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MSU / Communications / EPY 2513 / What are three major factors influencing demographic shifts in the agi

What are three major factors influencing demographic shifts in the agi

What are three major factors influencing demographic shifts in the agi

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Communications
Course: Human Growth & Development
Professor: Ty abernathy
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Ageism, deomographic, shift, wearandtea, calorierestriction, averagelifeexpectancy, Lifespan, lifespan development, humanlifespan, cellularaging, final study guide, finalexam, humangrowthdevelopment, olderadulthood, olderadults, Adulthood, Death, Dying, Osteoporosis, and aging
Cost: 50
Name: HGD Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This is a study guide that includes the material that will be on our final!
Uploaded: 12/04/2017
14 Pages 61 Views 3 Unlocks
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Human Growth and Development  


What are three major factors influencing demographic shifts in the aging population in the us?



Study Guide

Chapters 14,15 and Epilogue  

VOCABULARY

1. Ageism- a prejudice whereby people are categorized and judged  by their chronological age

2. Universal design- the creation of settings and equipment that  can be used by everyone, whether or not they are able-bodied  and sensory-acute

3. Demographic shift- a shift in the proportions of the populations of various ages

4. Wear and tear- a view of aging as a process by which the human  body wears out because of the passage of time and exposure to  environmental stressors

5. Calorie restriction- the practice of limiting dietary energy intake  in hopes of slowing down the aging process


What is the wear and tear theory of aging?



6. Maximum life span- the oldest possible age that members of a  species can live under ideal circumstances (humans – 122 years) 7. Average life expectancy- the number of years the average  person in a particular population group is likely to live We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between cross platform and multi platform?

8. Cellular aging- the ways in which molecules and cells are  affected by age. Many theories aim to explain how and why  aging causes cells to deteriorate

9. Hayflick limit- the number of times a human cell is capable of  dividing. The limit for most human cells is approximately 50  divisions, an indication that the life span is limited by our genetic program

10. Telomeres- the area of the tips of each chromosome that is  reduced a tiny amount as time passes. By the end of life, the  telomeres are very short


Should you restrict calories when intermittent fasting?



11. Primary aging- the universal and irreversible physical  changes that occur in all living creatures, as they grow older.  Primary aging is inevitable, programmed for each species

12. Secondary aging- the specific physical illness or conditions  that become more common with aging but are caused by health  habits and other influences that vary from person to person If you want to learn more check out How did the enlightenment influence american political thought?

13. Osteoporosis- fragile bones that result from primary aging,  which makes bones more porous, especially if a person is at  genetic risk

14. Control processes- the part of the information- processing  system that regulates the analysis and flow of information 15. Ecological validity- the idea that cognition should be  measured in natural settings and schedules

16. Neurocognitive disorder- any of a number of brain diseases that affects a person’s ability to remember, analyze, plan or  interact with other peopleDon't forget about the age old question of What is the relationship between morality and religion?

17. Alzheimer’s disease- the most common cause of major  NCD, characterized by gradual deterioration of memory and  personality and marked by the formation of plaques of beta amyloid protein and tangles of tau in the brain

18. Plaques- clumps of protein called beta-amyloid found in  brain tissues surrounding the neurons

19. Tangles- twisted masses of threads made of a protein  called tau within the neurons of the brain

20. Vascular disease- formerly called vascular or multi-infarct  dementia, vascular disease is characterized by progressive loss  of intellectual functioning caused by repeated infarcts, or  temporary obstructions of blood vessels

21. Frontotemporal NCDs- brain disorders that occur with  impairment of the frontal lobes

22. Parkiinson’s disease- a chronic, progressive disease is  characterized by muscle tremor and rigidity and sometimes  major NCD; caused by reduced dopamine production in the brain

23. Lewy body disease- a form of major NCD characterized by  an increase in particular abnormal cells in the brain 24. Polypharmacy- refers to a situation in which people take  many medications  If you want to learn more check out What is the increase in total cost that results from producing one more unit of output?

