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USC / History / HIST 112 / What is the largest medical experiment in the world?

What is the largest medical experiment in the world?

What is the largest medical experiment in the world?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: History
Course: US History since 1865
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: history, Reagan, Clinton, Bush, America, Studyguide, Study Guide, final study guide, obama, 9/11, Pre-9/11, Hist112, peanuts, ferguson, missouri, Protest, donald, and Trump
Cost: 50
Name: HIST 112 Final Study Guide
Description: study guide for the final! week 9 - week 16!!
Uploaded: 12/08/2017
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Final Study Guide


What is the largest medical experiment in the world?



HIST 112

Week 9

Blackboard Reading – Eisenhower’s Farewell Address

In his address, Eisenhower says the purpose of America’s free government is to “keep the peace,”  promote “progress in human achievement,” and “enhance liberty, dignity, and integrity among peoples  and among nations.” These goals are threatened by conflict in the world and Eisenhower says we will  only remain as a nation if we continue to face the conflict in the world no matter how close we think we  are to “world peace.” He warns the people and his successors of the dangers of a permanent large  military, but describes it as a necessary thing to keep the peace even though they would have the power to  infringe upon the very justices it is meant to protect. He also explains that we must use negotiation as  often as we can and with great vigor.  


In what year did the first president-elect without his party leading in either house of congress labor?



The Cold War at Home

FBI uses anti-communist hysteria to keep files on anyone showing any sort of dissent (homosexuality,  communism, civil rights leaders, unions, etc.)

Domestic containment

• Reinforce importance of family and gender roles

• Women in the workforce replaced by men returning from war

• Manufacturers shift from war goods to appliances to make the mother/wife’s life easier o Started coming up with “all-in-one” appliances

Lavender Scare

• “coming out”/self-identifying based on who they’ve had sex with

• Focused in big cities


What is bien dien phu airlift?



• Homosexuals pose more of a threat to national security than communists We also discuss several other topics like What is the 1974 national research act?

• Media obsessed with identifying who’s gay/lesbian

• Beginning of gay rights movement

Civil Rights

• Truman reached out to blacks to get their vote

• 1944: Smith vs Allwright – outlaws “white primary”

o NAACP grows exponentially

• Lynchings declining

• 1948: Truman desegregates armed forces ???? election year

• Anti-communism: used against black leaders because they had worked with communist party  before

o NAACP kicks out communists

Election of 1948 – crucial moment in the party shift

• 3-way party split in democratic party

• New Deal coalition – if you supported the New Deal, you voted democratic

• National democrats moved towards progressivism, so southern democrats formed their own party  the “dixie”crats If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between thinking and feeling?

• Truman barely wins election over Dewey

Post-War Affluence

• Consumer culture (freedom=freedom to consume)

o Consumption seen as patriotic

o Credit cards grew????personal debt increased

o Automobiles????changes American life (drive-ins, drive-thrus, etc.) We also discuss several other topics like What is the response or action in operant conditioning?

o Technology (TVs, AC, appliances)

• Suburbanization encouraged by government

• Defense factories continued after war to continue building advanced weaponry • 1/5 Americans still living in poverty even though:

o GDP doubled

o Unemployment low

o Families surpassing previous generation’s wealth

• Shift in gender roles (housewives turned to factory workers turned back to housewives) • Rise in church attendance and evangelism

• Amount of consumption in middle class leads to both parents needing to work Science

• Migration from physics to life sciences

o Just destroyed a lot of life with atom bomb, so let’s start studying life again • Polio Vaccine

o Largest medical experiment in the world

o 1955: results reported rapid decrease in polio

• DNA Structure

o Watkins, Crick, and one other win Nobel prize in Chemistry

Challenges to Consensus

• US vs Soviet views

o US wants women to return home while Soviets are celebrating women in science • The beats are the people who go against women in science If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of hearing in psychoacoustics?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the problem addressed by harrington?

