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FIU / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS / IR 2001 / What are the primary functions of the security council in the united n

What are the primary functions of the security council in the united n

What are the primary functions of the security council in the united n

Description

School: Florida International University
Department: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Course: Introduction to International Relations
Professor: Naisy sarduy
Term: Winter 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: final study guide
Description: This is it; the last test of the year! This study guide covers all but chapters 5-6. It includes speeches, a summary of the powerpoints, and class notes.
Uploaded: 12/05/2017
12 Pages 71 Views 2 Unlocks
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INR 2001


What are the primary functions of the security council in the united nations?



Final Exam Study Guide (Fall 2017)

Study Guide will be updated to reflect material  

Chapters 5 & 6 (Based on the questions we answered in  the in class “quiz”) 

Highly suggested to read up n this segment on  

your own for the oncoming test. Most of such  

have not been directly talked about in class.  

Most of this study guide will focus on the  

powerpoints and class disscussions including  

chats, notes, and powerpoints. Also make sure to

read the case strudy of Paul D’Anieri.

From Chapter 7: International Organizations and  Transnational Actors/Related Class Lecture 


Who is a member of the security council?



United Nations  

 The Security Council:  

o What are its primary functions?

Under the Charter, the Security Council has primary responsibility for the  maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 members with  each having a vote.  

o Who are its permanent members? What special

power do they have?

China, France, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, and  the United States. Hey hold veto power. But there needs to be a two thirds  mayority votes for other things to pass from it’s members.  o How effective was it during the Cold War?  

It held both megapowers back as the US would Veto Russia and Russia would do the same to the US.  

o Are its decisions binding on UN members?


In bretton woods, when and for what purpose?



"The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the  decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter"  General Assembly

o Who is a member? Don't forget about the age old question of What is the description of how a statistician thinks data is produced?
If you want to learn more check out What refers to anything generally accepted as a medium of exchange?

All countries are represented. This is where they discuss budget, members of the security council, and other important matters. Each member has a vote  and for things to pass there needs to be a two thirds majority.  

- A new president every year

- 21 vice Presidents

o Are its resolutions binding?

Resolutions here are none binding.  

o What is its significance?  

Discussion and policy making. While a lot of the laws made are none binding, it gives an open door for countries to talk about solutions and to better  relations.  

- Agenda Setting: World Opinion We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of the male gamete?

 The Secretariat

o Current Secretary General?

António Guterres, portugal

o What power does the Secretary General have?

Nominated by Security Council, appointed by General Assembly 5 year term (renewable)

Can bring important issues to the attention of the Security Council to keep  world peace.

∙ ECOSOC and specialized agencies

o What is its role?

Advce on issues of sustainable developlent like economic, social, and  environmental. They’re also responcible to follow-up to major Un conferences and summits.  

Bringing states together to recognize issues,

sign treaties,

 monitor compliance,  

distributing specific forms of aid (vaccines, seeds, blankets, shelter, food)  Training,  We also discuss several other topics like What is the war on drugs?

coordinating other states and non-state actors,

gathering and disseminating information

o See PowerPoint Notes on UN  

Agencies/Programs and what their acronyms  

stand for

 UNEP; Environmental Program

 UNICEF; Children’s Fund

 UNHCR; High Commission for Refugees

 UNDP; Developmental Program

 IAEA; International Atomic Energy Agency

 WHO; World Health Organization

 UNESCO: UN Educational, Scientific and  

Cultural Organization

pp. 197-198:  

– UN as World Government (Good, Bad)

– UN as Irrelevant  

– UN as a Tool for States

– UN as a Source of Norms

– In the context of the above (pp. 197-198), how do the following theories interpret the UN: Realist, Liberal, Constructivist?

From Chapters 8 and 9 on Security/Use of Force and  Related Class Lectures on Security, Terrorism (from Dr.  Nebil Husayn), Changing Character of War and Nuclear  Proliferation 

PowerPoint and related reading from chapter 8 and 9 ∙   Pp. 235-237 on Civil War , be able to answer the questions  from class lecture on PowerPoint slides  

A war within the country that often brings a transformation  of ideals.  

➢ 95% of armed conflicts are civil wars. If you want to learn more check out What is the cohort effect in psychology?
We also discuss several other topics like Which basic structural feature characterizes the basin and range province of the western united states?