25. Self-actualization- the final stage in maslow’s hierarchy of  needs, characterized by aesthetic, creative, philosophical, and  spiritual understanding

26. Life review- an examination of one’s own role in the history of human life, engaged in many elderly people

27. Self theories- theories of late adulthood that emphasize the core self, or the search to maintain one’s integrity and identity 28. Integrity versus despair- the final stage of Erik Erikson’s  developmental sequence, in which older adults seek to integrate  their unique experience with their vision of community 29. Compulsive hoarding- the urge to accumulate and hold on  to familiar objects and possessions, sometimes to the point of  their becoming health and/or safety hazards

30. Socio-emotional selectivity theory- the theory that older  people prioritize regulation of their own emotions and seek  familiar social contacts who reinforce generativity, pride, and joy

31. Positivity effect- the tendency for elderly people to  perceive, prefer, and remember positive images and experiences more than negative ones We also discuss several other topics like When does something have moral importance?

32. Stratification theories-theories that emphasize that social  forces, particularly those related to a person’s social stratum or  social category, limit individual choices and affect a person’s  ability to function in late adulthood because past stratification  continues to limit life in various waysDon't forget about the age old question of What stage at which self-control and rules are learned?

33. Disengagement theory- the view that aging makes a  person’s social sphere increasingly narrow, resulting in role  relinquishment, withdrawal, and passivity

34. Activity theory- the view that elderly people want and need to remain active in a variety of social spheres- with relatives,  friends, and community groups

35. Age in place- to remain in the same home and community  in later life, adjusting but not leaving when health fades 36. Naturally occurring retirement community- a neighborhood  or apartment complex whose population is mostly retired people  who moved to the location as younger adults and never left 37. Filial responsibility- the obligation of adult children to care  for their aging parents

38. Frail elderly- older adults who are severely impairment,  usually unable to care for themselves

39. Activities of daily life- typically identified as five tasks of  self care; eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, and transferring  from a bed to a chair

40. Instrumental activities of daily life- actions that are  important to independent living and that require some  intellectual competence and forethought  

41. Integrated care- cooperative actions by professionals,  friends, family members, and the care receiver to achieve  optimal caregiving

42. Terror management theory- the idea that people adopt  cultural values and moral principles in order to cope with their  fear of death

43. Hospice- an institution or program in which terminally ill  patients receive palliative care to reduce suffering

44. Palliative care- medical treatment designed primarily to  provide physical and emotional comfort to the dying patient and  guidance to his or her loved ones

45. Double effect- when an action has two effects, such as  relieving pain and suppressing respiration

46. Passive euthanasia- when a person is allowed to die  naturally, instead of intervening with active attempts to prolong  life

47. DNR- a written order from a physician that no attempt  should be made to revive a patient if he or she suffers cardiac or  respiratory arrest

48. Active euthanasia- when someone does something that  hastens another person’s death, hoping to end that person’s  suffering

49. Physician-assisted suicide- a form of active euthanasia in  which a doctor provides the means for someone to end his or her own life, usually by prescribing lethal drugs

50. Advance directives- any description of what a person wants to happen as they die and after they die

51. Living will- a document that indicates what medical  intervention an individual prefers if he or she is not conscious  when a decision is to be expressed

52. Health care proxy- a person chosen to make medical  decisions if a patient is unable to do so, as when in a coma 53. Grief- the deep sorrow that people feel at the death of  another

54. Complicated grief- a type of grief that impedes a person’s  future life, usually because the person clings to sorrow or is  buffeted by contradictory emotions

55. Absent grief- when mourners do not grieve, either because  other people do not allow expressions of grief or because the  mourners do not allow themselves to feel sadness

56. Disenfranchised grief- a situation in which certain people,  although they are bereaved, are prevented from mourning  publically by cultural customs or social restrictions

57. Incomplete grief- when circumstances, such as a police  investigation or an autopsy, interfere with the process of grieving 58. Mourning- the ceremonies and behaviors that a religion or  culture prescribes for people to express their grief after a death Question

1. What is elderspeak?  

2. What is the stereotype threat?  

3. What are older people most likely to estimate?  

4. How many people over age 65 see well without glasses?  5. What are some common visual problems in older adults?  6. What causes many social losses?  