• Rise in Rock N Roll

o ELVIS!

o Rockers wearing bright colors and makeup to go against social norms

• Rebellious Youth

o “greasers” – rebellion is not political

• Early Gay Rights

o Mattachine Society – first gay rights society

o Daughters of Billitus – lesbian rights association

• Segregation and Suburbia

o Suburbanization

▪ Almost completely segregated

▪ Job discrimination

o Levittown – first housing development in US

o Home Owner’s Association – designed to keep blacks out of suburban neighborhoods o White flight – white go to suburbs and cause urban property value to drop ▪ Minorities move to cities Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of the state of nature?

o Environmental Impact

▪ Clear-cutting woods to create subdivisions and housing developments

▪ Cookie-cutter houses are not environmentally efficient

1952 Election – Eisenhower

• Military leader; not a politician

o Decides to run as republican

• Party Politics

o Nixon as running-mate

o “modern republicanism” and party lines divided

• TV and Political Process

o TV ads used extensively for first time

1956 – first president elected without his party leading in either house of congress Labor

• Ease of labor conflicts

• Taft-Hartley act weakened Labor Unions

• AFL & CIO merge in 1955 and tensions rise again

Interstate System

• Transportation is easier

• Protection in case of nuclear attack (easier to migrate)

• Biggest public works project in the US

Eisenhower and the Cold War

• End of Korean War

• Atoms for peace

o UN’s international atomic energy agency

• Military-Industrial Complex

o Eisenhower warned against the misuse of this loose alliance

• Decolonization and the Developing World

o America feared the growth of communism

Week 10

Blackboard Reading – I Have a Dream Speech

In Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream Speech,” he warns the nation to act immediately to stomp  out discrimination, prejudice, and racism. He does so by quoting the Declaration of Independence in the  first few paragraphs in saying “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” are “unalienable rights” and the  Preamble by mentioning “we hold these truths to be self-evident – that all men are created equal” (King).  He encourages peaceful protest with “we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy  our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.” He also uses the Old Testament  to appeal to basic Christian beliefs. King uses the “I have a dream…” section of his speech to add  emphasis through repetition and it is the most famous part of the speech. He ends the speech with a  famous African-America gospel lyric: “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at  last!” to emphasize how the protest is rooted in Christian beliefs. If you don’t know this speech, just  watch the video; it is a very powerful speech and easy to watch on YouTube.

Civil Rights Movement

• Segregation still present in the south in 1950’s

o Sharecropping

o Blacks in poverty

• Supreme court decisions, grassroots organizations, boycotts, etc. still do not end segregation. • Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall at the forefront of the NAACP o Separate but equal only okay if the black institution is just as good as the whit institution ▪ Supreme Court agrees and starts making schools admit blacks if they could not  provide equal opportunity

• Brown v. Board of Education

o Separation damaged self-esteem

o Only applies to public schools and LEGAL segregation not de facto segregation ▪ “with all deliberate speed” is the only guidance given

• Southern Violence

o White retaliation grew just as much as organized anti-segregation protests

o Emmett Till murdered for “flirting” with white wife while visiting his uncle in  Mississippi (Till was from the North)

Challenges from Grassroots

• Montgomery Bus Boycott

o Black gathered at local churches to organize bus boycott

• MLK Jr. started in Montgomery

• Massive resistance from whites

o Close schools rather than desegregate them (private schools start popping up all over the  south)

• Eisenhower’s response is weak

o Little Rock – Ike used troops to protect the nine blacks who attended

Sit-In Movement

• Inspired by Brown c Board and Bus Boycott

• Greensboro, NC – sat at Woolworth’s lunch counter

o Some places agreed to start serving blacks after FIVE months

Students and the Civil Rights Movement

• SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)

o Formed as sub-set of SCLC because younger blacks felt out of touch with Civil Rights  movement

o “black power” became popular term and violence was seen as a means of self-defense ???? King did not agree

• Freedom Rides

o CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) – NON-VIOLENT

▪ Bi-racial group who organized sit-ins that started in Chicago and moved south as  time in civil rights movement went on.

