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UGA / OTHER / Psych 1101 / what is Applied Psychology?

what is Applied Psychology?

what is Applied Psychology?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: OTHER
Course: Elementary Psychology
Professor: Adam goodie
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: psych, Psychology, ElementaryPsychology, and psych1101
Cost: 50
Name: PSYCH FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Description: These notes cover all the chapters for this psychology final.
Uploaded: 12/06/2017
27 Pages 6 Views 15 Unlocks
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PSYCH FINAL STUDY GUIDE University of Georgia


what is Applied Psychology?



CHAPTER 1

What​ ​is​ ​Psychology?

1. Clinical and Counseling Psychology

a. Psychiatry

b. Med school

c. Drugs

d. Freudian tradition

2. Applied Psychology

a. School

b. Industrial

c. Human factors

3. Research Psychology

a. Cognitive

b. Neuroscience

c. Social

d. Developmental

History​ ​of​ ​Psychology

● The Greeks

○ Socrates

■ Nativism: you were born with knowledge

○ Aristotle

■ Tabula rasa: blank slate; opposite of Socrates

● Rene Descartes

○ Positivism

○ Dualism

● The British Empiricists

○ John Locke and David Hume

■ Empiricism: All knowledge comes from experience

1

● Immanuel Kant

○ Self, justice, and causation

● Wilhelm Wundt

○ Introspection and structuralism


what is Research Psychology?



○ “Father of psychology”

● William James

○ Functionalism

○ 1st to bring psych to America

● John B. Watson

○ Behaviorist Manifesto

■ Psych should be about behavior, not the mind

Dichotomy​ ​of​ ​Psychology

Nature​ ​(​ ​birth)

Nurture​ ​(acquired​ ​from​ ​environment)

Socrates’ inherited knowledge

Aristotle’s tabula rasa

Descartes’ soul

British Empiricists and learned

associations

Kant and innate ideas

behaviorism

Cognitive revolution

1.​ ​Descartes’​ ​ideas​ ​placed​ ​him​ ​on​ ​which​ ​side​ ​of​ ​the​ ​nature​ ​vs.​ ​nurture​ ​debate? a. Nature

b. Nurture

c. Both 

d. He didn’t have ideas on either side

2.​ ​Whereas​ ​Wilhelm​ ​Wundt​ ​sought​ ​to​ ​uncover​ ​the​ ​stable​ ​structure​ ​of​ ​conscious experience,​ ​____________​ ​sought​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​how​ ​conscious​ ​experience​ ​changes over​ ​time. 


what is the difference between clinical and counselling psychology?



Don't forget about the age old question of lsu horticulture

a. William James c. John Locke

b. John Watson d. Immanuel Kant

2

CHAPTER 2

How​ ​Things​ ​Are​ ​Measures

● Theory

● Hypothesis

● Variable Dimensions

○ Mean: the average

○ Mode: Most often

○ Median: the middle

○ Range: largest score minus smallest score

● Variability

○ The SPREAD of scores in a distribution

● Standard Deviation

○ How far scores tend to be from the mean We also discuss several other topics like ccu afford

Correlation​ ​Coefficient

● When looking at a scatter plot, the statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.

● Ranges from +1.00 to -1.00

● Zero: means there is no relationship between variables

● CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION 

3.​ ​Which​ ​of​ ​the​ ​correlations​ ​below​ ​shows​ ​the​ ​strongest​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​two variables? 

a. 0.3 c. 0.77

b. -0.1 d. -0.89 

Inferential​ ​Statistics

● Used to draw conclusions about larger populations

● Population

○ Complete collection of participants who might be measured

● Sample

○ Partial collection of people drawn from a population

3

4.​ ​In​ ​a​ ​study,​ ​which​ ​variable​ ​is​ ​manipulated? 