7. Do older people sleep more?  

8. 3 reasons for traditional pyramidal shape?  

9. What is the wear and tear theory?  

10. What is the genetic theory?  

11. What is the cellular aging theory?  

12. What happens to the brain?  

13. Elderly people’s underlying problem with sensory input  may be in where?  

14. What is source amnesia?  

15. What is prospective memory?  

16. Brain slowdown reduces working memory because?  17. What happens to control processes?  

18. Symptoms of severe brain damage can be treated by?  19. Development is?  

20. Why do objects and places become more precious?  21. What does socio-emotional selectivity theory do?  22. What is the positivity effect?

23. What does selective memory compensate for?  24. What are the different forms of stratification?  25. Why does segregation by age harm everyone 26. What does work for older people do?  27. One of the favorite activities of many retirees is?  28. What is a NORC?  

29. What is a benefit for being married in old age?  30. Grandparents fill one of these roles?  31. 5 activities of daily life?  

32. What is thanatology?  

33. How has death changed in the past century?  34. What is a good death?  

35. What is a bad death?  

36. What are the 5 stages of dying?  

37. What are the 2 principles for hospice care?

Answers

1. What is elderspeak? A condescending way of speaking to older  adults 

2. What is the stereotype threat? Anxiety about the possibility that  older people have prejudiced belief 

3. What are older people most likely to estimate? That their own  functioning is better than the average older person 

4. How many people over age 65 see well without glasses? 10% 5. What are some common visual problems in older adults?  Cataracts, glaucoma, and macular degeneration 

6. What causes many social losses? Hearing problems 7. Do older people sleep more? No even though they might be in  bed longer 

8. 3 reasons for traditional pyramidal shape? 1. Far more children  were born than the replacement rate 2. Before modern sanitation and nutrition, about half of all children died before age 5  3.middle-aged people rarely survived adult disease like cancer  and heart attack 

9. What is the wear and tear theory? Body suffers from overuse,  weather, harmful food, pollution, and radiation 

10. What is the genetic theory? Species have maximum life  span 

11. What is the cellular aging theory? Theory focuses on ways  molecules and cells are affected by aging 

12. What happens to the brain? Senescence reduces  production of neurotransmitters 

13. Elderly people’s underlying problem with sensory input  may be in where? Brain, senses, or both 

14. What is source amnesia? Don’t remember why you know  something 

15. What is prospective memory? Remembering to do  something in the future 

16. Brain slowdown reduces working memory because? Older  individuals take longer to perceive and process sensations 17. What happens to control processes? They become less  effective with age and include memory and retrieval strategies,  selective attention, and rules or strategies for problem solving 18. Symptoms of severe brain damage can be treated by?  Education, exercise, and good health 

19. Development is? More diverse in late adulthood than at  any other age 

20. Why do objects and places become more precious? It’s a  way to hold on to identity 

21. What does socio-emotional selectivity theory do?  Reinforces generativity, pride, and joy

22. What is the positivity effect? Tendency for elderly people to perceive, prefer, and remember positive images and experiences more than negative ones 

23. What does selective memory compensate for? Troubles 24. What are the different forms of stratification? Gender,  ethnicity, income, age 

25. Why does segregation by age harm everyone? It creates  socialization deficits for members of all age groups

26. What does work for older people do? Provide social support and boosts self esteem 

27. One of the favorite activities of many retirees is? Caring for their own homes and gardening 

28. What is a NORC? A neighborhood or apartment complex  whose population is mostly retired people who moved to the  location as younger adults and never left 

29. What is a benefit for being married in old age? Spouses  buffer each other against the problems of old age, thus  extending life 

30. Grandparents fill one of these roles? Remote,  companionate, involved, surrogate 

31. 5 activities of daily life? Eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, transferring from a bed to chair 

