PSYCH FINAL STUDY GUIDE University of Georgia
What is Psychology?
1. Clinical and Counseling Psychology
b. Med school
d. Freudian tradition
2. Applied Psychology
c. Human factors
3. Research Psychology
History of Psychology
● The Greeks
■ Nativism: you were born with knowledge
■ Tabula rasa: blank slate; opposite of Socrates
● Rene Descartes
● The British Empiricists
○ John Locke and David Hume
■ Empiricism: All knowledge comes from experience
● Immanuel Kant
○ Self, justice, and causation
● Wilhelm Wundt
○ Introspection and structuralism
○ “Father of psychology”
● William James
○ 1st to bring psych to America
● John B. Watson
○ Behaviorist Manifesto
■ Psych should be about behavior, not the mind
Dichotomy of Psychology
Nature ( birth)
Nurture (acquired from environment)
Socrates’ inherited knowledge
Aristotle’s tabula rasa
British Empiricists and learned
Kant and innate ideas
1. Descartes’ ideas placed him on which side of the nature vs. nurture debate? a. Nature
d. He didn’t have ideas on either side
2. Whereas Wilhelm Wundt sought to uncover the stable structure of conscious experience, ____________ sought to understand how conscious experience changes over time.
Don't forget about the age old question of lsu horticulture
a. William James c. John Locke
b. John Watson d. Immanuel Kant
How Things Are Measures
● Variable Dimensions
○ Mean: the average
○ Mode: Most often
○ Median: the middle
○ Range: largest score minus smallest score
○ The SPREAD of scores in a distribution
● Standard Deviation
○ How far scores tend to be from the mean We also discuss several other topics like ccu afford
● When looking at a scatter plot, the statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.
● Ranges from +1.00 to -1.00
● Zero: means there is no relationship between variables
● CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION
3. Which of the correlations below shows the strongest relationship between two variables?
a. 0.3 c. 0.77
b. -0.1 d. -0.89
● Used to draw conclusions about larger populations
○ Complete collection of participants who might be measured
○ Partial collection of people drawn from a population
4. In a study, which variable is manipulated?
a. The confounding variable c. The control variable
b. The dependent variable d. The independent variable
○ Bundle of neurons
● Excitatory vs. inhibitory signals
We also discuss several other topics like thomas hummel uiuc
5. Louise came home one night to find a burglar in her house. Her heart started racing and she began to perspire. These physical reactions were triggered by activity within Louise’s:
a. Sympathetic nervous system
b. Somatic nervous system
c. Parasympathetic nervous system
Major Types of Neurons
● Glial Cells
Components of Neurons
○ Collects electric signals
● Cell body
○ Integrates incoming signals
○ Passes signals to dendrites of another neuron
1. The action potential travels down the axon
2. Stimulates the release of neurotransmitters
3. Neurotransmitters are released into synapse where they float to bind with receptor sites on a dendrite, initiating NEW ACTION POTENTIAL 4. Neurotransmitters are cleared out of synapse by reuptake into the sending neuron
5. Being broken down by enzymes in the synapse
6. OR binding to autoreceptors on the sending neurons.
6. Which is the correct pathway of a signal traveling through a neuron? a. Terminal, cell body, dendrites, axon.
b. Axon, terminal, cell body, dendrites. Don't forget about the age old question of after learning the combination for his new locker at school, milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. milton is experiencing the effects of...
c. Cell body, dendrites, axon, terminal.
d. Dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal.
6B. The electrical signal that travels down an axon is called. . .
a. A synapse. c. A neuro-transmission
b. An action potential d. A vesicle Don't forget about the age old question of ub linguistics
Motor control, attention, learning & memory Don't forget about the age old question of uta spanish major
Motor control, pleasure, emotional arousal
Reduces allergic reaction
Sleep, aggressive behavior
Alleviate pain, elevate moods
Parts of the Brain
○ Medulla: breathing, heartbeat, swallowing, coughing
○ Cerebellum: balance, involuntary and fine movement
○ Pons: communication b/t cerebellum and other regions of brain ○ Reticular Formation: sleep and consciousness
○ Tegmentum and Tectum: guide movement towards or away from stimuli ● Forebrain
○ Thalamus: final sensory processing
○ Pituitary gland: hormones
○ Limbic system
■ Hippocampus: memory
■ Amygdala: fear, rage
■ Hypothalamus: feeding, feeling, fighting, mating
● Corpus Callosum: connects both hemispheres
● Left Hemisphere: language, speech, handwriting, math ● Right Hemisphere: visual, artistic, musical skills
Forebrain- Cerebral Cortex
● Frontal: thought, personality info
● Parietal: sensory info
● Temporal: learning, memory processing, auditory info ● Occipital: visual info
● Primary motor cortex: processes voluntary movement ● Somatosensory Cortex: receives info about touch, body position
● Broca’s Aphasia
○ Inability to produce words correctly
● Wernicke’s Aphasia
○ Inability to understand or produce meaningful language Treatments/ Machines
● Split Brain Surgery
● Computerized Axial Tomography (CT)
● Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
● Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
● Electroencephalograph (EEG)
● Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
7. Which lobe in the forebrain makes humans the most unique compared to other species?
a. Frontal c. Temporal
b. Parietal d. Occipital
8. Which area of the brain is known for plasticity?
a. Amygdala c. Cortex
b. Tectum d. Medulla
9. Which of the following is known as the master gland?
a. Thalamus c. Amygdala
b. Limbic d. Pituitary
10. The Wernicke’s area of the brain controls which function?
a. Producing language c. Attention
b. Vision d. Language comprehension
Watery liquid in front of pupil
“Thick” liquid, carries blood supply
Collects light and focuses it towards back
Made of neurons, respond to light
Color of eye, widens/constricts pupil
Gathers and focuses visual images
Transmits electrical impulses to brain
● Cones: color, fine detail, motion
● Rods: majority, see in dim light
● Bipolar Cells: where cones and rods send their signals
● Ganglion Cells: the ones sent to the optic nerve
● Monocular cues
○ Familiar size
○ Motion parallax
○ Linear perspective
● Physiological Cues
Flap of cartilage
Controls pressure coming in and out of ear
Makes sure pressure is balanced between inner and outer ear
Receives sound in form of vibrations
Contains fluid that helps with balance
● Place code
○ Low frequencies fire at apex
○ High frequencies fire at base
● Temporal code
○ Cochlea registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potentials ● Amplitude
○ How much more pressure pulse of air exerts than standing air
○ Highness or lowness of sound
○ Different ways of producing 100 Hz produce different amplitudes of overtones
● Touch, pressure, warm, cold, changes in pressure, pain
● Kinesthetic sense
● Vestibular sense (balance)
● Difference between taste and flavor
● Taste is what your tongue detects
● Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami (savory)
11. Collectively, the rods and cones are known as.
a. The blind spots c. Vitreous humor
b. Photoreceptors d. The fovea
12. The only sense directly connected to the forebrain is:
a. Vision c. Olfaction.
b. Somatosensation d. Gustation.
13. The small, visible bumps on the tongue are called:
a. Taste receptor cells. c. Taste buds
b. ORNs d. Papillae.
14. Cochlear base is to cochlear tip as:
a. A simple tone is to a complex tone. c. High frequency is to low frequency. b. A loud noise is to a soft noise. d. Temporal code is to place code.
● Classical conditioning
○ Ivan Pavlov
○ Found that dogs learned to salivate once bell was conditioned with food. ○ Developed Classical conditioning
○ (US) Unconditioned Stimulus
■ The original stimulus that causes a reaction.
■ Produces (UR) Unconditioned Response
● A reflexive reaction that if continually paired with original stimulus
will cause an association.
○ (CS) Conditioned Stimulus
■ A previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response after being paired with an (US).
● Causes a (CR) conditioned response
● Operant conditioning
○ The reinforcer depends on the response
○ A day’s pay for a day’s work
● Punishment vs. Reinforcement
○ Punishment is more effective if done immediately
○ Harsh punishment can result in fear or anger
15. Which is not a form of learning?
a. Conditioning (operant/classical) c. Insight
b. Observational d. All of the above
16. A child hits another child and gets punished. In theoretical terms, what is the point of the punishment?
a. To change how a child feels about violence
b. To change how often that behavior happens
c. To change make the child fear the parent
17. Because you received all A’s on your last report card, your Dad decided to reward you by not making you take the trash out for a month. This is an example of:
a. Negative Reinforcement c. Positive Reinforcement b. Negative Punishment d. Positive Punishment
3 Pre-Natal Stages
Cephalocaudal Rule (top → bottom)
● Tendency for motor behavior emerge in sequence from head to feet.
Proximodistal Rule (inside → outside)
● Tendency for motor behavior to emerge in sequence from center to periphery. Childhood
● Sensorimotor Stage:
○ Period of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy
● Pre-Operational Stage:
○ Begins about 2 years, ends at 6 years
○ Kids have preliminary understanding of physical world.