a. The confounding variable c. The control variable

b. The dependent variable d. The independent variable 

CHAPTER 3

Nervous​ ​System

● Nerve

○ Bundle of neurons

● Excitatory vs. inhibitory signals

We also discuss several other topics like thomas hummel uiuc

5.​ ​Louise​ ​came​ ​home​ ​one​ ​night​ ​to​ ​find​ ​a​ ​burglar​ ​in​ ​her​ ​house.​ ​Her​ ​heart​ ​started racing​ ​and​ ​she​ ​began​ ​to​ ​perspire.​ ​These​ ​physical​ ​reactions​ ​were​ ​triggered​ ​by activity​ ​within​ ​Louise’s: 

a. Sympathetic nervous system 

b. Somatic nervous system

c. Parasympathetic nervous system

d. Cerebellum

4

Major​ ​Types​ ​of​ ​Neurons

● Sensory

● Motor

● Interneurons

● Glial Cells

Components​ ​of​ ​Neurons

● Dendrites

○ Collects electric signals

● Cell body

○ Integrates incoming signals

● Axon

○ Passes signals to dendrites of another neuron

● Terminal

○ synapse

Synaptic​ ​Transmission

1. The action potential travels down the axon

2. Stimulates the release of neurotransmitters

3. Neurotransmitters are released into synapse where they float to bind with receptor sites on a dendrite, initiating NEW ACTION POTENTIAL 4. Neurotransmitters are cleared out of synapse by reuptake into the sending neuron

5. Being broken down by enzymes in the synapse

6. OR binding to autoreceptors on the sending neurons.

6.​ ​Which​ ​is​ ​the​ ​correct​ ​pathway​ ​of​ ​a​ ​signal​ ​traveling​ ​through​ ​a​ ​neuron? a. Terminal, cell body, dendrites, axon.

b. Axon, terminal, cell body, dendrites. Don't forget about the age old question of after learning the combination for his new locker at school, milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. milton is experiencing the effects of...

c. Cell body, dendrites, axon, terminal.

d. Dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal. 

5

6B.​ ​The​ ​electrical​ ​signal​ ​that​ ​travels​ ​down​ ​an​ ​axon​ ​is​ ​called.​ ​.​ ​. 

a. A synapse. c. A neuro-transmission

b. An action potential d. A vesicle Don't forget about the age old question of ub linguistics

Neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine

Motor control, attention, learning & memory Don't forget about the age old question of uta spanish major

Alzheimer’s Disease

Dopamine

Motor control, pleasure, emotional arousal

Drug addiction

Glutamate

Neurotransmission

Seizures

Norepinephrine

Awareness

Reduces allergic reaction

Serotonin

Sleep, aggressive behavior

Depression

Endorphins

Alleviate pain, elevate moods

Drugs

● Agonists

● Antagonists

Parts​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Brain

● Hindbrain 

○ Medulla: breathing, heartbeat, swallowing, coughing

○ Cerebellum: balance, involuntary and fine movement

○ Pons: communication b/t cerebellum and other regions of brain ○ Reticular Formation: sleep and consciousness

● Midbrain 

○ Tegmentum and Tectum: guide movement towards or away from stimuli ● Forebrain 

○ Thalamus: final sensory processing

6

○ Pituitary gland: hormones

○ Limbic system

■ Hippocampus: memory

■ Amygdala: fear, rage

■ Hypothalamus: feeding, feeling, fighting, mating

The​ ​Cortex

● Corpus Callosum: connects both hemispheres

● Left Hemisphere: language, speech, handwriting, math ● Right Hemisphere: visual, artistic, musical skills

Forebrain-​ ​Cerebral​ ​Cortex

● Frontal: thought, personality info

● Parietal: sensory info

● Temporal: learning, memory processing, auditory info ● Occipital: visual info

Cerebral​ ​Cortex

● Primary motor cortex: processes voluntary movement ● Somatosensory Cortex: receives info about touch, body position

Language​ ​Regions

● Broca’s Aphasia

○ Inability to produce words correctly

● Wernicke’s Aphasia

○ Inability to understand or produce meaningful language Treatments/​ ​Machines

● Split Brain Surgery

● Computerized Axial Tomography (CT)

● Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

● Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

● Electroencephalograph (EEG)

● Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

7

7.​ ​Which​ ​lobe​ ​in​ ​the​ ​forebrain​ ​makes​ ​humans​ ​the​ ​most​ ​unique​ ​compared​ ​to​ ​other species? 

a. Frontal c. Temporal

b. Parietal d. Occipital

8.​ ​Which​ ​area​ ​of​ ​the​ ​brain​ ​is​ ​known​ ​for​ ​plasticity? 

a. Amygdala c. Cortex 

b. Tectum d. Medulla

9.​ ​Which​ ​of​ ​the​ ​following​ ​is​ ​known​ ​as​ ​the​ ​master​ ​gland? 

