Final Exam Study Guide (Fall 2017)
Study Guide will be updated to reflect material
Chapters 5 & 6 (Based on the questions we answered in the in class “quiz”)
Highly suggested to read up n this segment on
your own for the oncoming test. Most of such
have not been directly talked about in class.
Most of this study guide will focus on the
powerpoints and class disscussions including
chats, notes, and powerpoints. Also make sure to
read the case strudy of Paul D’Anieri.
From Chapter 7: International Organizations and Transnational Actors/Related Class Lecture
The Security Council:
o What are its primary functions?
Under the Charter, the Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 members with each having a vote.
o Who are its permanent members? What special
power do they have?
China, France, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, and the United States. Hey hold veto power. But there needs to be a two thirds mayority votes for other things to pass from it’s members. o How effective was it during the Cold War? If you want to learn more check out What is the main definition of discrete outcomes?
If you want to learn more check out What refers to anything generally accepted as a medium of exchange?
It held both megapowers back as the US would Veto Russia and Russia would do the same to the US.
o Are its decisions binding on UN members?
"The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter" General Assembly
o Who is a member?
All countries are represented. This is where they discuss budget, members of the security council, and other important matters. Each member has a vote and for things to pass there needs to be a two thirds majority.
- A new president every year
- 21 vice Presidents
o Are its resolutions binding?
Resolutions here are none binding.
o What is its significance?
Discussion and policy making. While a lot of the laws made are none binding, it gives an open door for countries to talk about solutions and to better relations.
- Agenda Setting: World Opinion
o Current Secretary General?
António Guterres, portugal
o What power does the Secretary General have?
Nominated by Security Council, appointed by General Assembly 5 year term (renewable)
Can bring important issues to the attention of the Security Council to keep world peace. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of the male gamete?
∙ ECOSOC and specialized agencies
o What is its role?
Advce on issues of sustainable developlent like economic, social, and environmental. They’re also responcible to follow-up to major Un conferences and summits.
Bringing states together to recognize issues,
distributing specific forms of aid (vaccines, seeds, blankets, shelter, food) Training,
coordinating other states and non-state actors,
gathering and disseminating information
o See PowerPoint Notes on UN
Agencies/Programs and what their acronyms
UNEP; Environmental Program
UNICEF; Children’s Fund
UNHCR; High Commission for Refugees
UNDP; Developmental Program
IAEA; International Atomic Energy Agency
WHO; World Health Organization
UNESCO: UN Educational, Scientific and
– UN as World Government (Good, Bad) We also discuss several other topics like What is the war on drugs?
– UN as Irrelevant
– UN as a Tool for States
– UN as a Source of Norms
– In the context of the above (pp. 197-198), how do the following theories interpret the UN: Realist, Liberal, Constructivist?
From Chapters 8 and 9 on Security/Use of Force and Related Class Lectures on Security, Terrorism (from Dr. Nebil Husayn), Changing Character of War and Nuclear Proliferation
PowerPoint and related reading from chapter 8 and 9 ∙ Pp. 235-237 on Civil War , be able to answer the questions from class lecture on PowerPoint slides
A war within the country that often brings a transformation of ideals.
➢ 95% of armed conflicts are civil wars.
➢ It’s also a tactic to get around a state.
- One of the causes of identity issues inside a country. - But money is an important element. Civil wars could be about grievances or management of resources. There’s an economic explanation as to why many civil wars exist.
➢ Some governments could buy off the people to avoid a civil war. ∙ Economic crisis; poor people do not panic because they don’t have much to lose but most civil wars are started by the middle class when they are displeased by the economic issue. Don't forget about the age old question of Has the contraceptive technology influenced the fall of fertility rate?
∙ Resources; resource rich countries can help insurgence fund their movements like drugs, oil, and diamonds.
- These elements create fragile/failed states; states unable to control itself.
∙ Case study on Iraq’s Insurgency, p. 238
(missing information. Needs further research from the reader)
PowerPoint on the Changing Character of War also under week 10 and Chapter 9
∙ Definition/Features of:
o Westphalian War
Made it so that states went to war against states, not kings.
-Society bound by nationalism
o Total War
Complete mobilization of human, economic, military resources. Like WW1 and 2 We also discuss several other topics like What refers to a remnant of which plate is being subducted along northern california and the pacific northwest?
o Revolution in Military Affairs
Case study on drones, p. 254, 260 & 283 - Guided weapons: Smart Bombs, Cruise Missiles - Satellites and GPS (information gathering, guiding smart bombs)
- “War on Terror”: Pakistan, Yemen, Libya
- Also acquired by: Israel, Britain, China, Russia, India, Pakistan, Turkey, Italy, Germany, France, Iran, Saudi Arabia
- Space satellites, GPS (information gathering, guiding smart bombs)
- anti-satellite warfare (Iraq, 2003: jamming U.S. signals)
- Hezbollah against Israel in 2006
- Google Earth pictures used in Mumbai terror attack
- War Outsourced/Privatized Protection:
- Privatized Military Companies (PMCs)
o Cyber Warfare:
- Destroying command-control, information systems - U.S.-Israeli: Stuxnet Virus; Flame Virus
- Attack on Saudi oil company
- U.S. elections
- 140 countries have cyber warfare development programs
o Asymmetric Warfare:
- When one side of the battle is overwhelmingly more technologically advanced than the other.
