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FSU - PHI 2100 - Week 2 Notes - Class Notes

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FSU - PHI 2100 - Week 2 Notes - Class Notes

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background image Enthymenes ● Most args rely on suppressed premises. ● Statement that isn’t explicit in the given arg, but which is necessary to make it  valid/sound. ○ A dog was kept in the stalls, and yet, though someone had been in and fetched out a horse, [the dog] had not barked….obviously the….visitor was someone whom  the dog knew well. ○ Relies on unstated premise that dogs bark at stranger. ■ The dog did not bark at the visitor. ■ If the visitor were a stranger, the dog would have barked. ■ Therefore the visitor was not a stranger. Why fill in suppressed premises? 1. To examine and assess arg functions.
2. To understand the arg better.
Why are they legit? 1. Those who are given the arg can easily supply the unstated premises for themselves. a. And 2. The unstated premises are uncontroversial. This is important, because some would be  tricked by someone suppressing a controversial premise. Logical Form 1. P or Q. 2. Not P.
3. Therefore Q.
Basic Units ● Propositional logic is a branch of formal logic in which propositions or sentences are the  basic units. ● The sentences that we study in propositional logic are those sentences with truth values. Types of Sentences
background image ● Questions, commands, and expressions of emotions are not truth­apt. ● Truth­apt sentence is a sentence of the sort that can be true or false. Premises and  conclusions must be truth­apt. ● Test: Does it make sense to ask whether a given sentence is true/false? If so, it is truth­ apt. ● Interrogative ● Imperative ● Emotive Truth Value ● True and false are properties of sentences. ● True sentence has a value of T ● False has F Natural lang=complex ● The sentence ‘some days are rainy’ in English has several smaller sub­sentential  components. ● In propositional logic, the sentence “Some days are rainy” can only be understood as a  single unit. Propositional connectives ● Prop connectives are terms that connect sentences to produce new ones. ‘Socrates is wise  and Aristotle is intelligent.’ ● English has many. ● Compound sentence is the result. Truth­functional connectives ● There is a subset of propositional connectives called truth­functional connectives. ● A compound sentence generated by this is one in which truth­value is wholly determined  by truth­values of those one or more sentences from which the compound is generated. ○ In other words: Truth­value of whole sentences comes from the truth­value of  components. ● Connectives used truth­functionally=truth­functional connectives.
background image ● Truth­functionally compound sentence=generated by truth­functional connectives. Conjunction ● Consider following: ○ Achilles is swift and the tortoise is slow. ● Sentence is a compound made up of two simple sentences. ○ Achilles is swift ○ The tortoise is slow ● Two simple sentences are conjoined by ‘and’ which is serving as a truth functional  connective. Propositional Form ● We can pass from sentences to propositional form by replacing sentences with variables  and appropriate connectives. ● Simplest case: ○ Thales is absent minded, abbreviated A and prop form is p. ○ Socrates is wise, abb. S prop p Aristotle is crafty, abb c prop p.

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School: Florida State University
Department: Philosophy
Course: Reasoning and Critical Thinking
Professor: Michael Bishop
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: reasoning
Name: Week 2 Notes
Description: In preparation for the final, I am uploading my notes throughout the semester.
Uploaded: 12/06/2017
9 Pages 33 Views 26 Unlocks
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