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OU - GEOG 020 - Study Guide - Final

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OU - GEOG 020 - Study Guide - Final

School: University of Oklahoma
Department: Geography
Course: physical geography
Professor: Hernan Moreno
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Name: Physical geography Study Guide Exam 4 (Final)
Description: Here is a cumulative assessment covering everything that will be on our final exam (exam 4)
Uploaded: 12/09/2017
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background image Final Exam Study Guide (Chapters 11-14) – Physical Geography Chapter 11: Wind/Coastal Systems Ocean is majority of all water on Earth -> 5 oceans: Atlantic, Pacific, Artic, 
Indian, and southern oceans
Ocean chemistry: seawater, river discharges, atmosphere and sediment/living 
organisms 
Salinity: dissolves solids by volume 
salt (sodium chloride): (parts per thousand) 32-37‰ globally
microbeads: harmful tiny solids that eventually flow to ocean life
Tides: Cyclic changes in height of ocean surface caused by gravitational pull of the 
sun and moon
high and low tide every 12 hours and 24 minutes
High tides -> highest: spring tides – lowest: neap tides
  Low tides -> highest: neap tides – lowest: spring tides
Spring tides: when earth/moon/sun are aligned
Neap tides: when earth/moon/sun are perpendicular 
Coral reefs: calcium carbonate excreted by corals Thrive in shallow ocean
Located on continental shelves in warm oceans or islands or Atolls 
(submerged island) Ocean Acidification: 30-40% of anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed by ocean lowers Ph levels and changes the balance of minerals  Coastal salt marsh: regularly folded, mixture of fresh & salt water  Mangroves: slat tolerant trees and shrubs along (sub)tropical coasts Wave energy and depositional features:  Converging waves (winds) create caves and sea arches
Diverging waves create bays and cores
Spit: longshore current transport sediment along beach 
  Baymouth Bar: well developed spit, can break apart making barrier islands Coasts:  Emergent: sea level fall- dunes/reefs exposed (Scotland links courses)   Submergent: sea level rise- hills become islands Eolian (wind) processes: weathering/erosion/deposition Abrasion: grinding of rock surface (“sand balsting”)
Ventifact: Large stone/ bedrock, evidence of Eolian erosion
Yardang: broad, streamlined ridges made my Eolian processes
background image Final Exam Study Guide (Chapters 11-14) – Physical Geography Eolian depositional landforms:  sand ripples, dunes (hills of sand, made over a long time), Erg desert: broad  desert region Chapter 12: Glaciers Glaciers: snow into ice, non-stationary snowflakes pressed together by weight of other snowflakes
More snow = more weight, compressing snow into spheres -> deeper = 
bluish color permanent snow: high elevations & latitudes Alpine (Mountain) Glaciers:  Altitudes above snowline -> semi-permanent ice Continental Glaciers: larger & slower moving -> high latitudes only ice sheets/caps/fields
landmass below ice is 
depressed Ice cap: buries mountainous  terrain Ice field: long stretch of ice
Accumulation: where snow falls
Ablation: melting/evaporation
Depositional features: Alpine Glacial drift: deposits
glacial till: (un-stratified drift) pile of rocks
stratified drift: sediment sorted by size (glacial meltwater)
Moraine: till deposits by glacier
lateral moraine: forms alongside each side of glacier
medial moraine: joining of two lateral moraines
terminal moraine: till deposited at furthest extent
recessional moraines: deposits where glacier pauses movement
Depositional features: continental Ground moraine: widespread layer of till deposited as ice sheet melts
streamlined hills shaped by ice sheet
Depositional: Drumlin, “crag & tail”
Erosional: “crag & tail”
Outwash plain: broad front of meltwater outwash with stratified drift
kettle lakes: steep sided hole made from melting chuck of glacier ice
Permafrost: when soil temperature remains below freezing for at least 2 years 
(tundra)
Periglacial: when permafrost is not covered by glaciers 20% of Earth’s surface, high latitudes/elevations, subarctic/polar  climates
background image Final Exam Study Guide (Chapters 11-14) – Physical Geography continuous permafrost: deep layer of frozen ground
discontinuous permafrost: ground heated/permafrost thawed
active layer; top layer of permafrost fluctuates with seasons dome (ice cores -> ices is analyzed) Milankovitch Theory:  obliquity: angle of Earth’s tilt changes
precession (equinoxes): changes timing of perihelion (proximity to sun)
orbital orbital eccentricity: shape of earth’s orbit varies, may control growth/retreat  of ice sheets Glacial episode factors: Astronomy increase in sunspot activity and albedo
greenhouse gasses from volcanoes, volcanic ash/dust reflect solar radiation
Chapter 13: ecosystems and soils Soils: supplies antibiotics, water filter, and foundations for habitats mineral matter: non-living, fragments of rack/mineral
organic matter: living and dead plants/animals, litter (leaves/twigs) & humus 
(decomposed) soil moisture: water stored in soil, plants thrive between wilting point & field  capacity Soil sampling: pedon: vertical soil profile
horizon: vertical layer of soil
properties: texture, color, structure, porosity, moisture, chemistry, acidity & 
alkalinity  Soil texture triangle: percent clay/silt/loam & their combinations Soil development, formation, & change at basin areas Natural factors: parent material topography and relief: erosion, drainage, slope
past & present climate: temp. moisture, evap. Freeze/thaw
biologic: vegetation, bacteria, animals 
time
Human factors: land use and disturbance
Leaching: loss of water-soluble plants nutrients from the soil (rain/irrigation)
Compactions: reduces porosity, decrease water from moving through
Soil horizons:  O – top most layer
A – “top soil” mixed organic 
materials E – leached zone

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School: University of Oklahoma
Department: Geography
Course: physical geography
Professor: Hernan Moreno
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Name: Physical geography Study Guide Exam 4 (Final)
Description: Here is a cumulative assessment covering everything that will be on our final exam (exam 4)
Uploaded: 12/09/2017
9 Pages 51 Views 40 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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