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USC / OTHER / JOUR 391 / Who was the first female sports journalist?

Who was the first female sports journalist?

Who was the first female sports journalist?


School: University of South Carolina
Department: OTHER
Course: Sports Media & Society
Professor: Kevin hull
Term: Fall 2017
Cost: 50
Name: Exam #3 Study Guide - Reupload!!
Description: This is the pdf version of the final study guide
Uploaded: 12/09/2017
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Who was the first female sports journalist?

Tuesday, December 12, 2017


Pioneer Women in Sports Journalism

• Hard to say who the first female sports journalist was

• 1970s: Jeannie Morris assigned to cover the Minnesota Vikings vs. Chicago Bears o She was not permitted to go in the press box because she’s a woman o She reported the game seated above the box, outside, in a blizzard

• Mid-70s: Phyllis George, former Miss America, worked with CBS on the pregame  show for the NFL

o She was one of the first females to have a nationally prominent role in  television sports coverage

o She knew little about football, so often she would read what others wrote  for her

Who is lavar ball?

Don't forget about the age old question of which assessment technique requires people to respond to unstructured or ambiguous stimuli

• 1974: Lesley Visser begins with the Boston Globe

o 1976: Becomes first female NFL beat writer

o Transitions into television

o Early in her career, Visser approached Steelers QB Terry Bradshaw about a  story. He took her notepad, signed his autograph and walked away

o 2006: Visser was the recipient of the Pro Football Hall of Fame’s Pete  Rozelle Radio-Television Award

▪ First woman to be recognized by the Pro Football Hall of Fame

• There were women’s sports writers, but they did not have equal access o Male sports writers could go into the locker rooms after games

o Women had to wait for the players to come out and talk to them; this  rarely happened

Who is lance armstrong?

• 1977 World Series: Melissa Ludtke is fed up with not being allowed in the locker  room. Missed major interviews after the Yankees won the World Series

o Ended up going to court over the issue

o Court decision was that each club house had their right to decide if women  would be allowed into the locker room

o Said they had to ask the wives of the players

• A few years later, women could go into any locker room with a valid press pass Don't forget about the age old question of limits substitution

Lisa Olson

• 1990: Writer for The Boston Herald, interviewing players in the Patriots locker  room on a practice day

o Many players did not want her in the locker room

o Patriots players harassed her making crude comments “Do you wanna  piece of this?”

• Olson files lawsuit against the Patriots

o Patriots owner Kiam called Olson a “classic bitch”

o Various Patriots players were fined

• Olson received death threats because of this

o Fled the country and moved to Australia

• NFL told Victor Kiam he had to sell the Patriots

o Sold the team to Robert Kraft, current owner

Women Continued to Press On

• ESPN’s Linda Cohn has anchored SportsCenter more than any other person – male or female If you want to learn more check out What is the relationship between morality and religion?

• CNN hired Hannah Storm as sports anchor

o She later hosted NBA on NBC

o Now works for ESPN

Continued to receive criticism

• Tony Kornheiser

o Criticized co-worker Hannah Storm’s outfit on air

• Andy Rooney, anchor of 60 Minutes

o “The only thing that really bugs me about television’s coverage is those  damn women on the sideline that don’t know what they’re talking about”  

o Later says that he is not sexist

• Radio host Damon Bruce

o “Women interject their hypersensitive opinion into sports”

o “Get out of my sandbox”

o “Women don’t report the same way that men do”

Women receive harassment from male athletes

• 2003: ESPN’s Suzy Holber is interviewing former Jets QB Joe Namath o Namath said in the middle of the interview “I want to kiss you”

o Namath was drunk and went into alcohol rehab

o “Kissing Suzy Kolber” became a blog

▪ “Best Sports Blog” three years in a row

▪ Kolber is forgotten in the incident

• Inés Sainz If you want to learn more check out asi 533

o Sainz wanted to interview Jets quarterback for TV Azteca

o While waiting on the sidelines, Jets players and coaches start throwing  footballs in her direction so they could talk to her and check her out We also discuss several other topics like cs 4375

o She then went into the locker room to interview Mark Sanchez

▪ Players start making rude comments at her in the locker room If you want to learn more check out biol 3060

▪ She tweeted “I want to cover my ears”