○ Object permanence is acquired
○ Speaking first words
● Concrete Operational Stage
○ Begins about 6 years, ends at about 11 years
○ Kids learn how actions or “operations” can transform the “concrete” objects of the physical world.
○ Mental manipulation of objects
○ Theory of mind begins
○ Challenge: pure math
● Formal Operational Stage
○ Final stage begins at 11 years
○ Children learn to reason about abstract concepts
○ Usually upset by separation
○ Greets mother warmly when she returns
○ Close physical contact with mom
● Insecure Resistant
○ Little exploration, clingy
○ Distressed when mom leaves
○ Ambivalent when mom returns
○ Resists mother’s initiations
● Avoidant Insecure
○ Little distress when mom leaves
○ Mostly ignores mom
○ Most stressed
○ Confused, can sometimes “freeze”
○ May approach or avoid mom
18. A majority of children form this type of attachment with their caregivers: a. Secure c. Insecure-Resistant
b. Disorganized d. Insecure-Avoidant
19. Children with an Insecure-Avoidant attachment style typically display what type of behavior during the “Strange Situation”?
a. Warm affection towards mother, but upset when she leaves
b. Ignores their mother, and doesn't notice when she leaves
c. Panics, freezes up, and appears to be confused
d. Clings to their mother and does not want to engage in other activities 36. Grunts, inflections, emphasis
● Social Deficits:
● ½ don’t speak
● Don’t acknowledge mom
● Appears lost in inner world
● Self-stimulation, self-injurious behavior
● Behavior modification, narrow success
Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder
● Trouble maintaining attention
○ Abuse of ADHD drugs
○ Lying and stealing
○ Frequent blowing off school
○ Starting fires
○ Animal abuse
● Refusal to maintain 85% of ideal body weight.
● Intense fear of gaining weight
● Disturbance of body image
○ Restrictive anorexia: starvation only
○ Bulimic anorexia: purge to lose weight, more depression and interpersonal problems.
○ Weight gain by forced IV, reinforced eating, exposure to food, antidepressants, family therapy
● Recurrent binge-eating
○ “Out of control” during binge
○ Vomiting, laxatives, fasting, excessive exercise
○ Over-concern with body image
■ Purging: vomiting and laxatives
■ Non-purging: fasting, excessive exercise
○ Treatment: counseling, antidepressants, digestive issues from teeth to intestines 20. What specifically is necessary to diagnose Bulimia Nervosa? a. A single major binging episode
b. 2 binges per week for 3 months
c. Reflexive vomiting at the sight of food
21. Which of the following is not true of individuals with severe autism? a. Roughly half do not speak
b. They appear lost in their inner world
c. The majority have intellectual disabilities
d. They often have special abilities
Stages of Sleep
● Stage 1-4
○ The higher the stage, the deeper the sleep; meaning:
■ Harder to rouse, less responsive
■ Lowered breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
■ Takes longer to achieve after first lying down
■ Slower waves in EEG
○ A human cycles through the stages 4-5 times during a night
● 5th stage (Paradoxical Sleep); REM (Rapid Eye Movement)
○ Waking/Shallow sleep characteristics
■ rapid ; irregular heart rate
■ Twitching in hands, feet, face
■ Eyes darting beneath eyelids
■ Erection, lubrication
■ Low amplitude, irregular EEG
■ Instantly alert after rousing
■ Contiguous with Stage 1
○ Deep Sleep Characteristics
■ Relaxed muscles, hard to rouse, takes longest to achieve
REM and Dreaming
● Most people awakened from REM report dreams, even those who say they never dream, ● BUT people report dreams during other phases also.
WHY DO WE SLEEP?
● Because we need to.
● Adaptive Inactivity: adaptive difference between species.
○ Timing, duration
● Repair and Restoration
○ Greater damage doesn’t always lead to more sleep.
● REM Deprivation
○ Memory consolidation
○ But “REM” rebound
Disorders of Sleeping/ Dreaming
○ ⅓ of adults have symptoms
○ 10-20% have significant symptoms
○ 10-15% have daytime impairments
■ Stress, alcohol or other drugs, medical
● Nightmare Disorder:
○ Scared of sleep because of nightmares.
○ Could lead to insomnia
○ Can be dangerous.