32. What is thanatology? Study of death and dying 33. How has death changed in the past century? It occurs later, takes longer, occurs in hospitals, and the causes have changed 34. What is a good death? Peaceful, quick, and painless and  that occurs after a long life in the company of family and friends,  and in familiar surroundings 

35. What is a bad death? Lack 6 characteristics and is dreaded, particularly by the elderly 

36. What are the 5 stages of dying? Denial, anger, bargaining,  depression, acceptance 

37. What are the 2 principles for hospice care? Each patients  autonomy and decisions respected, and family members and  friends are counseled before the death, shown how to provide  care, and helped after death

Human Growth and Development  

Study Guide

Chapters 14,15 and Epilogue  

VOCABULARY

1. Ageism- a prejudice whereby people are categorized and judged  by their chronological age

2. Universal design- the creation of settings and equipment that  can be used by everyone, whether or not they are able-bodied  and sensory-acute

3. Demographic shift- a shift in the proportions of the populations of various ages

4. Wear and tear- a view of aging as a process by which the human  body wears out because of the passage of time and exposure to  environmental stressors

5. Calorie restriction- the practice of limiting dietary energy intake  in hopes of slowing down the aging process

6. Maximum life span- the oldest possible age that members of a  species can live under ideal circumstances (humans – 122 years) 7. Average life expectancy- the number of years the average  person in a particular population group is likely to live

8. Cellular aging- the ways in which molecules and cells are  affected by age. Many theories aim to explain how and why  aging causes cells to deteriorate

9. Hayflick limit- the number of times a human cell is capable of  dividing. The limit for most human cells is approximately 50  divisions, an indication that the life span is limited by our genetic program

10. Telomeres- the area of the tips of each chromosome that is  reduced a tiny amount as time passes. By the end of life, the  telomeres are very short

11. Primary aging- the universal and irreversible physical  changes that occur in all living creatures, as they grow older.  Primary aging is inevitable, programmed for each species

12. Secondary aging- the specific physical illness or conditions  that become more common with aging but are caused by health  habits and other influences that vary from person to person

13. Osteoporosis- fragile bones that result from primary aging,  which makes bones more porous, especially if a person is at  genetic risk

14. Control processes- the part of the information- processing  system that regulates the analysis and flow of information 15. Ecological validity- the idea that cognition should be  measured in natural settings and schedules

16. Neurocognitive disorder- any of a number of brain diseases that affects a person’s ability to remember, analyze, plan or  interact with other people

17. Alzheimer’s disease- the most common cause of major  NCD, characterized by gradual deterioration of memory and  personality and marked by the formation of plaques of beta amyloid protein and tangles of tau in the brain

18. Plaques- clumps of protein called beta-amyloid found in  brain tissues surrounding the neurons

19. Tangles- twisted masses of threads made of a protein  called tau within the neurons of the brain

20. Vascular disease- formerly called vascular or multi-infarct  dementia, vascular disease is characterized by progressive loss  of intellectual functioning caused by repeated infarcts, or  temporary obstructions of blood vessels

21. Frontotemporal NCDs- brain disorders that occur with  impairment of the frontal lobes

22. Parkiinson’s disease- a chronic, progressive disease is  characterized by muscle tremor and rigidity and sometimes  major NCD; caused by reduced dopamine production in the brain

23. Lewy body disease- a form of major NCD characterized by  an increase in particular abnormal cells in the brain 24. Polypharmacy- refers to a situation in which people take  many medications  

25. Self-actualization- the final stage in maslow’s hierarchy of  needs, characterized by aesthetic, creative, philosophical, and  spiritual understanding

26. Life review- an examination of one’s own role in the history of human life, engaged in many elderly people

27. Self theories- theories of late adulthood that emphasize the core self, or the search to maintain one’s integrity and identity 28. Integrity versus despair- the final stage of Erik Erikson’s  developmental sequence, in which older adults seek to integrate  their unique experience with their vision of community 29. Compulsive hoarding- the urge to accumulate and hold on  to familiar objects and possessions, sometimes to the point of  their becoming health and/or safety hazards