➢ It’s also a tactic to get around a state.

- One of the causes of identity issues inside a country.  - But money is an important element. Civil wars could be about  grievances or management of resources. There’s an economic  explanation as to why many civil wars exist.  

➢ Some governments could buy off the people to avoid a civil war.  ∙ Economic crisis; poor people do not panic because they don’t have  much to lose but most civil wars are started by the middle class when  they are displeased by the economic issue.  

∙ Resources; resource rich countries can help insurgence fund their  movements like drugs, oil, and diamonds.

- These elements create fragile/failed states; states unable to  control itself.

∙   Case study on Iraq’s Insurgency, p. 238  

(missing information. Needs further research from the  reader)

PowerPoint on the Changing Character of War also under  week 10 and Chapter 9 

∙   Definition/Features of:

o Westphalian War

Made it so that states went to war against states, not  kings.  

-Society bound by nationalism

-Industrial Revolution

o Total War

Complete mobilization of human, economic, military  resources. Like WW1 and 2

o Revolution in Military Affairs

 Case study on drones, p. 254, 260 & 283 - Guided weapons: Smart Bombs, Cruise Missiles - Satellites and GPS (information gathering,  guiding smart bombs)

- Drones

- “War on Terror”: Pakistan, Yemen, Libya

- Also acquired by: Israel, Britain, China, Russia,  India, Pakistan, Turkey, Italy, Germany, France,  Iran, Saudi Arabia

- Hezbollah

- Space satellites, GPS (information gathering,  guiding smart bombs)

- anti-satellite warfare (Iraq, 2003: jamming U.S.  signals)  

- Hezbollah against Israel in 2006

- Google Earth pictures used in Mumbai terror  attack

- War Outsourced/Privatized Protection:

- Privatized Military Companies (PMCs)

o Cyber Warfare:

- Destroying command-control, information systems - U.S.-Israeli: Stuxnet Virus; Flame Virus

- Attack on Saudi oil company

- U.S. elections

- 140 countries have cyber warfare development  programs

o Asymmetric Warfare:  

- When one side of the battle is overwhelmingly  more technologically advanced than the other.

Making for a one sided warfair with that one side  

overwhelming the other.  

- Speed, power, accuracy, reducing distance,  

reducing casualties (military –for those that have  

them, and civilian

- State vs non-state actors

- Terrorist networks, militias, warlords

- Non-state loyalties/identities:  

- Ethnic, religious, sectarian

o Securitization

Ole Waever: Copenhagen School  

- Security is a “speech act”: Security is what we  

make of it

- A securitizing actor (a government, leader)  

provides an argument that transforms an issue  

from something “normal” to an “existential threat” that demands emergency action, extraordinary  

measures

- The AUDIENCE accepts the threat and grants  

power to the Securitizing actor

- The issue is made a priority

- Democratic discussion could be curtailed

- A Construction of “Us vs. Them” is made

PowerPoint on Nuclear Proliferation (ch. 9) 

- Types of proliferations;

➢ Vertical proliferation: Building up and up nuclear weapons like the US  and the USSR.  

➢ Horizontal proliferation: increase in number of states that possess  nuclear weapons.  

➢ Extended Deterrence: nuclear umbrella to deter attack on allies like  the US to it’s current allies. The allies may not have weapons themselves.  ➢ Sufficiency approach: minimal for deterrence. France and UK have  nuclear weapons but not much.

➢ Nuclear opacity: unclear – undeclared. Some countries do not want to  be obligated under NPT but nuclear weapons are not morally questionable but it may question their political view. (Israel).

➢ Nuclear latency: countries that have the technology but not the  weapons.  

- Countries getting nuclear weapons by year:

● 1945: United States: Developed and Used

● 1949: Soviet Union

● 1952: Great Britain

● 1960: France

● 1964: China

● 1960s: Israel (?) – 1979 (Israel and South Africa tested)

● 1998: India (formally - weapon), Pakistan

● 2006: North Korea

Fear of proliferation:

- Then in 1957 formation IAEA (international atomic energy agency)  under the UN to assist the sharing of scientific and technical information  related to nuclear energy.