▪ Participated heavily in the freedom rides

• Albany Protests

o Albany, GA

o Encourages non-violent protest while also pushing for voter registration and desegregated  libraries, buses, and lunch counters.  

Birmingham, AL

• 1962: George Wallace (mayor) – “segregation now, tomorrow, forever”

• MLK Jr.

o Letter from Birmingham Jail – posed a sit-in (jail-in) where he did not pay bail, but  carried out his sentence after being arrested

• Fire hoses and police dogs used on protesters because jails are full.

Eyes on the Prize – (1954-1956)

• South

• Churches, organizations, businesses, etc.

• Gov’t said all of Dixie was FOR segregation, which was not the case

• Willing to be beaten and jailed

• Multi-racial movement

• Belief that whites were superior simply because they were portrayed that way • 1954 – supreme court Brown v. Board REVERSES Plessy v. Ferguson

• Started with small acts of personal courage

• Emmett Till was visiting Mississippi from Chicago and was murdered at age 14 for calling a  white woman “baby”  

o White men not punished for killing him

o Open casket for all the world to see “what they did to [him]”

o Mose Wright (uncle) had to be kept out-of-state to keep him safe, but he still testified o All white male jury ???? Jim Crow enforced

• Rosa Parks: “I don’t know why, but the law is the law, so you’re under arrest” • Bus Boycott to start as ONE day, but voted to continue indefinitely

• Martin Luther King Jr. (26-yrs old) – new in Montgomery, which in a way made him perfect for  the position of a keynote speech leader because the officials didn’t know him and couldn’t get  their hands on him

Eyes on the Prize – Jump to 1962

• Southern resistance

• Southerners use Bible quote from Genesis to support segregation

• Mob rights (blacks suspended from school “for won protection” when they should have been  controlling mob riots)

• Gradualists vs immediatists ???? Blacks argue that it’s been a long time – too long since the  Emancipation Proclamation while whites argue that segregation will fade out over time • Martyrdom (Little Rock “9”)

o Mobs

o Extremists

o Riots

o “if we can hang one, the rest will leave”

o Eisenhower sent in paratroopers to protect black students after Governor Faubus decided  to deliberately defy the Supreme Court decision

• JFK committed to school integration

• Ole Miss – James Meredith

o Governor of Mississippi only made things worse

Week 11

Blackboard Reading – Harriet Glickman – Charles M. Schulz Correspondences

The correspondence letters between Charles Schulz and Harriet Glickman include the initial idea for the  Peanuts character Franklin. Mrs. Glickman wrote Mr. Schulz suggesting that he include a black character in the Peanuts comics after the tragic death of MLK Jr. At first, he was hesitant not because he didn’t  agree with the idea, but because he didn’t want to seem patronizing to any African American who was  reading the comic. Mrs. Glickman then showed the letter to some of her African American friends and  one of them – a father to two kids – wrote Mr. Schulz saying, “an accusation of being patronizing would  be a small price to pay for the positive results that would accrue!” (KCK). Schulz went back and forth  with his editors and publishers and it came down to him telling the president of United Features: “let’s put  it this way: either you print it just the way I draw it or I quit” and, so now, we have Franklin, the first  African American peanuts character.

Civil Rights Movement Lecture (cont.)

Birmingham, AL

• Jails overflowing

• “similar to the holocaust”

• Police using firehoses

• Rob F. Kennedy ready to intervene

o Desegregate local businesses and restaurants

• John F. Kennedy isn’t doing as much as he could even after 2 years in office o Signs law banning wage discrimination

o Preoccupied with foreign policy

• Birmingham is considered a success

• Mississippi NAACP official murdered in his home the same day JFK announced his plans for  Civil Rights Movement

March on Washington (for Jobs and Freedom)

• ¼ million people

• “I have a dream…” speech

• SNCC, CORE, NAACP, SCLC, etc.