30. Socio-emotional selectivity theory- the theory that older  people prioritize regulation of their own emotions and seek  familiar social contacts who reinforce generativity, pride, and joy

31. Positivity effect- the tendency for elderly people to  perceive, prefer, and remember positive images and experiences more than negative ones

32. Stratification theories-theories that emphasize that social  forces, particularly those related to a person’s social stratum or  social category, limit individual choices and affect a person’s  ability to function in late adulthood because past stratification  continues to limit life in various ways

33. Disengagement theory- the view that aging makes a  person’s social sphere increasingly narrow, resulting in role  relinquishment, withdrawal, and passivity

34. Activity theory- the view that elderly people want and need to remain active in a variety of social spheres- with relatives,  friends, and community groups

35. Age in place- to remain in the same home and community  in later life, adjusting but not leaving when health fades 36. Naturally occurring retirement community- a neighborhood  or apartment complex whose population is mostly retired people  who moved to the location as younger adults and never left 37. Filial responsibility- the obligation of adult children to care  for their aging parents

38. Frail elderly- older adults who are severely impairment,  usually unable to care for themselves

39. Activities of daily life- typically identified as five tasks of  self care; eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, and transferring  from a bed to a chair

40. Instrumental activities of daily life- actions that are  important to independent living and that require some  intellectual competence and forethought  

41. Integrated care- cooperative actions by professionals,  friends, family members, and the care receiver to achieve  optimal caregiving

42. Terror management theory- the idea that people adopt  cultural values and moral principles in order to cope with their  fear of death

43. Hospice- an institution or program in which terminally ill  patients receive palliative care to reduce suffering

44. Palliative care- medical treatment designed primarily to  provide physical and emotional comfort to the dying patient and  guidance to his or her loved ones

45. Double effect- when an action has two effects, such as  relieving pain and suppressing respiration

46. Passive euthanasia- when a person is allowed to die  naturally, instead of intervening with active attempts to prolong  life

47. DNR- a written order from a physician that no attempt  should be made to revive a patient if he or she suffers cardiac or  respiratory arrest

48. Active euthanasia- when someone does something that  hastens another person’s death, hoping to end that person’s  suffering

49. Physician-assisted suicide- a form of active euthanasia in  which a doctor provides the means for someone to end his or her own life, usually by prescribing lethal drugs

50. Advance directives- any description of what a person wants to happen as they die and after they die

51. Living will- a document that indicates what medical  intervention an individual prefers if he or she is not conscious  when a decision is to be expressed

52. Health care proxy- a person chosen to make medical  decisions if a patient is unable to do so, as when in a coma 53. Grief- the deep sorrow that people feel at the death of  another

54. Complicated grief- a type of grief that impedes a person’s  future life, usually because the person clings to sorrow or is  buffeted by contradictory emotions

55. Absent grief- when mourners do not grieve, either because  other people do not allow expressions of grief or because the  mourners do not allow themselves to feel sadness

56. Disenfranchised grief- a situation in which certain people,  although they are bereaved, are prevented from mourning  publically by cultural customs or social restrictions

57. Incomplete grief- when circumstances, such as a police  investigation or an autopsy, interfere with the process of grieving 58. Mourning- the ceremonies and behaviors that a religion or  culture prescribes for people to express their grief after a death Question

1. What is elderspeak?  

2. What is the stereotype threat?  

3. What are older people most likely to estimate?  

4. How many people over age 65 see well without glasses?  5. What are some common visual problems in older adults?  6. What causes many social losses?  

7. Do older people sleep more?  

8. 3 reasons for traditional pyramidal shape?  

9. What is the wear and tear theory?  

10. What is the genetic theory?  

11. What is the cellular aging theory?  

12. What happens to the brain?  

13. Elderly people’s underlying problem with sensory input  may be in where?  

14. What is source amnesia?  

15. What is prospective memory?  

16. Brain slowdown reduces working memory because?  17. What happens to control processes?  

18. Symptoms of severe brain damage can be treated by?  19. Development is?  

20. Why do objects and places become more precious?  21. What does socio-emotional selectivity theory do?  22. What is the positivity effect?

