This preview shows pages 1 - 4 of a 13 page document.
to view the rest of the content
History 2 Final Review Terms Agrarian World when civilization was based primarily on farming and agriculture. Gunpowder Empire empires built on the conquering of rival groups by use of gunpowder weapons. Qing Dynasty peak of the agrarian world and center of the world economy until 1800 but not a true gunpowder empire. Manchu/Manchurian the ancestors or original source of the Qing dynasty. sinicization The Qing mixing of manchu and chinese cultures through the rebuilding of a confucianisminspired scholarbureaucracy which maintained an inward focus on stability like the Ming. Canton system the limiting of foreign trade to specific ports. Competitive State system Europe was not governed by a singular power. Instead, their political power was very decentralized and different areas had different ways of governance. absolutism The king has a divine right to rule, sole legal authority, and their power was theoretically unlimited. (still somewhat limited by the opinion of the nobles) Estates General the representative assembly of France made up of three “estates”: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. Versailles the luxurious palace of Louis XIV which he used to distract the nobles from his failings as a ruler. Parliament highest English legislature. Consists of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and theHouse of Commons. constitutionalism the restricting and delegating of national power so that no one branch dominates the rest. English Civil War war between Charles I (king) and Parliament over a disagreement on taxation which leads to Charles I losing the war and his head. globalization the merging of world culture, politics and economies by the interaction betweendifferent regions of the world. core regions manufacturing finished goods, controlled globalization, and had strong states/governments. peripheral regions extracted resources, little to no hold on globalization, with weak states/governments. The European Miracle Europe was never thought to be an area that could ever thrive, let alone be a world power. Within 500 years of their beginning, Europe had become the leader in the world economy. capitalism owner division of capital and labor, owners receive the benefits of doing business in the form of capital, and they have private ownership of that capital (must be all 3). Joint Stock Companies these were mergers between two or more investors in order to increase both of their possibilities for business and capital. Most of the time were funded by shareholders and often turned into monopolies with the backing of Kings/nobles. Dutch East India Company (VOC) (16021799) thrived because it was a permanent operation, operated almost like its own country by building their own ports and creating contracts for trade with other countries, they were able to monopolize by setting their own prices for their goods, and it was controlled by shareholders.
fluyt ships Dutch cargo vessels. British East India Company largest and most successful JSC. Traded calicos and raw cotton. Basically ran as their own country by ruling over much of India as a corporate state. This was all funded by a large number of high up investors from Britain. tulip mania when bulbs were first introduced to the Dutch and were so highly sought after that there were riots for them. Sales grew to incredibly high numbers before almost completely dropping off. cycles of silver Europeans would use Indians to mine gold and silver in Latin America which would be used to trade for goods with China which would then be brought back and sold in Europe. coercive labor unfree, forced or bonded labor of native peoples which leads to slavery. Atlantic World the area of political, economic and cultural exchanges between the Americas and Europe. The Middle Passag e the step of slave trading which involved the salves being densely and inhumanely packed into boats and shipping them from Africa to the West Indies. chattel slavery people were personal property with no rights. This began to be used when the Europeans realized indentured servants were no longer bringing in any profit. slave societies societies that fail without slavery because of their dependance on unfree labor (Brazil, Sugar Islands, American South) luxury goods (tea, coffee, porcelain, Chinese silk and calicos) highly sought after goods that were considered of higher quality than others. consumerism the mindset of society which involved the want of consumer goods. The Enlightenment (16001800) “Age of Reason”, an intellectual movement in NW Europe with a focus on government policy debate Seven Years War (17541763) fought in NA, Caribbean, India and Europe. Pitted Britain (supported by Prussia and Portugal) against France (supported by Spain, Austria and Russia). First truly global war. Britain had the upper hand with their navy but also takes arg losses financially because of having to use loans to pay for it all. Treaty of Paris grants Britain with a win in the 7 Years War but also doubles their debt. Proclamation Line drawn to prevent settlement into newly acquired Indian territory by colonists in order to limit contact with Indians (even though settlers want more land). Stamp Act direct tax on anything printed (paperwork, newspapers, documents, etc.). Townshend Acts tax on imported goods (glass, lead, paper, paint, tea) to raise revenue and calm down colonists (actually does the opposite). Battle of Saratoga two battles considered the turning point of the Revolutionary War. Fought on Sep 19 and Oct 7, 1777 in Saratoga, NY. “Skulking Way of War” Indian military techniques. Third Estate commoners. Tennis Court Oath an oath taken by the Third Estate on June 20, 1789 vowing to not leave the National Assembly until a new French constitution was adopted. The Bastille an armament building thought to be full of prisoners and weapons which was stormed by the Parisian mob and was found empty. Declaration of the Rights of Man promises the right to freedom, liberty, and property (based off American example of “natural rights”).