• Baier Rushton: integral in organizing the march

o Studied with Ghandi, convinced MLK to be non-violent, led from the sidelines because  he was openly gay.

• SNCC and CORE wanted to protest how little JFK did

o Pressure on JFK to pass Civil Rights Act

▪ JFK assassinated and LBJ takes over

LBJ and Civil Rights

• Inherits all of JFK’s baggage

• Deep sympathies for people in poverty

• Passed Civil Rights legislation

• Johnson saw MLK as an important role in the legal side of negotiations

• Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed

o Outlaws discrimination based on race, color, national origin, religion, or sex

• Voting Rights Act of 1965

o Aimed to end grandfather clause and Jim Crow voting policies

• Selma ???? Montgomery Marches

o MLK told Johnson about plans for march

o Bloody Sunday – the first Sunday (beatings)

o MLK called for federal protection

▪ Governor Wallace refused to protect marchers, so Johnson ordered FBI, soldiers,  and national guard to protect marchers

Vietnam War

US Supports France

• Bien Dien Phu Airlift

o Supplies to French and the nationalists, but were recovered by communists

Interim

• Partition of the country at the 17th parallel

o North – communist

o South – nationalist

• Migration

o 300 days of free movement for anyone who wanted to move

• North Vietnam

o Ho Chi Minh – emperor

o Land reforms and rent reforms by killing hundreds of thousands of people

• South Vietnam

o Ngo Dinh Diem overthrows Bao Dai

▪ He is very oppressive

Vietnam War

• Diem’s early success

o Kills communists

• Viet Cong/National Liberal Front

o Invasion routes though Cambodia and Laos

• Kennedy did not want to fight, but escalated the number of advisors for Diem • US backed a coup of Diem, not his killing

• LBJ wants to seem tough on communism

• Gulf of Tonkin

o LBJ reports USS Maddox attacked twice

o “all necessary measures” – Congress (LBJ allowed to take any measures to stop conflict,  so a war without calling it a war

• Over 2 million troops in Vietnam; over 3.4 million in South Asia

• Bombing campaigns

o Flaming Dart (soviet Prime Minister visiting North Vietnam)

o Rolling Thunder

o Arc Light

o Commando Hunt

o 1965 – ground troops

• Tet Offensive

o Largest battle of the “war”

o Viet Cong defeated on the battlefield, but won politically

• Mai Lai massacre

o 350-500 unarmed civilians killed

Peace and End of the War

• Johnson came to a peace agreement

o Nixon sabotaged the peace agreement (treason)

• Nixon Doctrine

o Vietnamization (give military training and supplies to South Vietnam military while  steadily decreasing American involvement) – failed

o Cambodia and Laos bombing campaigns

Week 12

Blackboard Reading – LBJ not seeking re-election text & video

“a house divided against itself…is a house than cannot stand” and builds upon this famous quote. “cannot  disregard the peril to the progress of the American people and the hope and the prospects of peace for all  people, so I would ask all Americans…to guard against divisiveness” – LBJ does not like the growing  division between the parties and growing division of American people, so he chooses not to promote  division by not running for president – will not seek or accept.

The Space Age

*SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY*

• Robert Goddard – first liquid fuel rocket

• Caltech and MIT are exceptions to the rule that Universities didn’t do much with rocket science • Navy, Soviets, and Germans interested in Goddard’s work

• Marines, Air Force, and Army not interested

International Geophysical Year (18 months: July 1, 1957 – December 31, 1958) • Satellites

o US

▪ Navy: Project Vanguard

▪ Army: Project Juno

• Explorer I (radiation ???? orbits for 12 years; transmitted info for 4  

months)

▪ NACA: Bell X-I

o Soviets

▪ Sputnik I

▪ Sputnik II (launched dog into space – WTF)

o Earth data

▪ Sputnik I and II collecting data about atmosphere, etc.