➢ Monitoring

➢ The NPT non-proliferation; treaty regime.  

- Nuclear weapons are very wanted for their power to be a deterrent and promise of ultimate security. But there’s been complex rules to slow down/ stop the spread of nuclear weapons.  

➢ These complex systems are:

● Communication institutions like the postal services.

● Trade regimes

● Security regimes

● Environmental deals

- NTP: 1970 nuclear non-proliferation treaty. It has 190 countries signed  on with some countries like the US, UK, USSR, France, and china  recognized with the rights to nuclear weapons. All other states agreed to  shut down their nuclear arsenals and the recognized powers were to  eliminate their arsenals. Only peaceful technology was to be allowed. ➢ Many states say that this treaty is unfair that few countries can control  others.

➢ Salt I (anti-ballistic missiles) 1972, US and USSR. Limiting the number  of missiles and defenses after MAD.

➢ Reagan had strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars)

➢ National Missile defense  

➢ 1979 SALT II; quantity not quality with ICBMs and SLBM limit. ➢ 1990s start I & start II with strategic arms treaties to reduce stockpiles. ➢ 2010 new start.

- Global zero: movement wants to rid the world of all weapons. Politics  matters how we unweaponized people.

Chapters 10 and 11 On International Political Economy,  Globalization and Trade, Class Lectures by Nicolas  Beckmann (Notes) 

∙ Bretton Woods: When and for what purpose?  

- 1970’s oil crisis with the effect of Arabic companies on strikes  against Israel. It’s a good example of economics and politics in world  affairs. They tend to ignore more the political side of international  relations.

- Starting world of our own modern economic system: ➢ Belton woods monetary conference of 1944

➢ Countries met to organize the world economy after WWII. Why?

1. Ensure to avoid the great depression of the 1930’s  

2. Rebuild a war-torn economy of Europe.

How to create this?

1. Create a world monetary system in an open world trading  system.

Informal international rules to help cross border investment and to  move capital between states.

2. Provide Europeaid.

- Stabilizing the monetary system;

In the past, they used to do it with the gold standard and tie their value to gold. 1) This had problems with increasing in trade and production  led to falling prices. 2) state loses monetary policy with controlling  their own supply of money as a tool.

- decision- makers of Bretton woods for this problem:

1. countries fixed their currency to the dollar while the dollar  hung to gild value. This allowed countries to make small  

adjustments to their currency,

2. they created the international monetary fund (IMF) to serve as a lender of last resort for countries with a balance of  payment crisis.

➢ the crisis that a country has exported more than it can  import.

- it worked ok for two decades until the crash of 1970’s where  inflation increased and so did unemployment. After this the US  abandoned the gold standard and other countries started to let their  currencies float according to market.  

➢ beginning of the system we have in place now; mix  market mercantilist + state interventions.

- IMF becomes an agent of deregulation and free market  adjustment.  

- now they control their own currencies without completely  depending on the US.  

- the world bank was created for reconstruction and  

development.

➢ creation to facilitate private investment and reconstruction  in Europe and develop in other countries.

➢ this entity gives out development loans. and demands  reforms or ban recipients.

- the goal of bretton woods? Create an open trading system. - why do countries trade?  

∙ Institutions Associated with Bretton Woods and what they do? o GATT/WTO: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)  covers international trade in goods. The workings of the GATT  agreement are the responsibility of the Council for Trade in  Goods (Goods Council) which is made up of representatives from  all WTO member countries. The current chair is Ambassador  CHOI KYONGLIM (Korea, Republic of).

The Goods Council has 10 committees dealing with specific  subjects (such as agriculture, market access, subsidies, anti dumping measures and so on). Again, these committees consist  of all member countries.

o IMF: international monetary fund (IMF) to serve as a lender of  last resort for countries with a balance of payment crisis .  

becomes an agent of deregulation and free market adjustment.  now they control their own currencies without completely  

depending on the US.

o World Bank: the world bank was created for reconstruction and  development. creation to facilitate private investment and  reconstruction in Europe and develop in other countries.

∙ What are the benefits of free trade?  

David Ricardo (1772-1823) Free trade is good for countries to produce  what they do well. Better quality and lower prices. In theory it should  be beneficial for all.