a. Thalamus c. Amygdala

b. Limbic d. Pituitary 

10.​ ​The​ ​Wernicke’s​ ​area​ ​of​ ​the​ ​brain​ ​controls​ ​which​ ​function? 

a. Producing language c. Attention

b. Vision d. Language comprehension 

CHAPTER 4

The​ ​Eye

Aqueous humor

Watery liquid in front of pupil

Vitreous Humor

“Thick” liquid, carries blood supply

Lens

Collects light and focuses it towards back

Retina

Made of neurons, respond to light

Iris

Color of eye, widens/constricts pupil

Cornea

Gathers and focuses visual images

Optic Nerve

Transmits electrical impulses to brain

8

Visual​ ​Receptors

● Cones: color, fine detail, motion

● Rods: majority, see in dim light

● Bipolar Cells: where cones and rods send their signals

● Ganglion Cells: the ones sent to the optic nerve

Depth​ ​perception

● Monocular cues

○ Overlap

○ Familiar size

○ Motion parallax

○ Linear perspective

● Physiological Cues

○ Accommodation

○ Convergence

The​ ​Ear

Pinna

Flap of cartilage

Eardrum

Controls pressure coming in and out of ear

Eustachian tube

Makes sure pressure is balanced between inner and outer ear

Cochlea

Receives sound in form of vibrations

Semicircular canal

Contains fluid that helps with balance

Perceiving​ ​Sound

● Place code

○ Low frequencies fire at apex

○ High frequencies fire at base

● Temporal code

○ Cochlea registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potentials ● Amplitude

○ How much more pressure pulse of air exerts than standing air

9

● Pitch

○ Highness or lowness of sound

● Overtones

○ Different ways of producing 100 Hz produce different amplitudes of overtones

Skin​ ​Senses

● Touch, pressure, warm, cold, changes in pressure, pain

● Kinesthetic sense

● Vestibular sense (balance)

Smell​ ​(olfaction)

Taste​ ​(gustation)

● Difference between taste and flavor

● Taste is what your tongue detects

● Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami (savory)

11.​ ​Collectively,​ ​the​ ​rods​ ​and​ ​cones​ ​are​ ​known​ ​as. 

a. The blind spots c. Vitreous humor

b. Photoreceptors d. The fovea

12.​ ​The​ ​only​ ​sense​ ​directly​ ​connected​ ​to​ ​the​ ​forebrain​ ​is: 

a. Vision c. Olfaction. 

b. Somatosensation d. Gustation.

13.​ ​The​ ​small,​ ​visible​ ​bumps​ ​on​ ​the​ ​tongue​ ​are​ ​called: 

a. Taste receptor cells. c. Taste buds

b. ORNs d. Papillae. 

14.​ ​Cochlear​ ​base​ ​is​ ​to​ ​cochlear​ ​tip​ ​as: 

a. A simple tone is to a complex tone. c. High frequency is to low frequency. b. A loud noise is to a soft noise. d. Temporal code is to place code.

10

CHAPTER 5

Learning

● Classical conditioning

○ Ivan Pavlov

○ Found that dogs learned to salivate once bell was conditioned with food. ○ Developed Classical conditioning

○ (US) Unconditioned Stimulus

■ The original stimulus that causes a reaction.

■ Produces (UR) Unconditioned Response

● A reflexive reaction that if continually paired with original stimulus

will cause an association.

○ (CS) Conditioned Stimulus

■ A previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response after being paired with an (US).

● Causes a (CR) conditioned response

● Operant conditioning

○ The reinforcer depends on the response

○ A day’s pay for a day’s work

● Punishment vs. Reinforcement

○ Punishment is more effective if done immediately

○ Harsh punishment can result in fear or anger

15.​ ​Which​ ​is​ ​not​ ​a​ ​form​ ​of​ ​learning? 

a. Conditioning (operant/classical) c. Insight

b. Observational d. All of the above 

16.​ ​A​ ​child​ ​hits​ ​another​ ​child​ ​and​ ​gets​ ​punished.​ ​In​ ​theoretical​ ​terms,​ ​what​ ​is​ ​the point​ ​of​ ​the​ ​punishment? 

a. To change how a child feels about violence

b. To change how often that behavior happens 

c. To change make the child fear the parent

11

17.​ ​Because​ ​you​ ​received​ ​all​ ​A’s​ ​on​ ​your​ ​last​ ​report​ ​card,​ ​your​ ​Dad​ ​decided​ ​to reward​ ​you​ ​by​ ​not​ ​making​ ​you​ ​take​ ​the​ ​trash​ ​out​ ​for​ ​a​ ​month.​ ​This​ ​is​ ​an​ ​example of: 

a. Negative Reinforcement c. Positive Reinforcement b. Negative Punishment d. Positive Punishment

CHAPTER 6

3​ ​Pre-Natal​ ​Stages

● Germinal

● Embryonic

● Fetal

Cephalocaudal​ ​Rule​ ​(top​ ​→​ ​bottom)

● Tendency for motor behavior emerge in sequence from head to feet.