• Fear that Soviets have surpassed the US in science & technology (fear of bombing) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

• National defense

o Civilian agency to encourage peaceful space science

• $100 million budget

o Absorbed a lot of other government agencies

Mercury Program (1961-1963)

• Single astronaut

o Send a man to space (Alan Sheppard)

• Manned orbit of earth

o John Glenn (3x @ 17,500 mph – 4hrs, 55mins, 23secs)

• Research

o Evaluate the effects of 1 full day in space

▪ Survival?

▪ Ability to function?

• Safe recovery of man and spacecraft

Gemini Program (Twins)

• Two-astronaut programs

o Prepare astronauts and equipment for moon mission

o Up to 2 weeks in space

o Understand the effects of longer space flight

• Equipment

o Capsules – bigger

o Rocket – bigger  

• Spacewalks

o Perform tasks in space

o Gas-powered ???? only a few minutes

o Edward J. White Jr. is the first American to walk in space (lasted 23 mins) o Buzz Aldron completed a 5-hour spacewalk – the most successful spacewalk • Gemini VII

o First docked space flight

Apollo Program (1968-1972) ???? $25.4 billion

• Moon studies – exploration, lunar exploration, etc.

• Successes

o Apollo 11 – first man on the moon

• Problems

o Apollo 13

▪ Every calculation had to be EXACT

▪ NASA’s finest hour

• Turn on landing module after long, cold sleep ???? could have short

circuited

• Conspiracy Theory

o Never landed on the moon

▪ Kennedy promised in 9 years even though the technology was 40 years away o Filmed in Iceland?

Week 13

No Blackboard reading – broken link

Vietnam to Iran

Nixon’s Domestic Policy

• Strengthens Johnson’s Great Society

• Expands the federal government

• Establishes OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

• Establishes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)

• Endangered Species Act

• Clean Air Act (catalytic converter required)

Welfare

• Social security rises with inflation

War on Drugs

• Associated drugs with hippies and African-Americans

Racial Integration

• Forced integration in public schools

• Buses taking minorities from inner-city to suburban white schools

• Segregation in schools continue largely based on residential splits

Philadelphia Plan

• Tried and failed

• Requirement for companies to hire minorities

Foreign Policy

• Cold War

o Containment

▪ Iran. Philippines, South Africa, Chile

o Visits to China to restore diplomacy

o Soviet Union

▪ Détente – slowing of the arms race

o Vietnam

▪ End the war ???? Vietnamization

• Withdraw troops gradually, but continue bombing

▪ Blacks and poor whites taking most of the death toll

▪ Troops removed by 1975

▪ $100 billion

Watergate

• Election of 1972

o Watergate hotel break-in on democratic national committee

• Supreme Court

o Oval office tapes revealed Nixon didn’t order burglary, but ordered the cover-up o Impeached

o Resigned – Gerald Ford sworn-in and pardoned Nixon

Economic Downturn

• Stagflation

o Inflations without economic growth

• Outsourcing

o Shortage of manufacturing jobs

• Energy Crisis

o Middle East conflict led to oil shortages and spike in gas prices

o OPEC

Carter Administration

• Comforting because he hadn’t held public office

o Peanut farmer from Georgia

• Election of 1976

o Won without political backers

• Fight for human rights – humanitarian

• End cold war

• “Dial the President” – you could call and talk to Carter

• Camp David Accords (1979)

o Peace agreement between Israel and Egypt

• Latin America

o Gave Panama Canal back to the locals

• SALT II Treaty

o Reduce nuclear arms in US & Soviet Union

• Iran

o We support the Shah

o Revolution in Iran seen as un-American

• Afghanistan

o Boycotted Moscow Olympics

o Taliban emerges because of America trying to protect interests against the Soviets Rise of New Right

