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Heaven Creater Elite Notetaker HDFS Human Development Final Study Guide Chapter 17: Physical Development in late adulthood Longevity ● life span=the maximum number of years an individual can live, has remained at approximately 120 to 125 years of age. ● life expectancy=the number of years that the average person born in a particular year will probably live. ● Study Centenarians ● young-old = (65 to 84 years of age) ● oldest-old= (85 years and older). ● evolutionary theory of aging= natural selection has not eliminated many harmful conditions and non-adaptive characteristics in older adults ● Cellular clock theory= theory that cells can divide a maximum of about 75 to 80 times, and that as we age our cells become less capable of dividing. ● free-radical theory= states that people age because when cells metabolize energy, the by-products include unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals. ● Mitochondrial theory=states that aging is due to the decay of mitochondria. Early mitochondrial theory views emphasized that this decay is primarily caused by oxidative damage and loss of critical micronutrients supplied by the cell ● Sirtuins = a family of proteins that have been linked to longevity, regulation of mitochondria functioning in energy. ● The mTOR pathway= a cellular pathway that involves the regulation of growth and metabolism ●hormonal stress theory= argues that aging in the body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease Course of physical development ● The Brain: the brain loses 5 to 10 percent of its weight between the ages of 20 and 90. Brain volume also decreases.( due mainly to shrinkage of neurons, lower numbers of synapses, reduced length and complexity of axons, and reduced tree-like branching in dendrites, but only to a minor extent attributable to neuron loss) -The prefrontal cortex is one area that shrinks the most with aging - neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, does occur in lower mammalian species, such as mice. -Adaptiveness: whether the brain can generate new neurons, dendritic growth, and delateralization.
● Sleep: 50% of older adults complain of having poor sleep.Can result in early death and lower level of cognitive function. -Avoid caffeine, limit naps, avoid over the counter sleep remedies, and stay physically and mentally active. ● Immune system: Declines with age. -the extended duration of stress and diminished restorative processes in older adults may accelerate the effects of aging on immunity -Malnutrition involves low levels of protein. -Improved with exercise and flu vaccinations. ● Physical Appearance and movement: Wrinkles and age spots appear.-Shorter height due to bone loss in vertebrae -Weight drops after 60 years old and -Slower movement ● Study Sensory development, sexuality, and circulatory system and lungs Health ● Probability of acquiring a disease or illness increases -Chronic diseases with slow onset and long duration are common -Deaths due to cancer and cardiovascular disease (60%). Cardiovascular disease leading cause of death for elders over 75 years old -Ethnicity is linked to death rates. -Study Arthritis, osteoporosis, and accidents, substance abuse and use, exercise, nutrition, and weight Chapter 18: Cognitive Development in late adulthood Maltreatment: ● Elders Most likely to experience maltreatment from Spouses and family members, ● Institutional abuse facilities: Hospitals, nursing homes, long term care centers Memory: ● Semantic memory= person’s knowledge about the world and their area of expertise. ● Working memory= Assembles and manipulates information when making decisions, solving problems, and comprehending language. ● Source memory= ability to remember where once learned ● Perceptual speed= cognitive resource that involves the ability to perform simple motor tasks. (Stepping on brakes in time when care ahead stops) ● Prospective memory= remembering to do something in the future (like taking medication)
● Explicit memory = memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state and also is sometimes called declarative memory.● Implicit memory = memory without conscious recollection. It involves skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically. ● Episodic memory= the retention of information about the details of life’s happenings. ● Older adults are more likely than younger adults to use both hemispheres of the brain to compensate for declines in attention, memory, executive function, and language that occur with age ● Study “tip of tongue” Cognition ● Wisdom= expert knowledge about practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgement about important matters. Focuses on life’s pragmatic concerns and human conditions. -Factors for wisdom to develop: being trained and working in a field concerned with difficult life problems and having wisdom-enhancing mentors, contribute to higher levels of wisdom. Also valuing the welfare of others over oneself. ● Cognitive Optimization approach= emphasizes the role of social and intellectual engagement in protecting against declines. (“Use it or lose it” refers to fact that disuse may result in atrophy of cognitive skills) ● Cognitive Neuroscience= Links brain activity and cognitive feelings. ● Study Cognitive Pragmatics and mechanics Mental Health ● Dementia= Neurological disorder that makes elders have the Inability to care for one’s self, inability to recognize familiar people and inability to recognize familiar surroundings. -Alzheimer's= Form of dementia that is progressive, irreversible, and gradual deterioration of memory, language and eventually physical functioning. (May be treated with cholinesterase to improve memory) -Respite care= services that provide temporary relief for those who are caring for individuals with disabilities, individuals with illnesses, or the elderly. -Mild Cognitive Impairment= potential transitional stage between cognitive changes of normal aging and early age of alzheimer's. ● Parkinson’s Disease= a chronic, progressive disease characterized by muscle tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis.● Major Depression = a mood disorder in when someone feels deeply unhappy, demoralized, self-derogatory, and bored. -Nearly 25% of elders over 65 commit suicide Attention
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