Proximodistal​ ​Rule​ ​(inside​ ​→​ ​outside)

● Tendency for motor behavior to emerge in sequence from center to periphery. Childhood

● Sensorimotor Stage: 

○ Period of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy

● Pre-Operational Stage: 

○ Begins about 2 years, ends at 6 years

○ Kids have preliminary understanding of physical world.

○ Object permanence is acquired

○ Speaking first words

○ Egocentrism

● Concrete Operational Stage 

○ Begins about 6 years, ends at about 11 years

○ Kids learn how actions or “operations” can transform the “concrete” objects of the physical world.

○ Mental manipulation of objects

○ Theory of mind begins

12

○ Challenge: pure math

● Formal Operational Stage 

○ Final stage begins at 11 years

○ Children learn to reason about abstract concepts

Attachment​ ​Styles

● Secure 

○ Usually upset by separation

○ Greets mother warmly when she returns

○ Close physical contact with mom

● Insecure Resistant 

○ Little exploration, clingy

○ Distressed when mom leaves

○ Ambivalent when mom returns

○ Resists mother’s initiations

● Avoidant Insecure 

○ Little distress when mom leaves

○ Mostly ignores mom

● Disorganized 

○ Most stressed

○ Confused, can sometimes “freeze”

○ May approach or avoid mom

18.​ ​A​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​children​ ​form​ ​this​ ​type​ ​of​ ​attachment​ ​with​ ​their​ ​caregivers: a. Secure c. Insecure-Resistant

b. Disorganized d. Insecure-Avoidant

19.​ ​Children​ ​with​ ​an​ ​Insecure-Avoidant​ ​attachment​ ​style​ ​typically​ ​display​ ​what type​ ​of​ ​behavior​ ​during​ ​the​ ​“Strange​ ​Situation”? 

a. Warm affection towards mother, but upset when she leaves

b. Ignores their mother, and doesn't notice when she leaves 

c. Panics, freezes up, and appears to be confused

d. Clings to their mother and does not want to engage in other activities 36. Grunts, inflections, emphasis

13

Autism

● Social Deficits:

● ½ don’t speak

● Don’t acknowledge mom

● Appears lost in inner world

● Self-stimulation, self-injurious behavior

■ Treatment:

● Behavior modification, narrow success

Attention​ ​Deficit/​ ​Hyperactivity​ ​Disorder

● Trouble maintaining attention

● Controversies:

○ Overdiagnosis

○ Abuse of ADHD drugs

Conduct​ ​Disorder

● Symptoms

○ Lying and stealing

○ Fighting

○ Frequent blowing off school

○ Sex

○ Drugs

○ Starting fires

○ Animal abuse

Anorexia​ ​Nervosa

● Refusal to maintain 85% of ideal body weight.

● Intense fear of gaining weight

● Disturbance of body image

● Subtypes:

○ Restrictive anorexia: starvation only

○ Bulimic anorexia: purge to lose weight, more depression and interpersonal problems.

● Treatment:

○ Weight gain by forced IV, reinforced eating, exposure to food, antidepressants, family therapy

14

Bulimia​ ​Nervosa

● Recurrent binge-eating

○ “Out of control” during binge

○ Vomiting, laxatives, fasting, excessive exercise

○ Over-concern with body image

○ Subtypes:

■ Purging: vomiting and laxatives

■ Non-purging: fasting, excessive exercise

○ Treatment: counseling, antidepressants, digestive issues from teeth to intestines 20.​ ​What​ ​specifically​ ​is​ ​necessary​ ​to​ ​diagnose​ ​Bulimia​ ​Nervosa? a. A single major binging episode

b. 2 binges per week for 3 months 

c. Reflexive vomiting at the sight of food

21.​ ​Which​ ​of​ ​the​ ​following​ ​is​ ​not​ ​true​ ​of​ ​individuals​ ​with​ ​severe​ ​autism? a. Roughly half do not speak

b. They appear lost in their inner world

c. The majority have intellectual disabilities

d. They often have special abilities 

 

