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FSU - PHI 2100 - PHI2100 Week 4 Notes - Class Notes

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FSU - PHI 2100 - PHI2100 Week 4 Notes - Class Notes

School: Florida State University
Department: Philosophy
Course: Reasoning and Critical Thinking
Professor: Michael Bishop
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: reasoning
Name: PHI2100 Week 4 Notes
Description: These notes cover week 4.
Uploaded: 12/06/2017
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background image Good arg? 1. The sun has come up every day for billions of years.
2. Therefore, the sun will come up tomorrow.
Deductive 1. If professor Plum’s fingerprints are on the murder weapon, then Plum killed Scarlet. Inductive examples 1. 60% of country voters polled are democrats. 2. Therefore, about 60% of country voters are democrats. ● An argument is inductively strong if and only if it is improbable that the conclusion is  false given that all its premises are true. ● Standard of inductive arguments is inductive strength. ● Inductive argument is cogent if and only if it is both strong and has all true premises. Degrees of strength 1. All respondents plan on voting for Hillary. 2. Therefore, all New Yorkers plan on voting for Hillary. Defeasibility ● Inductive args are defeasible. New evidence can undermine the arg. ● Valid args are indefeasible. ● Strength: Spectrum, and defeasible in contrast to deductively valid all­or­nothing  indefeasible args. Misconceptions ● Often thought that inductive is inferior to deductive. False. ● Can prove things that deductive args cannot prove and have a lot of application. We use  them all the time in science and reasoning. ● Not move from particular to general, it can work in both ways. ○ Inductive generalizations: Moving up from a sample to generalization. ○ Inductive applications: Down from generalization to a prediction in a particular  instance. 1. All observed Fs have been G.
background image 2. Therefore, all Fs are G. ● First F=G. ● Second F=G. ● Third F=G. ● Rest of F=G. ● Therefore, all Fs are G. ● F=reference class, G=attribute class. Evaluating Generalization 1. Are premises true and justified?
2. Sample size?
Slanting ● Sometimes polls are phrased in a way to get a certain result. ○ Q1: Should we kill a mouse to save a human? ○ Q2: Should animals be tortured in science experiments? Strength of apps and probs 1. 10% of faculty member in Dodd Hall are philosophers. 2. Smith is a faculty member in Dodd Hall.
3. Therefore, Smith is probably not a philosopher.
● Both positive and negative applications are strong depending on the numbers. ● Suppose Jones finds out that he has disease D. ● Jones finds out that 90% of people with disease D. ● Jones discovers that D usually hits the elderly, youth mortality is 20%. 1. 90% of people with disease D.
2. Jones has disease D.
3. Jones will likely die. Then, 1. 20% of young people with disease D.
2. Jones has disease D.
3. Jones will likely not die. Heart condition=60%. 1. 60% of young people who have a heart condition with disease D die.
2. Jones is a young person with a heart condition with disease D.
3. Jones will probably die.
background image Treatment T. 1. 30% of young people who have a condition with disease D but take treatment T die.
2. Jones is a young person who has a heart condition with disease D but takes treatment T.
3. Jones will likely not die. SPECIFICITY OF REFERENCE CLASS IS KEY

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School: Florida State University
Department: Philosophy
Course: Reasoning and Critical Thinking
Professor: Michael Bishop
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: reasoning
Name: PHI2100 Week 4 Notes
Description: These notes cover week 4.
Uploaded: 12/06/2017
8 Pages 71 Views 56 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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