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USC / Journalism / JOUR 101 / What is the difference between thinking and feeling?

What is the difference between thinking and feeling?

What is the difference between thinking and feeling?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Journalism
Course: Media & Society
Professor: Leigh moscowitz
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: journalism
Cost: 50
Name: JOUR 101, FINAL EXAM STUDYGUIDE
Description: THESE NOTES COVER WHAT IS GOING TO BE ON OUR FINAL EXAM FOR JOUR 101, I HOPE THEY ARE HELPFUL!
Uploaded: 12/08/2017
16 Pages 276 Views 4 Unlocks
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Journalism 101: Study Guide For Final Exam


What is the difference between thinking and feeling?



Date/Time of Exam: December 11th @ 4 pm

*50 questions, 100 points total, 2.5 hrs*

Media​ ​advertising​ ​appeals:

1. Sensitize you to the amount & persuasiveness of advertising in our culture. 2. Help you understand how advertising messages are designed. 3. Get you to be more systematic in analysing messages & evaluating the degree to which their appeals match your real needs.

Media​ ​advertising​ ​campaigns:

Campaign strategy: planning companies develop to sell.

-Agent​ ​and​ ​audience/Target​ ​(the​ ​who’s)


What is the meaning of message flow?



-The​ ​objective​ ​(the​ ​why)

-awareness

-conviction

-action

-reinforcement

-Method​ ​(the​ ​how)

-thinking vs feeling If you want to learn more check out What is the response or action in operant conditioning?

-degree of involvement

-Benefit​ ​(the​ ​what)

1. Science and an art→ each ad is planned & reviewed by professionals w/ technical expertise.

2. It’s a risky endeavor, stakes and risks are high

3. Roles of advertising has changed with the growing popularity of newer media & fragmentation of population.

-OLD vs NEW


What is the main definition of polysemy (polysemic)?



I. Audience→ appealing to the mass audience vs appealing to the needs within niches.

II. Medium→ distributing through traditionals media vs. through social media, apps, etc.

III. Attention→ interrupting people vs. delivering it at the precise moment the target audience needs it.

IV. Message Flow→ one way: company to consumer vs interactive across many networks of consumers.

V. Focus→ focused on selling products in ad campaigns that had a limited life vs focusing on communicating with potential customers in an ongoing dialogue.

How​ ​advertising​ ​reflects​ ​the​ ​media​ ​&​ ​??​ ​Development​ ​cycles​ ​from​ ​earlier: -In general: polysemic--multiple meanings.If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of hearing in psychoacoustics?

-Semiotics we have signs that are easily recognizable or understood. -The ability to offer multiple meanings is where it is unique to advertising. POEMS​ ​&​ ​polysemy:

-polysemy​ ​(polysemic):​ ​multiple meanings .. give opportunity for an ad to have more of a lifespan. Anything that has more culture is Polysemy.

-what earlier concepts apply here?

-semiotics

-liminality

-always evolving

ex) emojis and emoticons … always evolving, using semiotics of letters. We also discuss several other topics like What are the negative ramifications of the problem?

POEMS:

-paid

-owned

-earned

-media (that is) shares

Qualities/potential​ ​of​ ​interactive​ ​media​ ​and​ ​experiences​ ​of​ ​competition, community,​ ​and​ ​cultural​ ​acquisition: Don't forget about the age old question of What is a “protection rocket”?

3 platforms:

- Those that offer users a competitive experience

- Those that offer users a cooperative experience

- Those that offer users an acquisition experience

Experiences of Competition: If you want to learn more check out What are some of the biological and psychological factors that contribute to aggression?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is deontology according to kant?

- Invention of computers expands platform

- Internet lets us compete against people all over the world - MMORPG’s (Massively multiplayer online role-playing games) - Electronic games become part of mass media

- Digital game codes govern game appearance and play

- Highly attractive to particular niche audiences

Community:

-social media and selfies

example : the funeral selfie, different fb groups= diss communities.