Making for a one sided warfair with that one side
overwhelming the other.
- Speed, power, accuracy, reducing distance,
reducing casualties (military –for those that have
them, and civilian
- State vs non-state actors
- Terrorist networks, militias, warlords
- Non-state loyalties/identities:
- Ethnic, religious, sectarian
Ole Waever: Copenhagen School
- Security is a “speech act”: Security is what we
make of it
- A securitizing actor (a government, leader)
provides an argument that transforms an issue
from something “normal” to an “existential threat” that demands emergency action, extraordinary
- The AUDIENCE accepts the threat and grants
power to the Securitizing actor
- The issue is made a priority
- Democratic discussion could be curtailed
- A Construction of “Us vs. Them” is made
PowerPoint on Nuclear Proliferation (ch. 9)
- Types of proliferations;
➢ Vertical proliferation: Building up and up nuclear weapons like the US and the USSR.
➢ Horizontal proliferation: increase in number of states that possess nuclear weapons.
➢ Extended Deterrence: nuclear umbrella to deter attack on allies like the US to it’s current allies. The allies may not have weapons themselves. ➢ Sufficiency approach: minimal for deterrence. France and UK have nuclear weapons but not much.
➢ Nuclear opacity: unclear – undeclared. Some countries do not want to be obligated under NPT but nuclear weapons are not morally questionable but it may question their political view. (Israel).
➢ Nuclear latency: countries that have the technology but not the weapons.
- Countries getting nuclear weapons by year:
● 1945: United States: Developed and Used
● 1949: Soviet Union
● 1952: Great Britain
● 1960: France
● 1964: China
● 1960s: Israel (?) – 1979 (Israel and South Africa tested)
● 1998: India (formally - weapon), Pakistan
● 2006: North Korea
Fear of proliferation:
- Then in 1957 formation IAEA (international atomic energy agency) under the UN to assist the sharing of scientific and technical information related to nuclear energy.
➢ The NPT non-proliferation; treaty regime.
- Nuclear weapons are very wanted for their power to be a deterrent and promise of ultimate security. But there’s been complex rules to slow down/ stop the spread of nuclear weapons.
➢ These complex systems are:
● Communication institutions like the postal services.
● Trade regimes
● Security regimes
● Environmental deals
- NTP: 1970 nuclear non-proliferation treaty. It has 190 countries signed on with some countries like the US, UK, USSR, France, and china recognized with the rights to nuclear weapons. All other states agreed to shut down their nuclear arsenals and the recognized powers were to eliminate their arsenals. Only peaceful technology was to be allowed. ➢ Many states say that this treaty is unfair that few countries can control others.
➢ Salt I (anti-ballistic missiles) 1972, US and USSR. Limiting the number of missiles and defenses after MAD.
➢ Reagan had strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars)
➢ National Missile defense
➢ 1979 SALT II; quantity not quality with ICBMs and SLBM limit. ➢ 1990s start I & start II with strategic arms treaties to reduce stockpiles. ➢ 2010 new start.
- Global zero: movement wants to rid the world of all weapons. Politics matters how we unweaponized people.
Chapters 10 and 11 On International Political Economy, Globalization and Trade, Class Lectures by Nicolas Beckmann (Notes)
∙ Bretton Woods: When and for what purpose?
- 1970’s oil crisis with the effect of Arabic companies on strikes against Israel. It’s a good example of economics and politics in world affairs. They tend to ignore more the political side of international relations.
- Starting world of our own modern economic system: ➢ Belton woods monetary conference of 1944
➢ Countries met to organize the world economy after WWII. Why?
1. Ensure to avoid the great depression of the 1930’s
2. Rebuild a war-torn economy of Europe.
How to create this?
1. Create a world monetary system in an open world trading system.
Informal international rules to help cross border investment and to move capital between states.
2. Provide Europeaid.
- Stabilizing the monetary system;
In the past, they used to do it with the gold standard and tie their value to gold. 1) This had problems with increasing in trade and production led to falling prices. 2) state loses monetary policy with controlling their own supply of money as a tool.
- decision- makers of Bretton woods for this problem:
1. countries fixed their currency to the dollar while the dollar hung to gild value. This allowed countries to make small
adjustments to their currency,
2. they created the international monetary fund (IMF) to serve as a lender of last resort for countries with a balance of payment crisis.
➢ the crisis that a country has exported more than it can import.
- it worked ok for two decades until the crash of 1970’s where inflation increased and so did unemployment. After this the US abandoned the gold standard and other countries started to let their currencies float according to market.
➢ beginning of the system we have in place now; mix market mercantilist + state interventions.
- IMF becomes an agent of deregulation and free market adjustment.
- now they control their own currencies without completely depending on the US.
- the world bank was created for reconstruction and
➢ creation to facilitate private investment and reconstruction in Europe and develop in other countries.