22. Stimulants diminish whereas marijuana increases people’s ________. a. Mood c. Pain tolerance
b. Concentration d. Appetite
23. Compared to the begin of a night of sleep, the last couple hours of a normal sleep bout are made up of less _______ and more ________.
a. Shallow sleep … deep sleep c. Deep sleep … shallow sleep b. Shallow sleep … Rem sleep d. Deep sleep … Rem sleep
24. Joe is an adult who has a substance abuse problem. It causes him to fail his obligations at work. What type of symptom is this?
a. Pharmacological c. Social impairment
b. Risky use d. Control-related
25. Craving or urge is a symptom of the ________ class of substance use disorder a. Control-related c. Risky use
b. Social impairment d. Pharmacological
26. John dreams that he is flying on a dragon while he becomes fat from eating too many hot dogs. Freud would most likely argue what about this dream?
a. The dream is caused by the brain’s attempt to understand random activations b. The dragon is the manifest content (superficial topic of the dream)
c. The idea of getting fat may be the latent content (true underlying meaning of the dream)
d. Answers B and C
e. All of the above
● A system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning.
Sub-Topics of Language
■ Study of sound of language
■ Structure of how you know what order to put words in
■ Meaning of communication
Example of Hierarchy of language:
a. “Stephanie kissed the crying boy.”
a. “Stephanie” and “kissed the crying boy”
a. “Stephanie”, “kiss”, “ed”, “the”, “cry”, “ing”, “boy”
a. S,T,E,F,O,N,E K,I,S,T T,H,U K,R,I,I,NG B,OY
○ Meaningful sounds that are not morphemes
○ Grunts, inflections, emphasis, etc.
● Deep structure
○ Meaning of a sentence
● Surface structure
○ How a sentence is worded
■ “The cat chased the dog.”
■ “The dog was chased by the cat.”
27. Phonology is most closely related to which of the following components of language? a. Meaning c. Emotion
b. Grammar d. Sound
28. _______ is a term for meaning of sentences and words.
a. Phonology c. Semantics
b. Syntax d. Perception
Judgement and Decision Making
○ “A” is likely to be “B” to the extent that “A” resembles “B”.
○ This is often right.
○ Can sometimes get tricky.
● The Gambler’s Fallacy
○ Believing that short runs should reflect long-run probability
● The Availability Heuristic
○ The easier it is to think of examples of x, the more likely it is that x is true. ○ Valid uses:
■ “Which kills more women? Breast or ovarian cancer?
Anchoring and Adjustment
● When integrating information, we often start with an initial value (AN ANCHOR) and revise it with additional information (ADJUSTING)
○ 2 problems:
■ We don’t revise it enough.
■ Any number that happens to be in your head will serve as an anchor. Intelligence
● How smart you are
● Ability to direct one’s thinking, adapt to one’s circumstances, and learn from one’s experience
● Spearman’s (g).
● Thurstone: verbal, mathematical, spatial
● Sternberg: analytical, practical, creative
● Ability to retain and use knowledge acquired through experience.
29. In the United States, you are 30 times more likely to be killed by falling airplane parts than by a shark. The heuristic which explains why most people believe sharks are more dangerous than falling airplane parts because shark attacks more easily come to mind is called…
a. Representativeness c. Anchoring and adjustment
b. Availability d. None of the above
30. When people are asked whether or not lung cancer is more fatal than stroke, they mistakenly think lung cancer is more fatal due to its more prevalent advertisement. What is this bias or error called in decision making?
a. Representativeness c. Availability heuristic
b. Anchoring and adjustment d. Conjunction fallacy
● Personality: an individual’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking and feeling. ● Self Report: a method in which people provide subjective information about their own thoughts and behaviors via questionnaires, etc.
● Projective Tests: designed to reveal inner aspects of individual’s personalities by analysis of their responses to a series of ambiguous stimuli.
○ Rorschach inkblot test:
■ A projective technique in which respondents’ inner thoughts and feelings are revealed by analysis of their responses to inkblots.
○ Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
■ A projective technique which respondents’ underlying motives are
revealed through analysis of stories they make up over ambiguous pics of people.
● Relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way. 20
THE BIG FIVE
High on trait:
Low on trait:
Openness to experience
31. Who would personality psychologists expect to have the most similar personality traits?
a. fraternal twins Billy and Bobby c. monozygotic twins Sadie and Sara b. nontwin siblings Cara and Drew d. father and son Pedro and Jose 32. The most widely used and validated personality measure is: a. Allport’s traits c. Eysenck’s 3 Super Factors
b. The Big Five d. Cattell’s 16 factors
○ Contains drives present at birth. Source of bodily needs, wants, and desires like sexual and aggressive drives
○ Mental system that reflects internalization of cultural rules mainly learned as parents exercise their authority
○ Component of personality, developed through contact with external world. Enables us to deal with life’s practical demands.
○ Putting a bad experience out of your mind.