• Economic backlash

• Sexual revolution

o Pre-marital sex increase

o Divorce rates rise

o Birth rates fall

Feminist/Gay Rights Movement

• Roe v. Wade legalizes birth control

• Briggs initiative

o Wanted to ban lesbian/gays from being teachers in California (failed)

• Harvey Milk – first openly gay public office-holder

o Assassinated by Dan White

• White Night Riots

o Gay community riots because White isn’t given enough jail time

New Conservatism – Reagan

Road to Reagan

• Energy crisis

o Oil embargo from Arabs because we aided Israel

• Economic downturn

o Carter did some things, but so late in his Presidency they didn’t affect much, but helped  after he left office

▪ Department of Energy

▪ Federal Oil Reserve

• Iranian Hostage Crisis

o Negotiate for release of hostages through Algeria because Iran refused to speak directly  to any American

o Failed attempt at a rescue

o Released on Reagan’s inauguration day

Election of Ronal Reagan

• Fiscal conservatives and religious right

• Popular and charismatic

• John Lennon murdered because of how he thought of religion

• Increase states’ rights

• Oldest president to date

• “Teflon President”  

• Attempted to assassinate Reagan – was shot, didn’t die

o Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (1993)

▪ Established background checks

Reaganomics

• Supply side economics

• 4 pillars

o Reduce the growth of spending

o Reduce government regulation (un-restrain businesses)

o Tighten the money supply

o Reduce taxes

• Results

o Short-term recession

o Long-term prosperity

o Income disparity

o Savings and loans collapse (bankruptcy)

• Real-estate recession

Cold War

• Revival of the Cold War

o Anti-communist rhetoric

o Built up the military, so the Soviets did, too

• Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars)

o Satellites to help defend the US

• Invasion of Grenada to oust the rebels

o Rebels are Cuban- & Soviet-backed

o Morale booster

• Soviet relations (2nd term)

o Fall of the Berlin Wall

AIDS Epidemic

• Biggest health crisis

• Gay-related disease

• “wrath of God”, “nature’s revenge”

• Rock Hudson (secretly gay movie star) died from AIDS

o $221 million set aside for AIDS research after his death

• Hemophiliac – Ryan White – contracted AIDS after a blood transfusion

o Awareness and activism sparked because he was a child and wasn’t gay

Week 14

Blackboard Reading – Wisconsin v. T. Mitchell 1993

Todd Mitchell and his friends watched Mississippi Burning, specifically the scene where a black boy gets  brutally beaten by a white boy. They go outside, see a young white boy, are fired up by the movie they  were watching, and proceed to beat this white boy into a coma based on emotion and the boy’s race. His  initial punishment was 2 years in prison, but was enhanced to 7 years because the assault was because of  the victim’s race. Many courts and appeals later, the case winds up in the Supreme Court because  Mitchell is arguing the constitutionality of the enhancement of Mitchell’s sentence because “he  intentionally selected his victim on account of the victim’s race” The supreme court finds that the  enhancement is not unconstitutional, and does not violate the 1st or 14th amendment unanimously. Reagan (cont.)

US in the World

• 1982 – sent troops to Lebanon to oversee

o Bombing of the US Embassy in Lebanon

• Shiite bombed marine barracks because of navy gunfire support for Lebanese civil war • Iran-Contra Affair

o Reagan secretly selling arms to Iran

o Trying to negotiate release of American hostages

▪ CIA and NSC used money from arm sales to fund Nicaraguan rebels

• Bombing of Libya

o Libya is supporting terrorist acts in Egypt

o Dispute over sovereignty over International waters and Libya attacks American ships ▪ Back and forth and then Libya bombs a German discotheque