-social networking and web 2.0 (open source software) Cultural Acquisition:

-information (wikipedia, google autocomplete)

-Memes

-Avatars and stimulation

-Narcissism

“selfie”

-hashtags and symbols

*pic symbolizing trayvon martin’s death, skittles

*pay pay the frog (had a more general neutral identity)

Culture&Community:

-cultural context of community = “nextdoor” *keep a look out neighbor watch** ← what people say when they go on vacation etc.

-Think-pair-share

Priming​ ​and​ ​catharsis:

-Priming: media causes aggressive behavior

· Ex: video games

· Cognitive psychology: exposure to one stimulus influences response to a later stimulus (Skinner)

-Catharsis:cleansing; purging; purification

· Goes back to Aristotle

· Thought to relieve urges for aggression (seeing violence produces less will for more violence)

Characteristics​ ​of​ ​the​ ​public​ ​sphere:

I. Universal access to information- relates to Enlightenment

II. All are free from coercion

III. Bracketed status differences- what is your position in society (economic, social, political statuses, military or business rank, age, peer groups, occupational prestige, experience, etc.) Bracketed: moving status differences aside, good public sphere = exchanging information without status barriers, etc. IV. An educated public to critically process and assess public information V. Critical and rational debate

· Critical: skepticism about popular answers or from established authorities (church, govt, etc.)

· Rational: common commitment to identify evidence and reasoning to substantiate ideas

· Can’t just be critical, can’t just be rational, must be both

Challenges​ ​to​ ​the​ ​ideal​ ​public​ ​sphere:

1. Access differences (education, money, geography) that form exclusions from the public sphere. ...ex: net neutrality

2. Rationality does NOT always lead to effective debate

3. State coercion/ business corruption

4. State secrets/ private secrets/ propaganda

5. Collective apathy, collective cynicism

**Challenges=you

-information age and our ability to participate in it, and it will erode the public sphere.

Dimensions​ ​of​ ​media​ ​effects:

1. timing

2. valence

3. intentionality

4. type (individual; macro)

a) individual : “head” ABC, “heart” emotional and physiological, “hand” behavioral

b) macro types: Organizations, Institutions, society

Outcomes​ ​of​ ​media​ ​effects​ ​(manifested​ ​and​ ​process)

Manifested: Short Term

Processed: Long term (not immediately seen)

a) Baseline (patterns): typical level of risk for an effect

b) Fluctuation (situational): a temporary effect

Factors​ ​that​ ​influence​ ​baseline​ ​and​ ​fluctuation​ ​effects

Baseline effects are influenced by:

1. Level of Knowledge

2. Level of Socialization

3. Level of Openness

Fluctuation effects are influenced by:

1. Content-Knowledge Structures

2. Context (viewers= good guys)

3. Complexity (pictures, words, sounds)

4. Cultural Identification (involved in events through psychological relationship with characters in.. two step process: “as if:

**Remember that fluctuation factors move you off your baseline Hegemony​ ​(and​ ​hierarchy​ ​and​ ​ideology)

-Hegemony (“Common sense”-> the masses)

What are some examples of both current or in the past of “common sense”? -look both ways before you cross the street

-Hegemony (common sense *can evolve and change*, consensual-the way things are or should be) vs Hierarchy (the rules, overt (all out there), coercive) -both support dominant ideology

-Hegemony is a construct of ideology

-becomes prominent during frankfurt school peak

Net​ ​neutrality

Net Neutrality: internet service providers must treat all data on the internet the same, not discriminate/charge differently by user/platform/content/website, etc. Service providers can’t intentionally slow down/block/charge money for specific sites/online content. (wiki definition)

The​ ​two​ ​approaches​ ​to​ ​media​ ​research,​ ​including​ ​past​ ​and​ ​contemporary 1. Traditional. Breaks down into two ways → past and contemporary 2. Cultural. Birmingham school

I. Traditional “media effects”

● Scientific (social and natural)

● observe/study behavior

● Conduct experiments

● objectivity: embraces and strives for it…

● Replication and precision

Past:

I. Hypodermic needle approach (aka “magic needle”) *similar to magic window (kids think what’s on TV is really happening somewhere) -1920’s and 1930’s

-like getting a shot- feel sick, get shot, feel better (cause/effect) -ex: War of the Worlds (1938)- people took fictional radio broadcast seriously and thought it was true, everyone freaked out

II. Behavioral science: stimulus-response

- 1930’s to 1960’s

- Continued assumption of simple cause-effect

- Catharsis example: making guy watch violent crimes to diminish his urges to commit them

- Trying to understand the brain

Contemporary

I. Theories of framing

A. Framing: focus not on what to think, but what to think about B. Media offers “filters” for making sense of the world

C. Less about behavior, more about cognition 

D. Self reflexivity- we look at the process of filtering

E. States of exposure- rigidity of our opinions contribute to

transportive state of exposure

II. Contemporary

- Theories​ ​of​ ​framing

- 1. Agenda setting-Media sets the agenda for what to discuss (McCombs & Shaw)

- Cultivation- perceive the “real” world more like “TV world”, TV as the “common symbolic environment”.

- *Convergence=a text available across many channels/many media forms. Ex: of cultivation theory: “mean world syndrome” George Gerbner- world is perceived as “meaner” than it is because media shows bad news stories, stories of hostility and violence, crime & other bad things disproportionately covered/represented

-Birmingham School: (begins 1964): cultural studies

-Formal name: Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies

1. encoding/decoding (Stuart Hall) → encode. (meaning is put into something ex: radio,tv etc.) decode. (when it becomes a totally different story, media usually makes it another story)

2. Reciprocity and negotiation: recip. (ability to do so much of the media creation and distribution ourselves) negoc. (what do people do with the media)

3. Power and cultural politics

Constructs:​ ​how​ ​are​ ​they​ ​similar​ ​to​ ​and​ ​different​ ​from​ ​each​ ​other? Similar: Both focused on popular culture

Different: Birmingham→ appreciated media and used it in a way to encode and decode where as Frankfurt→ did not like media, felt people needed to be careful, and were a jewish school so opposed and felt hatred towards the idea of propaganda. The frankfurt also liked the dumbing down thesis and felt that we had short attention spans so media is bad where as the Birmingham school wanted to use media to drag stories out and keep people attention in

Culture​ ​and​ ​media​ ​effects,​ ​including​ ​the​ ​Birmingham​ ​School​ ​(e.g.​ ​Hall; Hebdige)​ ​and​ ​how​ ​it​ ​differs​ ​from​ ​earlier​ ​schools/approaches Culture and Media

1. Church prioritized reason

2. Enlightenment prioritized

3. Modernism prioritized art,literature (media)

-“The center cannot hold”

-The role of boundaries/borders/categories, and thus….

The roles of culture, ideology, and media

-Frankfurt School begins in 1920’s: media influence

-Earliest founders: not into media

-Walter Benjamin: optimistic about media (mechanical reproduction)-- made culture more accessible to more people. **Concept of aura

-Dwight MacDonald (1940’s-50’s): popular culture → breaks it down into mass cult (truly democratic form of culture that brought everyone together) and mid cult (aspires to be high culture)

-Birmingham School (begins 1964): cultural studies

Formal name: Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies

1. encoding/decoding (Stuart Hall) → encode. (meaning is put into something ex: radio,tv etc.) decode. (when it becomes a totally different story, media usually makes it another story)

2. Reciprocity and negotiation: recip. (ability to do so much of the media creation and distribution ourselves) negoc. (what do people do with the media)

3. Power and cultural politics

Evolving​ ​issues​ ​for​ ​studying​ ​media

1. Quit social media. Similar to Gladwell’s message- strong and weak ties. 2. Big Data: -ransomware: can build wall, freeze computer, access files, and make you pay to access your information again. Cyber criminality. -need for cognition: self reflecting on how we think about things

Media​ ​literacy;​ ​being​ ​“knowledgeable”

“Knowledge-able”: we’ve gone from meaning-seekers to meaning-makers Media is not just a tool, it’s relational...it mediates… it’s a reflection of ourselves and is part of who we are.