CHAPTER 7 

Stages​ ​of​ ​Sleep 

● Stage 1-4 

○ The higher the stage, the deeper the sleep; meaning:

■ Harder to rouse, less responsive

■ Lowered breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure

■ Takes longer to achieve after first lying down

■ Slower waves in EEG

○ A human cycles through the stages 4-5 times during a night

15

● 5th stage (Paradoxical Sleep); REM (Rapid Eye Movement) 

○ Waking/Shallow sleep characteristics 

■ rapid ; irregular heart rate

■ Twitching in hands, feet, face

■ Eyes darting beneath eyelids

■ Erection, lubrication

■ Low amplitude, irregular EEG

■ Instantly alert after rousing

■ Contiguous with Stage 1

○ Deep Sleep Characteristics 

■ Relaxed muscles, hard to rouse, takes longest to achieve

REM​ ​and​ ​Dreaming 

● Most people awakened from REM report dreams, even those who say they never dream, ● BUT people report dreams during other phases also.

WHY​ ​DO​ ​WE​ ​SLEEP? 

● Because we need to.

● Adaptive Inactivity: adaptive difference between species.

○ Timing, duration

● Repair and Restoration

○ Greater damage doesn’t always lead to more sleep.

■ All-nighter

● REM Deprivation

○ Memory consolidation

○ But “REM” rebound

Disorders​ ​of​ ​Sleeping/​ ​Dreaming 

● Insomnia 

○ ⅓ of adults have symptoms

○ 10-20% have significant symptoms

○ 10-15% have daytime impairments

○ Causes:

■ Stress, alcohol or other drugs, medical

● Nightmare Disorder: 

○ Scared of sleep because of nightmares.

○ Could lead to insomnia

16

● Sleepwalking: 

○ Can be dangerous.

22.​ ​Stimulants​ ​diminish​ ​whereas​ ​marijuana​ ​increases​ ​people’s​ ​________.   a. Mood c. Pain tolerance

b. Concentration d. Appetite 

23.​ ​Compared​ ​to​ ​the​ ​begin​ ​of​ ​a​ ​night​ ​of​ ​sleep,​ ​the​ ​last​ ​couple​ ​hours​ ​of​ ​a​ ​normal​ ​sleep​ ​bout​ ​are  made​ ​up​ ​of​ ​less​ ​_______​ ​and​ ​more​ ​________.  

a. Shallow sleep … deep sleep c. Deep sleep … shallow sleep b. Shallow sleep … Rem sleep d. Deep sleep … Rem sleep 

24.​ ​Joe​ ​is​ ​an​ ​adult​ ​who​ ​has​ ​a​ ​substance​ ​abuse​ ​problem.​ ​It​ ​causes​ ​him​ ​to​ ​fail​ ​his​ ​obligations​ ​at  work.​ ​What​ ​type​ ​of​ ​symptom​ ​is​ ​this?  

a. Pharmacological c. Social impairment 

b. Risky use d. Control-related

25.​ ​Craving​ ​or​ ​urge​ ​is​ ​a​ ​symptom​ ​of​ ​the​ ​________​ ​class​ ​of​ ​substance​ ​use​ ​disorder   a. Control-related c. Risky use

b. Social impairment d. Pharmacological

26.​ ​John​ ​dreams​ ​that​ ​he​ ​is​ ​flying​ ​on​ ​a​ ​dragon​ ​while​ ​he​ ​becomes​ ​fat​ ​from​ ​eating​ ​too​ ​many​ ​hot  dogs.​ ​Freud​ ​would​ ​most​ ​likely​ ​argue​ ​what​ ​about​ ​this​ ​dream?  

a. The dream is caused by the brain’s attempt to understand random activations b. The dragon is the manifest content (superficial topic of the dream)

c. The idea of getting fat may be the latent content (true underlying meaning of the dream)

d. Answers B and C 

e. All of the above

17

CHAPTER 8 

Language 

● A system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning.

Sub-Topics​ ​of​ ​Language 

○ Phonology

■ Study of sound of language

○ Syntax

■ Structure of how you know what order to put words in

○ Semantics

■ Meaning of communication

Example​ ​of​ ​Hierarchy​ ​of​ ​language: 

1. Sentence

a. “Stephanie kissed the crying boy.”