Women’s March on Versailles protest by French women over the high prices of bread Olympe De Gouges a demand for equal women rights in France Flight to Varennes The flee of Louis XVI and his immediate family from Paris in order to start a counterrevolution to the one which had just removed their rule. It was unsuccessful and they were soon captured an killed. Jacobins most radical and ruthless political party formed after the French Revolution The Committee of Public Safety made to protect France from foreign attacks and internal revolutions Thermidorian reaction the coup against the Jacobins in 1794 led mostly by Girondists (moderate republican party) Napoleon military and governmental leader of France (eventual selfappointed absolute dictator) Napoleonic code French law established under Napoleon in 1804 which has been a blueprint for every major constitution since Continental System (18061814) Napoleons embargo on British trade in response to their blockade of the French coasts Invasion of Russia A failed attempt by Napoleon to bully the Russians into ceasing trading with Britain. He chased them into the deep of the Russian wilderness, with the Russians instituting a scorchedearth policy of burning every place they retreated from, denying the French the opportunity to live off the land in their pursuit. Soon the French ran out of suppliedand were forced to turn back. hundred days the time between Napoleons return from exile on Elba (March 20, 1815) and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII (July 8, 1815) Congress of Vienna a meeting of European state ambassadors called to order by Metternich in Vienna from Nov 1814 June 1815. Aimed to restore the balance of power and reduce the influence of the French Revolution. Prince Metternich Austrian negotiator. Haitian Revolution an antislavery, anticolonial revolution from French colonial rule in SaintDomingue, Haiti Toussaint L’Ouverture former slave, eventual slave and plantation owner, lead the Haitian revolt, “Black Napoleon”, reestablished plantations with paid workers Criollos people of Spanish decent that were born in the Spanish colonies in the Americas. Many were educated and wealthy leading them to resent this “lower” status. (local elites) Peninsulares people of Spanish decent that were born in the Iberian Peninsula in Spain but live in the Spanish colonies in the Americas. (foreign elites) Tupac Amaru II Rebellion (17801783) a Indian revolt in the Spanish colonies of Peru that was quickly put down by the state showing that a stable monarchy can and will maintain control and influence in colonies. Augstin de Iturbide (Emperor Augstin) conservative Mexican rebellion leader. Fell in two years because he tried to personally control the state. Caudillos somewhat unsuccessful political strongmen which ruled Latin American states after independence because they had such trouble with instituting stability and economic improvement
Emperor Pedro II of Brazil reestablished the fading country of Brazil as a stable and thriving country and fought with much opposition for the abolition of slavery (last country in the western world to do so; 1888) Louisiana Purchase US purchase of land from Napoleon in 1803 which began westward migration in the US Manifest Destiny divine right to expand control of a whole continent Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended MexicanAmerican War in 1848. Basically allowed the US to pay $15 million for the land north of the Rio Grande border of Texas and California, along with half of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. dominion government a term used to describe the whole of Canada in order to keep it from seeming as a “second England” to their immediate neighbors, the US. Woodrow Wilson President that entered the US into WWI to help end it The Spring Offensive a series of last ditch effort German attacks in the spring of 1918 along the Western Front Unrestricted Submarine Warfare military subs in the water, regardless of which side they were on, basically gave themselves the authority to sink any boat (both nonmilitary and military) of the enemies that they so pleased. Wilson ’ s 14 points made by Woodrow Wilson as a statement of principles for peace to end WWI which was debated upon and written among the public to deter the possibility of secret pacts among nations and it also removed the BrestLitovsk Treaty Terms National SelfDetermination Creation of national governmental institutions by a group of people who view themselves as a distinct nation Treaty of Versailles Treaty signed in the Palace of Versailles which ended WWI in 1919. It called for the creation of new countries and self determination, as well as German reparation payments but lead to continued imperialism and bitter feelings and anxiety among world powers German Reparation Payments The payment of Germany to the US and Allied nations of Europe as “reparation” or repayment for the war they were considered to starting League of Nations the precursor to the United Nations, was a organization of world powers whose principle mission was to maintain world peace. (which it ultimately failed at with the start of WWII because they lacked any true “authority”) Mandate System the transfer of some territories from the control of one country to another following WWI War Communism economic system that existed in Russia from 1918 to 1921 which was introduced by Lenin to combat the economic problems brought by the Russian Civil War in a combo of emergency measures and socialist dogma Leninism the precursor to socialism which called for the rule of a dictator over the proletariat “ Vanguard of the Proletariat ” Lenin’s vanguard served as a highly disciplined, centralized party that worked to basically completely fill the proletariat at whatever costs with socialists New Economic Policy a move created by Lenin toward “state capitalism” in the USSR Leon Trotsky Marxist revolutionary which ultimately joined the Bolsheviks in a Communist uprising in the Soviet Union
This is the end of the preview. Please
to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Auburn University who use StudySoup to get ahead
Better Grades Guarantee
24/7 Homework help
Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Auburn University who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Auburn University
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael Smith
Term: Spring 2016
Name: Hist 2 Final Review Terms
Description: This covers every term from every test throughout the semester.