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GWU / Sociology / ANTH 109 / george washington university anthropology

george washington university anthropology

george washington university anthropology

Description

School: George Washington University
Department: Sociology
Course: Sociocultural Anthropology, 1002-10
Professor: Hugh gusterson
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Sociocultural Anthropology Midterm Study #1
Description: The first 1/3 of the midterm study guide for Sociocultural Anthropology.
Uploaded: 12/04/2017
2 Pages 6 Views 31 Unlocks
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Sociocultural Anthropology (ANTH 1002) Study Guide #1


Who claimed homosexuality was linked with communism?



Homosexuality 

-Invented by Charles Gilbert Chaddock

-Initially grouped with “sexual inversion”

-Sexual activity among same sex individuals has existed since the time of the Greeks; homosexuality  has existed for a little over 100 years.  

-No concept of hetero/homosexuality before 1892

-“Active” vs “passive”; sexuality is hierarchical (insertive individual vs receiving individual)  -Halperin: homosexuality presupposes sexuality, as sexuality is a modern invention that serves to  interpret/organize human experience  

-Seen as the deterioration of the mind linked with hostility and decay around WWII, homosexual  seen as “type”

-Homosexuality has a classification: Freud said that homosexuality cannot be classified as “disease”  because many of the greats were homosexual.  

Weapon: McCarthy claimed homosexuality was linked with communism.  


Who is Jane Murphy?



Related to: “One Hundred Years of Homosexuality” by Halperin, “Soccer, Sex, and Scandal in  Brazil” by Kulick

Travesti 

-Not transsexual. Men who dress in feminine clothing/act feminine from a young age.  -No desire to modify genitals, never say they are women

-Say they are a “special kind of men”  

-Center of Ronaldo controversy in Brazil: whether or not Ronaldo knew the prostitutes he paid for  were transvestis. This is a direct attack on Ronaldo’s masculinity.  

-Ronaldo’s case with travesti raises point that one can no longer have sex with the same sex/a  homosexual without being questioned themselves; interaction with Travesti made Brazil as a whole  question Ronaldo’s sexuality/masculinity.  

Related to: “Soccer, Sex, and Scandal in Brazil” by Kulick  

Labeling Theory If you want to learn more check out sta 100 uc davis

-An idea that once you classify symptoms, you give “it” power in the form of creating a disease that  becomes part of one’s identity.  


Something that exists across cultures.



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-Linked with “secondary deviation”, which is when an individual learns the role of a disease and  accepts the disease as part of his or her life style

-Jane Murphy: language is main repository of labels, does not believe that labels make diseases.  -Murphy believes diseases are transcultural, displays this in studying schizophrenia across multiple  cultures; same disease, different names and “causes”.

-Murphy: Phenomena’s exist independently of labels, contracts beliefs that sociologists hold that  putting a label on symptoms will classify them and become part of one’s identity (ADD, ADHD: are  they really diseases?)

Related to “Psychiatric Labeling in Cross-Cultural Perspectives” by Murphy  

Transhistorical 

-Something existing across different historical time periods

-PTSD: did it really exist during the Cold War? Traumatic memory as a man-made object.  -PTSD seen in WWI as having other symptoms/another disease (Irritable Heart, Railway spine) -Autism: has been there all along, we just weren’t primed to see it

-Homosexuality: existed back to the times of the Greeks, but it was not referred to as “homosexuality”; no  concept of heterosexual and homosexual in that time.  

Relates to: “Is PTSD a Transhistorical Phenomenon?” by McNally, “Unstrange Minds” by Grinker,  Mitchell If you want to learn more check out biol 1108

PTSD article, whether or not it actually existed during Vietnam War. Connect to homosexuality,  autism, Timothy Mitchell economy article  Don't forget about the age old question of the total of all accumulated and unpaid deficits

Transcultural 

-Something that exists across cultures

-Autism: has existed in multiple countries and has slowly all been diagnosed as one form or another  of autism/somewhere on the Autism Spectrum.

-Schizophrenia: the same symptoms across multiple cultures displayed by different peoples, named  differently according to group; compared eskimos in Alaska to tribe in Nigeria  autism and schizophrenia, prevalence/incidence (higher prevalence in areas that have more means to  research); you can have a medical and legal culture  

Related to: “Psychiatric Labeling in Cross-Cultural Perspective” by Murphy, autism,  prevalence/incidence 

Prevalence/Incidence 

-Prevalence: rate/proportion of cases of a condition  

-Incidence: rate/range of new cases over time

Related to: autism, diseases

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