23. What does selective memory compensate for?  24. What are the different forms of stratification?  25. Why does segregation by age harm everyone 26. What does work for older people do?  27. One of the favorite activities of many retirees is?  28. What is a NORC?  

29. What is a benefit for being married in old age?  30. Grandparents fill one of these roles?  31. 5 activities of daily life?  

32. What is thanatology?  

33. How has death changed in the past century?  34. What is a good death?  

35. What is a bad death?  

36. What are the 5 stages of dying?  

37. What are the 2 principles for hospice care?

Answers

1. What is elderspeak? A condescending way of speaking to older  adults 

2. What is the stereotype threat? Anxiety about the possibility that  older people have prejudiced belief 

3. What are older people most likely to estimate? That their own  functioning is better than the average older person 

4. How many people over age 65 see well without glasses? 10% 5. What are some common visual problems in older adults?  Cataracts, glaucoma, and macular degeneration 

6. What causes many social losses? Hearing problems 7. Do older people sleep more? No even though they might be in  bed longer 

8. 3 reasons for traditional pyramidal shape? 1. Far more children  were born than the replacement rate 2. Before modern sanitation and nutrition, about half of all children died before age 5  3.middle-aged people rarely survived adult disease like cancer  and heart attack 

9. What is the wear and tear theory? Body suffers from overuse,  weather, harmful food, pollution, and radiation 

10. What is the genetic theory? Species have maximum life  span 

11. What is the cellular aging theory? Theory focuses on ways  molecules and cells are affected by aging 

12. What happens to the brain? Senescence reduces  production of neurotransmitters 

13. Elderly people’s underlying problem with sensory input  may be in where? Brain, senses, or both 

14. What is source amnesia? Don’t remember why you know  something 

15. What is prospective memory? Remembering to do  something in the future 

16. Brain slowdown reduces working memory because? Older  individuals take longer to perceive and process sensations 17. What happens to control processes? They become less  effective with age and include memory and retrieval strategies,  selective attention, and rules or strategies for problem solving 18. Symptoms of severe brain damage can be treated by?  Education, exercise, and good health 

19. Development is? More diverse in late adulthood than at  any other age 

20. Why do objects and places become more precious? It’s a  way to hold on to identity 

21. What does socio-emotional selectivity theory do?  Reinforces generativity, pride, and joy

22. What is the positivity effect? Tendency for elderly people to perceive, prefer, and remember positive images and experiences more than negative ones 

23. What does selective memory compensate for? Troubles 24. What are the different forms of stratification? Gender,  ethnicity, income, age 

25. Why does segregation by age harm everyone? It creates  socialization deficits for members of all age groups

26. What does work for older people do? Provide social support and boosts self esteem 

27. One of the favorite activities of many retirees is? Caring for their own homes and gardening 

28. What is a NORC? A neighborhood or apartment complex  whose population is mostly retired people who moved to the  location as younger adults and never left 

29. What is a benefit for being married in old age? Spouses  buffer each other against the problems of old age, thus  extending life 

30. Grandparents fill one of these roles? Remote,  companionate, involved, surrogate 

31. 5 activities of daily life? Eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, transferring from a bed to chair 

32. What is thanatology? Study of death and dying 33. How has death changed in the past century? It occurs later, takes longer, occurs in hospitals, and the causes have changed 34. What is a good death? Peaceful, quick, and painless and  that occurs after a long life in the company of family and friends,  and in familiar surroundings 

35. What is a bad death? Lack 6 characteristics and is dreaded, particularly by the elderly 

36. What are the 5 stages of dying? Denial, anger, bargaining,  depression, acceptance 

37. What are the 2 principles for hospice care? Each patients  autonomy and decisions respected, and family members and  friends are counseled before the death, shown how to provide  care, and helped after death

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