Things​ ​to​ ​remember:

Periods of civil authority

1. The church prioritized tradition, doctrine, dogma (said: we will be the ones that tell you the way the world works, and will be involved in the state)

2. The enlightenment (1650-1800) prioritized reason,science (human rationality)

*Use human and science to put what the church is telling us into context 3. Modernism prioritized doubt (We self reflect and recognize that there still is things that need fixing).

- “The center cannot hold”

- prioritize boundaries/borders/categories

Journalism 101: Study Guide For Final Exam

Date/Time of Exam: December 11th @ 4 pm

*50 questions, 100 points total, 2.5 hrs*

Media​ ​advertising​ ​appeals:

1. Sensitize you to the amount & persuasiveness of advertising in our culture. 2. Help you understand how advertising messages are designed. 3. Get you to be more systematic in analysing messages & evaluating the degree to which their appeals match your real needs.

Media​ ​advertising​ ​campaigns:

Campaign strategy: planning companies develop to sell.

-Agent​ ​and​ ​audience/Target​ ​(the​ ​who’s)

-The​ ​objective​ ​(the​ ​why)

-awareness

-conviction

-action

-reinforcement

-Method​ ​(the​ ​how)

-thinking vs feeling

-degree of involvement

-Benefit​ ​(the​ ​what)

1. Science and an art→ each ad is planned & reviewed by professionals w/ technical expertise.

2. It’s a risky endeavor, stakes and risks are high

3. Roles of advertising has changed with the growing popularity of newer media & fragmentation of population.

-OLD vs NEW

I. Audience→ appealing to the mass audience vs appealing to the needs within niches.

II. Medium→ distributing through traditionals media vs. through social media, apps, etc.

III. Attention→ interrupting people vs. delivering it at the precise moment the target audience needs it.

IV. Message Flow→ one way: company to consumer vs interactive across many networks of consumers.

V. Focus→ focused on selling products in ad campaigns that had a limited life vs focusing on communicating with potential customers in an ongoing dialogue.

How​ ​advertising​ ​reflects​ ​the​ ​media​ ​&​ ​??​ ​Development​ ​cycles​ ​from​ ​earlier: -In general: polysemic--multiple meanings.

-Semiotics we have signs that are easily recognizable or understood. -The ability to offer multiple meanings is where it is unique to advertising. POEMS​ ​&​ ​polysemy:

-polysemy​ ​(polysemic):​ ​multiple meanings .. give opportunity for an ad to have more of a lifespan. Anything that has more culture is Polysemy.

-what earlier concepts apply here?

-semiotics

-liminality

-always evolving

ex) emojis and emoticons … always evolving, using semiotics of letters.

POEMS:

-paid

-owned

-earned

-media (that is) shares

Qualities/potential​ ​of​ ​interactive​ ​media​ ​and​ ​experiences​ ​of​ ​competition, community,​ ​and​ ​cultural​ ​acquisition:

3 platforms:

- Those that offer users a competitive experience

- Those that offer users a cooperative experience

- Those that offer users an acquisition experience

Experiences of Competition:

- Invention of computers expands platform

- Internet lets us compete against people all over the world - MMORPG’s (Massively multiplayer online role-playing games) - Electronic games become part of mass media

- Digital game codes govern game appearance and play

- Highly attractive to particular niche audiences

Community:

-social media and selfies

example : the funeral selfie, different fb groups= diss communities.

-social networking and web 2.0 (open source software) Cultural Acquisition:

-information (wikipedia, google autocomplete)

-Memes

-Avatars and stimulation

-Narcissism

“selfie”

-hashtags and symbols

*pic symbolizing trayvon martin’s death, skittles

*pay pay the frog (had a more general neutral identity)

Culture&Community:

-cultural context of community = “nextdoor” *keep a look out neighbor watch** ← what people say when they go on vacation etc.