➢ this entity gives out development loans. and demands reforms or ban recipients.
- the goal of bretton woods? Create an open trading system. - why do countries trade?
∙ Institutions Associated with Bretton Woods and what they do? o GATT/WTO: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) covers international trade in goods. The workings of the GATT agreement are the responsibility of the Council for Trade in Goods (Goods Council) which is made up of representatives from all WTO member countries. The current chair is Ambassador CHOI KYONGLIM (Korea, Republic of).
The Goods Council has 10 committees dealing with specific subjects (such as agriculture, market access, subsidies, anti dumping measures and so on). Again, these committees consist of all member countries.
o IMF: international monetary fund (IMF) to serve as a lender of last resort for countries with a balance of payment crisis .
becomes an agent of deregulation and free market adjustment. now they control their own currencies without completely
depending on the US.
o World Bank: the world bank was created for reconstruction and development. creation to facilitate private investment and reconstruction in Europe and develop in other countries.
∙ What are the benefits of free trade?
David Ricardo (1772-1823) Free trade is good for countries to produce what they do well. Better quality and lower prices. In theory it should be beneficial for all.
∙ What are the problems associated with free trade? ■ problems with this:
1. developmental barrier
2. this system needs winners and losers
3. vulnerability and interdependence.
On Global Inequality (Poverty); Chapter 12 (Class Lecture by Adam Ratzlaff)
∙ How can we measure poverty?
Poverty is measured by a dollar a day stat.
- Extreme poverty $2.50 (they adjust the dollar a day by inflation) - Moderate poverty: $4.00
- Vulnerable $4-10.00 (always at risk of falling into poverty and rolling back.)
- Middle class $10-50.00
- Rich $50 or more.
∙ Strategies for Development –who practiced these, were they successful? Why? Why not? (pp. 363-366)
Types of development ideas:
1. Traditional classic liberal approach:
• Laizzes fair policies
• Encourage private sector growth
• Free trade.
• Problems: promotes inequality. Besides, the US and UK didn’t grow with this, they protected themselves for a while.
2. Import substitution industrialization (ISI)
• Fernando Henrique Cordoso and dependent theory
• Seek to industrialize a country by substituting specific goods. • Industry protections
• Government subsidies or ownership of industries.
• Eventually reinsert into the global economy
• Many Latin America countries attempted this in the 1950-1970’s.
3. low export led industrialization, export oriented industry • Government sponsored ownership.
• Subsidized of protected inputs.
• Encourage foreign investment in specific sectors along with knowledge transfers.
• Strategy followed by the east Asian tigers.
• Problems: easy to fail.
International Law chapter 13: Lecture by Dr. Oates:
• Sources of International Law:
Practice of rules and princabples that government transnational interactions, primarily interactions of soverign states. International law is the language of international diplomacy.
• How is International Law different from Domestic Law? 1. No enforcement as we are in anarchy.
2. Only binds those who explicitly consent (with some ecceptions like Un securetu council, European Union.)
3. The subject of international law are states and government entitits, not individuals or people.
• Why do most states obey international law?
It has benefits like coexistence.
They make clear standards for states to follow that makes cooperation between states easy.
Helps build reputation.
• Jus ad bellum: When is it legal to go to war?
- Governed by the Un charter and customary international law like for self defence.
- Justice in war; governs the conduct in war and and govern by int humanitarian law like the Geneva convention.
o What does International Humanitarian Law Comprise?
The body that governs conduct in war and hostilities (Geneva conventions 1949)
1. Weapons prohibitions (gas, poison, chemical, ext.)
2. Treatment of detainees and prisonors of war, like no torture. 3. Civilian protections like how people shouldn’t be targeted if they’re not in combat.
o What is meant by Distinction and Proportionality?
Civilian protections; provides protections to civilians and civilian property during war. But they can be distinct and proportional:
1. Distinction; ared forces msut distinguish between civilians and military targets. Civilians cannot be targeted.
2. Proportional: attack that caused loss of civilian life. Theres way around this that its not a war crime;
Chapter 14 Environment
o WHO figures on deaths related to climate change and costs of treating problems tied to climate change
- Between 2030 and 2050, climate change is expected to cause approximately 250,000 additional deaths per year, from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea and heat stress.
- The direct damage costs to health (i.e. excluding costs in health determining sectors such as agriculture and water and
sanitation), is estimated to be between US$ 2-4 billion/year by 2030.
o Environment and development
o Palm oil
(professor Sardui’s powerpoint)
o Climate change and security
Putting securety in danger because of border desputes for water and other resources. As well as an abundance of natural disasters. o Focus of 2015 UN Sustainable Development Goals 1. End poverty – all forms, everywhere
2. End hunger… promote sustainable agriculture
6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
9. Sustainable industrialization, foster innovation
11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable
12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impact 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development
15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss o
o Focus on issues related to barriers to cooperation on collective action! pp. 427-435:
o Goal of the Paris Climate Accord:
-Financial guarantees to developing countries:
-give up fossil fuels
-defend against climate-driven food
scarcity, heat waves and storm damages
-Repercussions – Legally binding