2. Phrases

a. “Stephanie” and “kissed the crying boy”

3. Morphemes

a. “Stephanie”, “kiss”, “ed”, “the”, “cry”, “ing”, “boy”

4. Phonemes

a. S,T,E,F,O,N,E K,I,S,T T,H,U K,R,I,I,NG B,OY

Some​ ​Complexities

● Pragmatics

○ Meaningful sounds that are not morphemes

○ Grunts, inflections, emphasis, etc.

● Deep structure

○ Meaning of a sentence

● Surface structure

○ How a sentence is worded

■ “The cat chased the dog.”

■ “The dog was chased by the cat.”

18

27.​ ​Phonology​ ​is​ ​most​ ​closely​ ​related​ ​to​ ​which​ ​of​ ​the​ ​following​ ​components​ ​of​ ​language?   a. Meaning c. Emotion

b. Grammar d. Sound 

28.​ ​_______​ ​is​ ​a​ ​term​ ​for​ ​meaning​ ​of​ ​sentences​ ​and​ ​words.  

a. Phonology c. Semantics 

b. Syntax d. Perception

Judgement​ ​and​ ​Decision​ ​Making 

● Representativeness

○ “A” is likely to be “B” to the extent that “A” resembles “B”.

○ This is often right.

○ Can sometimes get tricky.

● The Gambler’s Fallacy

○ Believing that short runs should reflect long-run probability

● The Availability Heuristic

○ The easier it is to think of examples of x, the more likely it is that x is true. ○ Valid uses:

■ “Which kills more women? Breast or ovarian cancer?

Anchoring​ ​and​ ​Adjustment 

● When integrating information, we often start with an initial value (AN ANCHOR) and revise it with additional information (ADJUSTING)

○ 2 problems:

■ We don’t revise it enough.

■ Any number that happens to be in your head will serve as an anchor. Intelligence 

● How smart you are

● Ability to direct one’s thinking, adapt to one’s circumstances, and learn from one’s experience

● Spearman’s (g).

● Thurstone: verbal, mathematical, spatial

● Sternberg: analytical, practical, creative

19

Crystallized​ ​Intelligence 

● Ability to retain and use knowledge acquired through experience.

29.​ ​In​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States,​ ​you​ ​are​ ​30​ ​times​ ​more​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​be​ ​killed​ ​by​ ​falling​ ​airplane parts​ ​than​ ​by​ ​a​ ​shark.​ ​The​ ​heuristic​ ​which​ ​explains​ ​why​ ​most​ ​people​ ​believe​ ​sharks are​ ​more​ ​dangerous​ ​than​ ​falling​ ​airplane​ ​parts​ ​because​ ​shark​ ​attacks​ ​more​ ​easily come​ ​to​ ​mind​ ​is​ ​called… 

a. Representativeness c. Anchoring and adjustment

b. Availability d. None of the above

30.​ ​When​ ​people​ ​are​ ​asked​ ​whether​ ​or​ ​not​ ​lung​ ​cancer​ ​is​ ​more​ ​fatal​ ​than​ ​stroke, they​ ​mistakenly​ ​think​ ​lung​ ​cancer​ ​is​ ​more​ ​fatal​ ​due​ ​to​ ​its​ ​more​ ​prevalent advertisement.​ ​What​ ​is​ ​this​ ​bias​ ​or​ ​error​ ​called​ ​in​ ​decision​ ​making? 

a. Representativeness c. Availability heuristic 

b. Anchoring and adjustment d. Conjunction fallacy

CHAPTER 9

● Personality: an individual’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking and feeling. ● Self Report: a method in which people provide subjective information about their own thoughts and behaviors via questionnaires, etc.

● Projective Tests: designed to reveal inner aspects of individual’s personalities by analysis of their responses to a series of ambiguous stimuli.

○ Rorschach inkblot test:

■ A projective technique in which respondents’ inner thoughts and feelings are revealed by analysis of their responses to inkblots.

○ Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

■ A projective technique which respondents’ underlying motives are

revealed through analysis of stories they make up over ambiguous pics of people.

