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University of Memphis - SOC 1010 - Sociology Final - Study Guide

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Schools > University of Memphis > Sociology > SOC 1010 > University of Memphis - SOC 1010 - Sociology Final - Study Guide

University of Memphis - SOC 1010 - Sociology Final - Study Guide

School: University of Memphis
Department: Sociology
Course: Intro to Sociology
Professor: Merryman
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Introduction to Sociology
Name: Sociology Final
Description: The Final Exam Study Guide
Uploaded: 12/09/2017
0 5 3 55 Reviews
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background image Sociology Study Guide #2 *Highlighted Portions indicate Important Sections* *The study guide has the dates of when the material was covered in class* From Lecture:
10/30
The Social Contract
Why do we have states (national governments)?
Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) and Jean – Jaeques Rousseau (1712 – 
1778)
“The state of nature”, “the social contract”
- What is “organized crime”? o Exactly what it sounds like. Crime that is organized like a  government or company - What is a “protection rocket”? o Ex: “This is a nice shop. It be a shame if something happened to  it. Give us money and we will keep you and your shop safe.” - How is the state different from “organized crime”? o The state is like a big mafia (organized crime). The difference is  the state has legitimacy o What is the difference between legitimacy and power? Violence before the state
How did states – which are violent and which extract recourses – come 
to be seen as legitimate?
How is violence experienced prior to the 16
th  century in the west? - 16 th  century: monopolization of the violence War – Making and State – Making
How did monopolization of violence happen?
- There is some lord that effective in war (creates a growing army) - To support army and war, the lord needs resources (taxation, 
conscription)
- To get resources, the lord needs internal bureaucracy (police, state 
apparatus)
War – Making + State – Making + Extraction = Monopolization of 
violence
War and the State
“War made the state and the state made War” – Charles Tilly
How does this perspective differ from that offered in ‘social contract’ 
theories of the state?
- The state as a social contract, the state as ‘monopolization over the 
legitimate use of violence’
- War as exceptional, war as normal  What is War?
There are different types of violence
background image - Micro – aggression, intimate violence, rebellion How is war different from other types of violence? - War is an armed conflict - It involves confrontation between means of coercion - War is where at least one party that is characterized by an 
organizationally district armed fortress and state apparatus
- Non – state “specialists in violence” (Tilly); paramilitary groups, 
militias, revolutionary groups, mercenaries
Modern Warfare
Modern warfare: war as a clash of highly organized, professional 
standing armies representing states and states interests
- Chausewity: War is “Politics by other means” Why do states go to war? - Economic causes: o Conflicts over resources, economical survival
o Elite interests
- Defense and security - Cultural Cause: o Changes in composition of society. Ex: Civil War
o Changes in Authority: Ex: Civil War
o Defense or promotion of values and ideas
Classifying War: By Conflict Type - Total War is characterized by conflicts between regular, standing 
armies. Total war reflects state interests (security, economic, and 
territorial expansion) and requires mass mobilization (frames, 
identities, and other cultural forces that inspire a society).
o Most wars in human history have not been total wars - Asymmetric Wars: War between priorities of differing sizes and 
organizational capabilities
o Different from total war because: opponents tactics  - Civil War: a war in which the primary combatants struggle over the 
control of the state
o Different from total war because: space, combatants may lack  legitimacy - New War: a modern war which may involve states and standing armies,
but also involves non – state ‘specialists in violence’
o Different from total war because: social structure and  technological innovations, allies may not share motivations by 
ideology
Analysis who states ‘new war’ juxtapose it with ‘old war’ 11/1
Why does War matter?
- In the 20
th  century, war is responsible for around 110,000,000 deaths - Since 1960, 65 countries have been experienced ten or more years of
civil war.
background image - American soldiers suffered about 2,000,000 combat casualties since 
1775
- US spends over $6,000,000,000 in annual military expenditures
- US has spent around $2,000,000,000,000 in total on military 
expenditures
Classifying War: By Conflict Type
- Total War: states, mass mobilization, high cost - Asymmetric War: different sizes, different strategies - Civil War: Internal, changes in legitimacy - New War/”Fourth Generation”/”Low – Intensity”: blurred lines The Second World War: A Case Study in Total War - WWII involved conflict between states over territory and resources. It 
was fought by organized armies
- During the War, US produced: 60,000 tanks, 120,000 ships, and over 
12,000,000 rifles
- Around 418,000 Americans died - Global Statistics: o Total death: 15,000,000 Why do States go to War?
War is expensive and painful. Why go to War? Is there a rational 
explanation for recurrence of war in human history?
Common rational theories of War:
- Problems Diplomacy o Anarchy
o Preventive War
o Expected Utility
- Rational miscalculation Steps to War theory: War is about conflicts between states, but all 
states have conflicts. Why do some conflicts end in war?
1. Issue in Dispute a. Most intractable: land disputes. Why? 2. Types of alliances present a. Alliances are supposed to keep peace? Why might they have the inverse effect? 3. Rivalry a. Represented disputes, denial of gain 4. Arms race
5. Hardliners: inability to compromise
Why don’t States go to War?
Given Wars are common features of history, why don’t states go to war
more often?
Democratic peace theory: democracies do not go to war with other 
democracies. Why?
- War becomes riskier for leaders (accountability) - In – group, Out – group psychology
background image - Democracies = richer, more to lose - Through debate, democracies signal intentions (avoid rational 
miscalculation)
What criticisms can be made of democratic theory? - Correlation or causation? - What counts as a democracy? - Democracy or similarity? 11/3
Why states go to War (with themselves)
- Large-scale “dyadic” and total wars appear to be declining - Today, the most common wars are civil wars - There have been more than 250 civil wars since WWII o Statistical definition: intra-state armed conflicts between  organized parties lasting over one year and producing over 1000
casualties
- So why do states go to war with themselves? Civil War Case Studies: Afghanistan
Basic facts: 34,124,811 people; multilingual (Dari and Pashto), 
multiethnic; 98% Muslim, over 60% of population younger than 24; 10
th highest death rate; highest infant mortality rate
History: founded in 1747; 19
th  century ‘Great Game’; 1970s coups;  1980’s – Soviet Invasion, civil war; 1989 – 1996 civil war; 1996 – 2001 
was under the control of the Taliban; 2004 Democratic Elections, 2014 
– present, civil war
Economy: roughly 40% unemployment, driven by oil
Civil War Case Studies: Angola
Basic Facts: 24, 310, 273 people; multilingual (Portuguese); 79% 
Christian; 66% of population younger than 24; 62
nd  highest death rate;  8 th  highest infant mortality rate History: 14 th  century; Kingdom of Congo; 16 th  century colonized by  Portuguese; 1961 Angolan War of Independence; 1975 – 1994; 
independence and civil war; 1998 – 2002 more civil war occurred and 
transition began to young democracy
Economy: Driven by oil and diamonds
Civil War Case Studies: Libya
Basic Facts: 6,653,000 people; Arab majority, Arabic is the single 
official language and Islam is the official religion; 42% of population 
younger than 24; low mortality and infant mortality rates
History: 16th century – 1911 was part of Ottoman Empire; 1911 – 1941 
it was an Italian colony; gained independence in 1951; 1969 there was 
a coup; 2011 civil war; 2014 to present is a civil war
Economy: Dependent on oil
The Cause of Civil War

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School: University of Memphis
Department: Sociology
Course: Intro to Sociology
Professor: Merryman
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Introduction to Sociology
Name: Sociology Final
Description: The Final Exam Study Guide
Uploaded: 12/09/2017
17 Pages 61 Views 48 Unlocks
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