○ Dropping chemistry allegedly because of “poor ventilation” in classroom ● Reaction formation
○ Being rude to someone you are attracted to
○ Judging others as being selfish because you believe you are selfish ● Regression
○ Using baby talk even though you can speak perfectly well
○ Yelling at someone other than the person you are mad at.
○ A bullied child becoming a bully
○ Diverting anger towards a contact sport.
33. Of the following defense mechanisms, which can in many cases be viewed as a positive way of dealing with negative impulses?
a. Repression c. Displacement
b. Sublimation d. Denial
34. Which of the following phrases is related to the reaction formation defense mechanism:
a. It didn’t happen
b. There are good reasons why I’m like that
c. I’m not like that, I’m the opposite of that
d. I’m not like that, you are
● Oral Stage (1-2 years)
○ Centers around pleasures and frustrations associated with mouth and 22
● Anal Stage (2-3 years)
○ Dominated by association of anus, retention, expulsion of feces and urine. ● Phallic Stage (3-5 years)
○ Centers around genital area as well as coping with incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy and conflict.
● Latency Stage (5-13 years)
○ Primary focus is on further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills
● Genital Stage (Puberty- onward)
○ Time for coming together of mature adult personality with capacity to love and work and relate to others.
35. If you were potty trained too strictly, according to Freud, you could develop an ________ personality.
a. Anal retentive c. Anal receptive
b. Anal expressive d. Anal compulsive
○ Behavior whose purpose is to harm another
○ Behavior by 2 or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.
○ Collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others.
○ positive/negative evaluation of another person based on person’s group membership
○ positive/negative behavior toward another person based on group membership
○ Tendency for groups to reach consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony.
○ When immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values.
● Bystander Intervention
○ Act of helping strangers in an emergency situation.
● Diffusion of Responsibility
○ Tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way.
○ Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself.
● Kin selection
○ Process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives.
● Tendency for people to behave as they are expected to behave.
36. One of the dangers of groupthink is the group's tendency to: a. overthink all their possible options.
b. come up with too many solutions to a problem.
c. be unable to come up with a solution.
d. make poor decisions in order to achieve consensus.
37. If a teacher is told 3 students are smart even though they were chosen at random, those 3 students will get better than average grades. This is a real world example of
a. Attribution Theory c. Consensus
b. Covariation Model d.Self-fulfilling Prophecy
● Persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior, thoughts, or emotions that causes significant distress or impairment.
● Characterized by sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror.
● Fear of public places
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
● Chronic excessive worry accompanied by 3 or more of:
○ Concentration problems
○ Muscle tension
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
● Repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts that interfere with daily life.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
● Chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts of images of trauma and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind.
● Disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant feature. Major Depressive Disorder (unipolar)
● Severely depressed mood and or inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or 25
more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy, sleep and appetite disturbance.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
● Recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern.
● Characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (manic) and low mood (depression).
● Psychotic disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality, altered or blunted emotion; disturbances of thought and behavior.
Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia:
● Thoughts and behaviors not seen in those without the disorder: ○ Hallucinations
○ Disorganized speech
○ Grossly disorganized behavior
■ Inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals.
○ Catatonic behavior
■ Marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular
rigidity and overactivity.
● deficits or disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors.
○ emotional/social withdrawal
○ Poverty of speech
○ Absence of motivation/normal behavior
● Deficits in cognitive ability
○ Difficulty in maintaining a friendship
○ Difficulty maintaining a job
● Idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
● Condition beginning in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication deficits as well as restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors.
Attention Deficit/ HyperActivity Disorder
● Pattern of severe problems with inattention and or hyperactivity or impulsiveness. Conduct Disorder
● Pattern of deviant behavior involving aggression against people, animals, destruction of property, theft or serious rule violation.
38. An example of an effective treatment for bipolar disorder is: a. Lithium salt c. Exercise
b. Antidepressants d. All of the above
39. Pat finds herself worrying about most things in her life, from whether her children are safe drivers to making the right decision on refinancing her home, what to fix for dinner, and whether her husband is faithful. Pat's worrying has begun to interfere with her sleep. Pat MOST likely has:
a. dysthymia. c. generalized anxiety disorder. b. obsessive-compulsive disorder. d. panic disorder.
40. Bipolar disorder is characterized by extreme mood swings between a. Anxiety and arousal c. Depression and mania
b. Stress and lethargy d. Obsessions and compulsions
41. One of the most effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder is a. Doing nothing because it will go away on its own.
c. Exposure and response prevention