulation, it is released in preparation for the fertilized egg.
HOW CONCEPTION WORKS
There is a 12-24 hour window for fertilization after the released egg moves through fallopian tube towards the uterus.
Fertilization occurs IF there are sufficient sperm present. o Fertilized egg produces human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is what pregnancy tests measure.
o 3-4 days for fertilized egg to reach uterus and implant into uterine wall.
Fertlization occurs most likely during the secretory phase. (days 15-28)
PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (PMS)
Physical and emotional symptoms that occur seven to fourteen days before menstrual phase.
85% of women experience mild symptoms
15% of women have symptoms severe enough to disrupt their daily lives.
Reduce symptoms by:
o Avoid smoking, alcohol, caffeine, salt, and sugary food. o Eat balanced diet, exercise, get sufficient sleep.
PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER (PMDD)
Severe, debilitating psychological symptoms experienced just prior to menstruation.
Having no periods for at least 3 consecutive months. Normal during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Abnormal if due to excessive weight loss or exercise, stress, or hormonal imbalance.
Significant increase in risk of low bone density; estrogen helps build bones.
THE SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE
o Erotic mental or physical stimulation that leads to arousal.
o Nipple erection in almost all females and 60% of males. o “sex flush’ due to blood vessel engorgement.
o Penile erection, labia and clitoris swell vaginal walls lubricate.
o Intense excitement building to orgasm.
o Males secret pre-ejaculatory fluid; may contains some sperm.
Put on condom before this.
o Peak or climax of sexual response
Can have multiple with minimal recovery time
Single orgasm with ejaculation
Require longer recovery time
Resolution is return to normal.
o Avoidance of sexual intercourse by active choice of circumstance such as for religious morals or to avoid pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections.
o Celibacy is long-term abstinence.
Sexual union involving genital penetration.
o Insertion of the penis into the vagina
o Risk of pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections. ANAL INTERCOURSE
o Insertion of penis into the anus and rectum
o 40% of men and 35% of women aged 25-44 have had anal sex with partner of opposite sex.
While 24% of college students have
o No risk of pregnancy
o Risk of injury
o Increased risk of sexually transmitted infections Condoms break more frequently than during
o Stimulation of genitals by tongue or mouth
Fellatio is oral stimulation of the penis
Cunnilingus is oral stimulation of the vulva,
especially the clitoris.
66% of college students have reported having oral sex
o Used as foreplay, to replace intercourse or avoided o No risk of pregnancy
o Risk of sexually transmitted infections
NON-INTERCOURSE SEXUAL ACTIVITY
o Manipulation of one’s own genitals for sexual pleasure o College students-
92% of males and 68% of females
o With or without:
Sexual fantasies- sexual thoughts, daydreams and imagined scenarios
∙ 43% of college males view 1-2 times per
o No risk of pregnancy or STIs
o Sexual intimacy without penetration of the vagina or anus.
o Includes kissing/making out, manual stimulation of the genitals, and mutual masturbation.
o No risk of pregnancy
o Minimized risk of sexually transmitted infections SEXTING
o Sending sexually explicit photos, videos, and messages electronically.
o Risks of sexting
Make sure all parties are consenting adults
Sexting under the influence can have unintended consequences
Don’t succumb to pressure from peers or a partner Remember that a sext is forever
o No risk of pregnancy or STi
o Fertilization of a female egg with male sperm
o Any method used to prevent pregnancy.
o A medical or surgical procedure used to terminate a pregnancy.
Which statements about safe sex options are TRUE?
o Nearly 50% of college students use condoms during vaginal intercourse.
o Condoms are the most effective protection against transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
o Birth control pills are more effective for
contraception than withdrawal & fertility awareness. o Spermicides provide protection against STIs.
Which of the following statements about different sexual activities are TRUE?
o Condoms break more frequently during vaginal intercourse than during anal intercourse.
o Some people engage in oral sex rather than intercourse.
o Sexual fantasies can reflect personal desires a person is not comfortable acting out in real life. o More female college students masturbate than do male college students.
o Sending sexually explicit text, photos, or videos electronically is known as sexting.
Which of the following statements about abortion are TRUE?
o Individual states within the U.S. can make abortion illegal.
o Nearly all unintended pregnancies are terminated by abortion.
o One of the arguments about abortion rights is the issue of when life begins.
o Abortion exposes girls & women to physical & psychological harm. ( more of psychological issue, physical complications are not an issue for vast majority of women)
o If safe abortions were not legal, then unsafe & unregulated abortions would still be performed.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER IDENTITY
o Romantic and physical attraction toward others. 24
o Experts believe that our natural tendency to be attracted to men and women or both is shaped by a confluence of biological, environmental, and cognitive factors, with sexual orientation being neither a
conscious choice nor something that can be readily changed.
o Alfred Kinsey, the sex researcher, theorized that sexual orientation could be delineated on a continuum, divided into seven parts.
At one end are heterosexuals, people solely
attracted to the opposite gender.
On the other end are homosexuals.
In the middle are bisexuals.
o To be sexually attracted to individuals of the opposite sex.
o It is the only sexual orientation that receives full social and legal legitimacy in most countries.
o To be sexually attracted to individuals of the same sex. o Used to be considered a mental illness, and still is in some parts of the world.
o To be sexually attracted to both individuals of the same sex and the opposite sex.
o Negative attitudes towards the idea and individuals who are homosexual.
o The irrational fear, aversion to, or discrimination against individuals who identify as homosexual or homosexuality in general.
o One’s innermost concept of self as male, female, a blend of both, or neither.
o The appearance of a person’s gender identity (clothing, voice, hair, etc.), that may or may not conform to their biological sex.
o A person whose gender identity or gender expression does not represent their biological sex.
o They choose to express their own sense of gender identity rather than the one that matches their
biological sex, they are considered to be going through gender transition.
Transition is the process that can include the use of new names and pronouns, dressing differently, and/or asking to be socially recognized and
accepted as their chosen gender.
o A person who has permanently changed or its
transitioning to the opposite gender through clinical interventions such as hormone therapy and surgery.
EFFECTS OF SMOKING
o Increased heart rate
o Increased blood pressure
o Shortness of breath
o Reduction in stamina
o Heightened alertness
o Decrease in skin temperature
o Increased blood glucose
o Dulled sense of smell and taste
o Bad breath
o Smelling like smoke
o Health risks to developing fetus
o Increased risk of cancer
o Increased risk of cardiovascular disease
o Reduced lung function
o Periodontal disease
o Risk of gastroesophageal reflux
o Increased risk of peptic ulcers
o Reduced liver function
o Increased risk of type two diabetes
o Erectile dysfunction
o Decreased fertility
o Loss of bone density
o Vision impairment
o Premature aging and wrinkling of skin
o Stained teeth
o Nicotine addiction
Contains higher concentrations of some chemicals than in smoke inhaled by smoker.
Contains more than 250 toxic or carcinogenic chemicals Sources of secondhand smoke:
o Sidestream smoke:
Smoke emanating from the burning end of a
o Mainstream smoke:
Smoke exhaled by smoker
o Irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs
o Coughing, production of excessive phlegm, lung cancer o Premature death and disease
o In children, increased incidence of
Respiratory illness including asthma
Sudden infant death syndrome
Urge to smoke
Smokers are likely to relapse early in the quitting process Symptoms peak within one or two weeks after quitting.