▪ Bombed Libya

• Iranian Airliner

o Mistook F14 fighter jet (it was a passenger plane) and shot it down

• Live Aid

o Live concerts in the US and UK running simultaneously

Domestic Events

• Farm Aid

o Live Aid but for farmers

• War on Drugs

o Cocaine is popular

o Crack starts wars

o “just say no” – Nancy Reagan

• First Woman on Supreme Court

o Sandra Day O’Connor

▪ Moderate conservative

• Vietnam War Memorial

o Design contest

▪ Public outcry because it lacks ornament

• “liberal” became a dirty word

• George H.W. Bush ran and 1988 and won (Reagan’s VP)

o Further pushed New Conservatism

Clinton

George H.W. Bush

• Gulf War (2 phases)

o Desert Shield (lead-up)

o Desert Storm (physical fighting)

o First war that was live reported

o 7 months – largely successful, low human-cost, morale booster

• Saddham Hussein remained in power (main point of criticism)

o If he had been taken out of power, that would’ve led to the US running the government  long-term, which is costly

• Civil Rights

o Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)

▪ Accessibility within reason (don’t alter historical buildings, but make everything  that CAN be altered accessible)

o Rodney King riots

▪ Excessive force after high-speed chase

▪ Violating his parole (DUI)

▪ 6 days of riots

▪ Reginald Denny pulled from his truck because he was white and concrete block  was thrown at him and hit in his temple ???? permanent damage

▪ Bush sent in the national guard and federal troops

▪ “not about civil rights; brutality of a mob – pure and simple” – Bush

• Soviet Union collapse

Clinton elected in 1992

• Economy

o North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

▪ Set in action by Bush, signed by Clinton

o DOW Jones above 11,000 for the first time

▪ Deregulation of businesses

• Reverses Glass Steagall Act

o Budget surplus for the first time in 30 years

• Civil Rights

o Million-man march

o “Don’t ask; Don’t tell”

▪ Can serve in military if you don’t disclose your sexuality

o Defense of Marriage Act

▪ Marriage is between a man and a woman

o Third Wave of Feminism

▪ Women can dress how they want

▪ Turned “bitch” and “slut” into terms of empowerment

▪ Stalker databases and grants for domestic violence cases

• Healthcare

o Universal Healthcare (failed)

o Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)

o Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

▪ Allowed men to take time off after the birth of their child

Week 15

Blackboard Reading – Ferguson, Mississippi – two videos

In the video done by the press, it shows that protesters had every intention of being peaceful and were  tear-gassed when they refused to leave. Things turned violent when local businesses were set on fire, cars  were set on fire, etc. Darren Wilson was not indicted for killing Michael Brown and the locals were  infuriated by the institutionalized racism and how the system is meant to bring down the minority  population. In another video made by a more in-depth reporting staff, you see that the police also used  rubber bullets and an ear-piercing sound to try to disperse the peaceful crowd that stayed after the rest of  the crowd left even though the right to peacefully protest is protected by the constitution. The police  started firing into neighborhoods and houses.

Clinton (cont.)

Domestic Terrorism under Clinton’s watch

• World Trade Center Bombing (1993)

• Branch Davidians/FBI siege at Waco, TX (1993 – 51 days)

• Oklahoma City Bombing (1995)

• ATL Olympic Park Bombing (1996)

• Columbine High School Shooting (1998)

o Beginning of all the school shootings happening today

• OK City and Columbine ???? not safe anywhere

Scandals

• 70’s-80’s savings and loans company failed

• Whitewater Development Corporation

o Failed savings and loans/loss of investment

▪ Hillary’s law firm gained money from the collapse and then itself collapsed ($73  million in total government costs)

o Mysterious deaths/suicides

▪ People who were supposed to testify against the Clintons started  

disappearing/killing themselves

o Missing documents found in Clinton’s private residence

▪ Hillary and Bill were cleared, but 4 friends weren’t

▪ Bill was pardoned

• Monica Lewinsky

o Bill lied to the American public

o Impeachment (perjury and obstruction of justice)

• Impeached and did very little in his second term

US in the World

• Bosnian civil war/break-up of Yugoslavia

• US did not intervene at all

o Rapings, murders, thefts, etc.