-Think-pair-share

Priming​ ​and​ ​catharsis:

-Priming: media causes aggressive behavior

· Ex: video games

· Cognitive psychology: exposure to one stimulus influences response to a later stimulus (Skinner)

-Catharsis:cleansing; purging; purification

· Goes back to Aristotle

· Thought to relieve urges for aggression (seeing violence produces less will for more violence)

Characteristics​ ​of​ ​the​ ​public​ ​sphere:

I. Universal access to information- relates to Enlightenment

II. All are free from coercion

III. Bracketed status differences- what is your position in society (economic, social, political statuses, military or business rank, age, peer groups, occupational prestige, experience, etc.) Bracketed: moving status differences aside, good public sphere = exchanging information without status barriers, etc. IV. An educated public to critically process and assess public information V. Critical and rational debate

· Critical: skepticism about popular answers or from established authorities (church, govt, etc.)

· Rational: common commitment to identify evidence and reasoning to substantiate ideas

· Can’t just be critical, can’t just be rational, must be both

Challenges​ ​to​ ​the​ ​ideal​ ​public​ ​sphere:

1. Access differences (education, money, geography) that form exclusions from the public sphere. ...ex: net neutrality

2. Rationality does NOT always lead to effective debate

3. State coercion/ business corruption

4. State secrets/ private secrets/ propaganda

5. Collective apathy, collective cynicism

**Challenges=you

-information age and our ability to participate in it, and it will erode the public sphere.

Dimensions​ ​of​ ​media​ ​effects:

1. timing

2. valence

3. intentionality

4. type (individual; macro)

a) individual : “head” ABC, “heart” emotional and physiological, “hand” behavioral

b) macro types: Organizations, Institutions, society

Outcomes​ ​of​ ​media​ ​effects​ ​(manifested​ ​and​ ​process)

Manifested: Short Term

Processed: Long term (not immediately seen)

a) Baseline (patterns): typical level of risk for an effect

b) Fluctuation (situational): a temporary effect

Factors​ ​that​ ​influence​ ​baseline​ ​and​ ​fluctuation​ ​effects

Baseline effects are influenced by:

1. Level of Knowledge

2. Level of Socialization

3. Level of Openness

Fluctuation effects are influenced by:

1. Content-Knowledge Structures

2. Context (viewers= good guys)

3. Complexity (pictures, words, sounds)

4. Cultural Identification (involved in events through psychological relationship with characters in.. two step process: “as if:

**Remember that fluctuation factors move you off your baseline Hegemony​ ​(and​ ​hierarchy​ ​and​ ​ideology)

-Hegemony (“Common sense”-> the masses)

What are some examples of both current or in the past of “common sense”? -look both ways before you cross the street

-Hegemony (common sense *can evolve and change*, consensual-the way things are or should be) vs Hierarchy (the rules, overt (all out there), coercive) -both support dominant ideology

-Hegemony is a construct of ideology

-becomes prominent during frankfurt school peak

Net​ ​neutrality

Net Neutrality: internet service providers must treat all data on the internet the same, not discriminate/charge differently by user/platform/content/website, etc. Service providers can’t intentionally slow down/block/charge money for specific sites/online content. (wiki definition)

The​ ​two​ ​approaches​ ​to​ ​media​ ​research,​ ​including​ ​past​ ​and​ ​contemporary 1. Traditional. Breaks down into two ways → past and contemporary 2. Cultural. Birmingham school

I. Traditional “media effects”

● Scientific (social and natural)

● observe/study behavior

● Conduct experiments

● objectivity: embraces and strives for it…

● Replication and precision

Past:

I. Hypodermic needle approach (aka “magic needle”) *similar to magic window (kids think what’s on TV is really happening somewhere) -1920’s and 1930’s

-like getting a shot- feel sick, get shot, feel better (cause/effect) -ex: War of the Worlds (1938)- people took fictional radio broadcast seriously and thought it was true, everyone freaked out

II. Behavioral science: stimulus-response

- 1930’s to 1960’s

- Continued assumption of simple cause-effect

- Catharsis example: making guy watch violent crimes to diminish his urges to commit them

- Trying to understand the brain

Contemporary

I. Theories of framing

A. Framing: focus not on what to think, but what to think about B. Media offers “filters” for making sense of the world

C. Less about behavior, more about cognition 

D. Self reflexivity- we look at the process of filtering

E. States of exposure- rigidity of our opinions contribute to

transportive state of exposure

II. Contemporary

- Theories​ ​of​ ​framing

- 1. Agenda setting-Media sets the agenda for what to discuss (McCombs & Shaw)

- Cultivation- perceive the “real” world more like “TV world”, TV as the “common symbolic environment”.