∙ What are the problems associated with free trade? ■ problems with this:

1. developmental barrier

2. this system needs winners and losers

3. vulnerability and interdependence.

On Global Inequality (Poverty); Chapter 12 (Class Lecture  by Adam Ratzlaff) 

∙   How can we measure poverty?  

Poverty is measured by a dollar a day stat.

- Extreme poverty $2.50 (they adjust the dollar a day by inflation) - Moderate poverty: $4.00

- Vulnerable $4-10.00 (always at risk of falling into poverty and  rolling back.)

- Middle class $10-50.00

- Rich $50 or more.

∙   Strategies for Development –who practiced these, were they  successful? Why? Why not? (pp. 363-366)  

Types of development ideas:

1. Traditional classic liberal approach:

• Laizzes fair policies

• Encourage private sector growth

• Free trade.

• Problems: promotes inequality. Besides, the US and UK didn’t grow with this, they protected themselves for a while.  

2. Import substitution industrialization (ISI) 

• Fernando Henrique Cordoso and dependent theory

• Seek to industrialize a country by substituting specific goods. • Industry protections

• Government subsidies or ownership of industries.

• Eventually reinsert into the global economy

• Many Latin America countries attempted this in the 1950-1970’s.

3. low export led industrialization, export oriented industry • Government sponsored ownership.

• Subsidized of protected inputs.

• Encourage foreign investment in specific sectors along with knowledge  transfers.

• Strategy followed by the east Asian tigers.

• Problems: easy to fail.

International Law chapter 13: Lecture by Dr. Oates:

• Sources of International Law:

Practice of rules and princabples that government transnational interactions,  primarily interactions of soverign states. International law is the language of  international diplomacy.  

• How is International Law different from Domestic Law? 1. No enforcement as we are in anarchy.

2. Only binds those who explicitly consent (with some ecceptions like Un  securetu council, European Union.)

3. The subject of international law are states and government entitits, not individuals or people.

• Why do most states obey international law?

It has benefits like coexistence.  

They make clear standards for states to follow that makes cooperation  between states easy.

Helps build reputation.

• Jus ad bellum: When is it legal to go to war?

- Governed by the Un charter and customary international law like  for self defence.

- Justice in war; governs the conduct in war and and govern by int  humanitarian law like the Geneva convention.  

o What does International Humanitarian Law Comprise?

The body that governs conduct in war and hostilities (Geneva  conventions 1949)

1. Weapons prohibitions (gas, poison, chemical, ext.)

2. Treatment of detainees and prisonors of war, like no torture. 3. Civilian protections like how people shouldn’t be targeted if  they’re not in combat.  

o What is meant by Distinction and Proportionality?

Civilian protections; provides protections to civilians and civilian property  during war. But they can be distinct and proportional:

1. Distinction; ared forces msut distinguish between civilians and military  targets. Civilians cannot be targeted.

2. Proportional: attack that caused loss of civilian life. Theres way around this that its not a war crime;

- Unintentional

- Necessary

- Proportional

Chapter 14 Environment 

o WHO figures on deaths related to climate change and costs of  treating problems tied to climate change

- Between 2030 and 2050, climate change is expected to cause  approximately 250,000 additional deaths per year, from  malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea and heat stress.

- The direct damage costs to health (i.e. excluding costs in health determining sectors such as agriculture and water and  

sanitation), is estimated to be between US$ 2-4 billion/year by  2030.

o Environment and development

o Palm oil

(professor Sardui’s powerpoint)

o Climate change and security

Putting securety in danger because of border desputes for water and  other resources. As well as an abundance of natural disasters.  o Focus of 2015 UN Sustainable Development Goals 1. End poverty – all forms, everywhere

2. End hunger… promote sustainable agriculture

6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and  sanitation for all

7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full  and productive employment and decent work for all

9. Sustainable industrialization, foster innovation

11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and  sustainable

12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impact 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine  resources for sustainable development

15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial  ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and  halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss o

o Focus on issues related to barriers to cooperation on collective action! pp. 427-435:

o Goal of the Paris Climate Accord:

-Financial guarantees to developing countries:

-give up fossil fuels

-defend against climate-driven food  

scarcity, heat waves and storm damages

-Repercussions – Legally binding

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