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BYU-I - BIO 264 - Study Guide - Final

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BYU-I - BIO 264 - Study Guide - Final

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background image                                                                                                                                    BIO 264: Anatomy & Physiology 
                                                                                                                                                       Notes from readings 
BIO 264: Anatomy & Physiology I  STUDY GUIDE – FINAL  LABELS: IMPORTANT NEED TO KNOW TERMS  1.  Understand matter, chemical bonds, atomic structure, neutrons and protons, their 
characteristics, and isotopes.
  a.  Matter: composed of elements (substances that cannot be broken down into simpler  materials by chemical process – building blocks are atoms).  b.  Chemical bonds includes: ionic bonds (anions and cations – opposite charges create an  attraction to hold them together); covalent bonds (bonds formed by sharing electrons); 
hydrogen bonds (interaction between molecules containing polar covalent bonds, also 
called intermolecular force). 
c.  Sub-atomic particles includes Protons (positively charged; have mass; located in the center  or nucleus of atom); Neutrons (have no charge; have mass; located at the nucleus; they bind 
with protons to stabilize the nucleus); Electrons (negatively charged; extremely small with 
mass only 1/1850 of proton or neutron; move around nucleus at high speed). 
i.  Atomic number unique number for any element ; expressed as a subscript.  ii.  Mass number: Tells the total mass of an element (i.e. the weight); also called atomic 
mass
sum of protons and neutrons iii.  Electron configurations: used to determine the chemical properties of an element; 
(note: chemical properties are determined by the number of electrons in the outermost 
shell of that element). 
iv.  Isotope: same element, different number of neutrons in nuclei; differ in relative atomic 
mass but not chemical properties. 
 
2.  Differentiate between biological membranes, transport systems, types of lipids and their  properties.  A.  The main function of the biological membrane is to separate the intracellular and extracellular  environment; for the  proper maintenance of cell functions   Moving substances across membranes are  based on input of cell energy or not . Have 2.    Passive transport: no energy is required 
  Active transport: energy is required; mainly ATP. 
B.  Transport systems includes diffusion (process of gradual movement of particles from where they  are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated; two types are simple and 
facilitated), active transport (when cell moves solutes against its concentration gradient; 
comprises primary active transport and secondary active transport), bulk transport (cells move 
much larger materials across the membrane; includes endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, 
and exocytosis). 
C.  Lipid types  Phospholipids: contains the hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail. 
Triglycerides: found in glycerol; has three fatty acid groups. 
background image                                                                                                                                    BIO 264: Anatomy & Physiology 
                                                                                                                                                       Notes from readings 
Cholesterol/steroids: a compound of the sterol group is cholesterol; important constituents of 
cell membrane, precursor to steroids. 
Lipoprotein: lipid transporters; soluble proteins. 
 
3.  Recall the divisions of the nervous system, brain parts and functions,   1)  The brain is the center of the nervous system; it functions by receiving, evaluating and  responding to sensory input, storing information, planning future activities, reasoning and 
abstract thought. 
i.  Divided into Cerebrum: largest and most superior part; divided into two hemispheres by 
the longitudinal fissure and each hemisphere is further divided into lobes, making the 
frontalparietaltemporal and the occipital lobes; contains cerebral cortex (functions to 
include memory, attention, perception, thought, movement, language and 
consciousness. 
  Diencephalon: region at the core of the brain; surrounded by the cerebral  hemispheres; is the connection between the brain stem and the cerebrum and 
consists of three gray matter structures; the thalamusthe hypothalamus and 
the epithalamus
Thalamus  edits and sorts out information; categorizes similar functions to be  relayed as a group to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. The  hypothalamus  is the visceral control center; it regulates functions of the  internal organs. It is chiefly concerned with maintaining homeostasisreferred 
to as the brain within the brain
. The 
epithalamus  is the most dorsal of the  structures of the diencephalon; includes the habenular nuclei and the pineal 
gland.
 
  Brainstem: connects brain with spinal cord; subdivided into three regions: the  midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.    The cerebellum (little brain) – sits under the occipital lobes of the cerebral  hemispheres; attaches to the brain stem. It functions in motor learning, motor 
coordination and equilibrium.  
 
4.  Review the functions and uses of special senses. 
A.  Sense of taste 
i)  Taste buds: receptors responsible for transmitting taste qualities; located on the dorsal  surface of the tongue; housed in epithelial projections called lingual papillae (types includes 
– circumvallate (large groove); fungiform (mushroom shaped); foliate (lea shape); and 
fungiform papillae (string shaped) all based on shape). 
ii)  Types of taste includes: Sweet, bitter, umami, salt, and sour.  B.  Sense of smell  i.  Olfactory neurons: a type of cell which contains olfactory receptors that can bind to 
odorants once they are dissolved in a solution. 
ii.  Olfactory cortex: point of synapse of olfactory neurons; involved in conscious 
perception. 
iii.  Olfactory sensation can be relayed to the cerebral cortex without passing through the 
thalamus. 

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School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Lanning Baker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: anatomy&physiologyI, Biology, Studyguide, and final exam
Name: bio 264 final exams study guide
Description: This is a study guide to help fellow student understand certain terms, use definitions, and basics on anatomy & physiology I.
Uploaded: 12/06/2017
3 Pages 19 Views 15 Unlocks
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