Trait

● Relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way. 20

THE BIG FIVE

High on trait:

Low on trait:

Openness to experience

Imaginative

independent

Down-to-earth

Conforming

Conscientiousness

Organized

Careful

Disorganized

Careless

Extraversion

Social

Fun-loving

Affectionate

Retiring

Sober

Reserved

Agreeableness

Soft-hearted

Trusting

Ruthless

Suspicious

Neuroticism

Worried

Self-pitying

Calm

Self- satisfied

31.​ ​Who​ ​would​ ​personality​ ​psychologists​ ​expect​ ​to​ ​have​ ​the​ ​most​ ​similar personality​ ​traits? 

a. fraternal twins Billy and Bobby c. monozygotic twins Sadie and Sara b. nontwin siblings Cara and Drew d. father and son Pedro and Jose 32.​ ​The​ ​most​ ​widely​ ​used​ ​and​ ​validated​ ​personality​ ​measure​ ​is: a. Allport’s traits c. Eysenck’s 3 Super Factors

b. The Big Five d. Cattell’s 16 factors

Freud

● ID 

○ Contains drives present at birth. Source of bodily needs, wants, and desires like sexual and aggressive drives

● Superego 

○ Mental system that reflects internalization of cultural rules mainly learned as parents exercise their authority

● Ego 

○ Component of personality, developed through contact with external world. Enables us to deal with life’s practical demands.

21

Defense​ ​Mechanisms:

● Repression

○ Putting a bad experience out of your mind.

● Rationalization

○ Dropping chemistry allegedly because of “poor ventilation” in classroom ● Reaction formation

○ Being rude to someone you are attracted to

● Projection

○ Judging others as being selfish because you believe you are selfish ● Regression

○ Using baby talk even though you can speak perfectly well

● Displacement

○ Yelling at someone other than the person you are mad at.

● Identification

○ A bullied child becoming a bully

● Sublimation

○ Diverting anger towards a contact sport.

33.​ ​Of​ ​the​ ​following​ ​defense​ ​mechanisms,​ ​which​ ​can​ ​in​ ​many​ ​cases​ ​be​ ​viewed​ ​as​ ​a positive​ ​way​ ​of​ ​dealing​ ​with​ ​negative​ ​impulses? 

a. Repression c. Displacement

b. Sublimation d. Denial

34.​ ​Which​ ​of​ ​the​ ​following​ ​phrases​ ​is​ ​related​ ​to​ ​the​ ​reaction​ ​formation​ ​defense mechanism: 

a. It didn’t happen

b. There are good reasons why I’m like that

c. I’m not like that, I’m the opposite of that 

d. I’m not like that, you are

Psychosexual​ ​Stages

● Oral Stage (1-2 years)

○ Centers around pleasures and frustrations associated with mouth and 22

being fed.

● Anal Stage (2-3 years)

○ Dominated by association of anus, retention, expulsion of feces and urine. ● Phallic Stage (3-5 years)

○ Centers around genital area as well as coping with incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy and conflict.

● Latency Stage (5-13 years)

○ Primary focus is on further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills

● Genital Stage (Puberty- onward)

○ Time for coming together of mature adult personality with capacity to love and work and relate to others.

35.​ ​If​ ​you​ ​were​ ​potty​ ​trained​ ​too​ ​strictly,​ ​according​ ​to​ ​Freud,​ ​you​ ​could​ ​develop​ ​an ________​ ​personality. 

a. Anal retentive c. Anal receptive

b. Anal expressive d. Anal compulsive

CHAPTER 10

KEY​ ​TERMS:

● Aggression

○ Behavior whose purpose is to harm another

● Cooperation

○ Behavior by 2 or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.

● Group

○ Collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others.

● Prejudice

○ positive/negative evaluation of another person based on person’s group membership

● Discrimination

○ positive/negative behavior toward another person based on group membership

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● GroupThink

○ Tendency for groups to reach consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony.

● Deindividuation

○ When immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values.

● Bystander Intervention

○ Act of helping strangers in an emergency situation.

● Diffusion of Responsibility

○ Tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way.

● Altruism

○ Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself.

● Kin selection

○ Process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives.

Self-fulfilling​ ​prophecy

● Tendency for people to behave as they are expected to behave.

36.​ ​One​ ​of​ ​the​ ​dangers​ ​of​ ​groupthink​ ​is​ ​the​ ​group's​ ​tendency​ ​to: a. overthink all their possible options.

b. come up with too many solutions to a problem.

c. be unable to come up with a solution.

d. make poor decisions in order to achieve consensus. 