The War on Terror

War on Terror began long before 9/11/01

• 1993 – CIA shooting (Pakistani man and fled the US immediately) o 4-yr manhunt, multi-million-dollar reward

o Only shot men

o Anger at America’s policy in the middle-east

• One month later – world trade center bombing

• 1998 – US Embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya o Simultaneously, 2-truck bombs

o First time Al Qaeda was noticed by the US

September 11, 2001

• 19 Al Qaeda and 4 planes

• North Tower • South Tower • Pentagon

18 minutes apart; ~2,000 American deaths

• Flight 93 brought down by passengers (headed to White House)

• George W. Bush – “search is underway for those behind the attacks”

• Al Qaeda sheltered by Taliban and government

o In over 60 countries

• Bush stocked up on Neo-Conservatives

• Bush Doctrine

o Unilaterally/pre-emptively attack anyone posing a threat to the US

o Dexter Filkins called the War on Terror a “forever war”

• ½ million people evacuated from Manhattan in less than 9 hours

o People were volunteering their personal boats to evacuate people

• People who jumped deaths were ruled homicides

• $30.5 billion cost to city of New York

Afghanistan

• Mujahedeen – CIA provided them with weapons and strengthened insurgency • Bin Laden relocated Al Qaeda to Afghanistan when Afghanistan was taken over by Taliban • Operation “Enduring Freedom”

o Air raids and bombings of Al Qaeda camps

Iraq

• Gulf War (1991)

o American war planes periodically fly over Iraqi cities to make sure they keep “no fly  zones” after Gulf War

• Regime change and weapons of mass destruction

o GWB pushed for fall of Saddham Hussein and war on Iraq

▪ Military force against Iraq was approved

o Feb 6, 2003 – American Colin Powell said Iraq had weapons

▪ Bombing of Bagdad over 3 days

▪ Paralyze enemy and destroy their will to fight

• “shock and awe”

▪ Troops move in and Hussein’s regime collapsed

▪ “mission accomplished” but spent next 10 years trying to contain the insurgency • Saddham Hussein hanged Dec 2006

Bush’s 2nd term (2004)

• Kerry (opponent) attacked Bush for not being able to contain the insurgency and not being able to  find Bin Laden

• 2006: Taliban re-emerged

• 2007: 27,000 more troops deployed to Iraq – “the surge”

• 2008: withdrew from Iraq

Obama (2008)

• Publicly denouncing the war

• 2007: economy collapse

• Counterinsurgency – 17,000 more troops to Afghanistan to capture and kill Osama bin Laden • 2011: phased withdrawal of troops

Week 16

Blackboard Reading – Donald Trump Tweet

Donald Trump’s tweet asks how long the NY Times will continue to stay in business in spite of their  “non-existent sources,” and “big losses” and gets a lot of replies like: “longer than you’re POTUS,”  “longer than your brief tenure,” etc.

Final Exam – HIST 112-007

Wednesday December 13, 2017 – 12:30 PM in same room as lecture

Bring blank blue book

Single page of notes (front & back – typed or handwritten)

Key Terms (25%)

Answer any 5 pairs out of ten given

Three sentences: definition of first (1.5 pt.), definition of second (1.5 pt.), and the historical significance  (2 pt.).

Short Answer (15%)

5 questions

Answer in a single sentence

ALL are related to blackboard readings

Essay 1 (30%)

Choose 1 of 3 questions

• Compare/contrast

• Discuss (garbage dump – tell everything you know)

• Trace the development (change over time)

Topics

• Politics

• Social concepts

• Science and technology

Essay 2 (30%)

Choose 1 of 3

• Compare/contrast

• Discuss (garbage dump – tell everything you know) • Trace the development (change over time)

Topics

• Politics

• Social concepts

• Science and technology

Bonus Section (!!!)

Two questions each worth 5 pts

No penalty for wrong answers

Related to university of South Carolina – time period: reconstruction

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