- *Convergence=a text available across many channels/many media forms. Ex: of cultivation theory: “mean world syndrome” George Gerbner- world is perceived as “meaner” than it is because media shows bad news stories, stories of hostility and violence, crime & other bad things disproportionately covered/represented

-Birmingham School: (begins 1964): cultural studies

-Formal name: Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies

1. encoding/decoding (Stuart Hall) → encode. (meaning is put into something ex: radio,tv etc.) decode. (when it becomes a totally different story, media usually makes it another story)

2. Reciprocity and negotiation: recip. (ability to do so much of the media creation and distribution ourselves) negoc. (what do people do with the media)

3. Power and cultural politics

Constructs:​ ​how​ ​are​ ​they​ ​similar​ ​to​ ​and​ ​different​ ​from​ ​each​ ​other? Similar: Both focused on popular culture

Different: Birmingham→ appreciated media and used it in a way to encode and decode where as Frankfurt→ did not like media, felt people needed to be careful, and were a jewish school so opposed and felt hatred towards the idea of propaganda. The frankfurt also liked the dumbing down thesis and felt that we had short attention spans so media is bad where as the Birmingham school wanted to use media to drag stories out and keep people attention in

Culture​ ​and​ ​media​ ​effects,​ ​including​ ​the​ ​Birmingham​ ​School​ ​(e.g.​ ​Hall; Hebdige)​ ​and​ ​how​ ​it​ ​differs​ ​from​ ​earlier​ ​schools/approaches Culture and Media

1. Church prioritized reason

2. Enlightenment prioritized

3. Modernism prioritized art,literature (media)

-“The center cannot hold”

-The role of boundaries/borders/categories, and thus….

The roles of culture, ideology, and media

-Frankfurt School begins in 1920’s: media influence

-Earliest founders: not into media

-Walter Benjamin: optimistic about media (mechanical reproduction)-- made culture more accessible to more people. **Concept of aura

-Dwight MacDonald (1940’s-50’s): popular culture → breaks it down into mass cult (truly democratic form of culture that brought everyone together) and mid cult (aspires to be high culture)

-Birmingham School (begins 1964): cultural studies

Formal name: Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies

1. encoding/decoding (Stuart Hall) → encode. (meaning is put into something ex: radio,tv etc.) decode. (when it becomes a totally different story, media usually makes it another story)

2. Reciprocity and negotiation: recip. (ability to do so much of the media creation and distribution ourselves) negoc. (what do people do with the media)

3. Power and cultural politics

Evolving​ ​issues​ ​for​ ​studying​ ​media

1. Quit social media. Similar to Gladwell’s message- strong and weak ties. 2. Big Data: -ransomware: can build wall, freeze computer, access files, and make you pay to access your information again. Cyber criminality. -need for cognition: self reflecting on how we think about things

Media​ ​literacy;​ ​being​ ​“knowledgeable”

“Knowledge-able”: we’ve gone from meaning-seekers to meaning-makers Media is not just a tool, it’s relational...it mediates… it’s a reflection of ourselves and is part of who we are.

Things​ ​to​ ​remember:

Periods of civil authority

1. The church prioritized tradition, doctrine, dogma (said: we will be the ones that tell you the way the world works, and will be involved in the state)

2. The enlightenment (1650-1800) prioritized reason,science (human rationality)

*Use human and science to put what the church is telling us into context 3. Modernism prioritized doubt (We self reflect and recognize that there still is things that need fixing).

- “The center cannot hold”

- prioritize boundaries/borders/categories

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