37.​ ​If​ ​a​ ​teacher​ ​is​ ​told​ ​3​ ​students​ ​are​ ​smart​ ​even​ ​though​ ​they​ ​were​ ​chosen​ ​at random,​ ​those​ ​3​ ​students​ ​will​ ​get​ ​better​ ​than​ ​average​ ​grades.​ ​This​ ​is​ ​a​ ​real​ ​world example​ ​of 

a. Attribution Theory c. Consensus

b. Covariation Model d.Self-fulfilling Prophecy 

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CHAPTER 11

Mental​ ​Disorder

● Persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior, thoughts, or emotions that causes significant distress or impairment.

Panic​ ​Disorder

● Characterized by sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror.

Agoraphobia

● Fear of public places

Generalized​ ​Anxiety​ ​Disorder

● Chronic excessive worry accompanied by 3 or more of:

○ Restlessness

○ Fatigue

○ Concentration problems

○ Irritability

○ Muscle tension

Obsessive​ ​Compulsive​ ​Disorder​ ​(OCD)

● Repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts that interfere with daily life.

Post​ ​Traumatic​ ​Stress​ ​Disorder​ ​(PTSD)

● Chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts of images of trauma and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind.

Mood​ ​Disorder

● Disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant feature. Major​ ​Depressive​ ​Disorder​ ​(unipolar)

● Severely depressed mood and or inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or 25

more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy, sleep and appetite disturbance.

Seasonal​ ​Affective​ ​Disorder

● Recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern.

Bipolar​ ​Disorder

● Characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (manic) and low mood (depression).

Schizophrenia

● Psychotic disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality, altered or blunted emotion; disturbances of thought and behavior.

Positive​ ​symptoms​ ​of​ ​Schizophrenia:

● Thoughts and behaviors not seen in those without the disorder: ○ Hallucinations

○ Delusions

○ Disorganized speech

○ Grossly disorganized behavior

■ Inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals.

○ Catatonic behavior

■ Marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular

rigidity and overactivity.

Negative​ ​Symptoms

● deficits or disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors.

○ emotional/social withdrawal

○ Apathy

○ Poverty of speech

○ Absence of motivation/normal behavior

Cognitive​ ​Symptoms

● Deficits in cognitive ability

○ Difficulty in maintaining a friendship

○ Difficulty maintaining a job

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Dopamine​ ​Hypothesis

● Idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity.

Autism​ ​Spectrum​ ​Disorder

● Condition beginning in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication deficits as well as restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors.

Attention​ ​Deficit/​ ​HyperActivity​ ​Disorder

● Pattern of severe problems with inattention and or hyperactivity or impulsiveness. Conduct​ ​Disorder

● Pattern of deviant behavior involving aggression against people, animals, destruction of property, theft or serious rule violation.

38.​ ​An​ ​example​ ​of​ ​an​ ​effective​ ​treatment​ ​for​ ​bipolar​ ​disorder​ ​is: a. Lithium salt c. Exercise

b. Antidepressants d. All of the above

39.​ ​Pat​ ​finds​ ​herself​ ​worrying​ ​about​ ​most​ ​things​ ​in​ ​her​ ​life,​ ​from​ ​whether​ ​her children​ ​are​ ​safe​ ​drivers​ ​to​ ​making​ ​the​ ​right​ ​decision​ ​on​ ​refinancing​ ​her​ ​home, what​ ​to​ ​fix​ ​for​ ​dinner,​ ​and​ ​whether​ ​her​ ​husband​ ​is​ ​faithful.​ ​Pat's​ ​worrying​ ​has begun​ ​to​ ​interfere​ ​with​ ​her​ ​sleep.​ ​Pat​ ​MOST​ ​likely​ ​has: 

a. dysthymia. c. generalized anxiety disorder. b. obsessive-compulsive disorder. d. panic disorder.

40.​ ​Bipolar​ ​disorder​ ​is​ ​characterized​ ​by​ ​extreme​ ​mood​ ​swings​ ​between a. Anxiety and arousal c. Depression and mania 

b. Stress and lethargy d. Obsessions and compulsions

41.​ ​One​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​effective​ ​treatments​ ​for​ ​obsessive-compulsive​ ​disorder​ ​is a. Doing nothing because it will go away on its own.

b. Bibliotherapy

c. Exposure and response prevention 

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