▪ She accepted a personal apology from the Jets owner

• Some athletes don’t take female reporters seriously

o 2017: Panthers quarterback Cam Newton is asked a question by Jourdan  Rodirgue (Panthers beat writer for the Charlotte Observer)

▪ Cam Newton said “it’s funny” to hear women talk about sports

▪ Lots of negative feedback for Newton

▪ Sponsors dropped him

o Lots of people defended Jourdan Rodrigue

▪ People went back into her tweets and found racist comments

▪ Tweets were written when she was in college, not working for The  Charlotte Observer

Social Media Criticism

• Journalists – men and women – face a large amount of criticism from fans on  social media

• Saying they don’t know sports

• They can’t report because they are women

• #MoreThanMean video

o Video about the harassment of female sports writers

o Guys read mean tweets about specific reporters

o Starts out funny, then guys become really uncomfortable with the sexist  things they are reading

▪ “I hope your boyfriend beats you”

▪ “I hope you get raped”

o Reaction is strong, almost four million views

• Jessica Mendoza

o Four-time All-American softball player, member of the USA National Team  from 2004-2010, won and Olympic gold medal

o 2015: Mendoza became the first female baseball analyst in ESPN history o 2015 Playoffs: First female analyst in MLB postseason history

o 2016: She joined Sunday night baseball coverage

▪ Replaced Curt Schilling

o Bad reaction from the public, people don’t think she can cover baseball  because she’s a woman

Tends to be about looks

• Sideline reporters “That role is either filled by actual journalists or Miss Florida,  who is an attractive young woman”

• Sarah Spain “Either you’re too beautiful and you don’t know what you’re talking  about, or you’re too ugly and I don’t want to watch you”

• Women get judged on looks but men do not

• 2014: Erin Andrews replaces 53-year-old Pam Oliver on the top Fox NFL team

o Women in their 50s on sports television have long been an endangered  species


• Katie Nolan and Michelle Beadle each have prominent roles on sports programs • 2014: CBS Sports debuted a sports talk show featuring all female talent o A first in the sports media

o Called “We Need to Talk”

Still aren’t a lot of women in the sports media

• Sports media is 90% men

• 11 sports editors; 6 work for ESPN

• Median salary for women was $5,000 less than males

• Washington Post: Men make 13.5% more than women


Cleveland has bad sports historically

• Until recently, the last sports championship they had was the Browns in 1964 • Heartbreaking losses

o Broncos go 98 yards in 5 minutes to beat Browns in AFC Championship o Michael Jordan buzzer beater in 1989 beats Cavs in playoffs

o Indians lose 2-1 in bottom of 9th, Game 7, 1997 World Series

• Art Modell moves Browns to Baltimore in 1995

• ESPN does an entire documentary about Cleveland’s bad sports luck called  “Believeland”

LeBron James

• An Ohio native (Akron)

• Was on the cover of SportsIllustrated as a high school junior “The Chosen One” • #1 pick in the 2003 NBA Draft, Cleveland gets him

• Played for the Cavaliers from 2003-2010

o Won 2 MVP awards

o Took Cleveland to 2006-07 Finals (lost to Spurs)

o But no championships

• After the 2010 season, LeBron was set to become a free agent

• At 25 years old, he was one of the most sought after free agents in NBA history o Met with six teams: Clippers, Nets, Bulls, Heat, Knicks, Cavs

o Random kid from Ohio says he should announce his decision on a TV show o James’ business partners propose an exclusive special to ESPN, LeBron will  announce who he will sign with

o Three conditions:

▪ Jim Gray would host the show

▪ ESPN would give up all advertising. Ads instead sold by LeBron with  proceeds given to Boys and Girls Club of America

▪ ESPN would produce the entire show and pay for all production costs o ESPN agrees

The Decision

• July 8, 2010, 9 p.m.

• Airs on ESPN

• A one-hour special in which LeBron will announce which team he is signing with • 9:28 p.m. – nearly 30 minutes into the show, LeBron announces his decision • “I’m taking my talents to South Beach”

• LeBron signed a six-year, $110 million contract with the Miami Heat o The contract had an out clause after four years

• LeBron joins Chris Bosh and Dwayne Wade to form a “super team” • FatHead (owned by Cavs owner) lowered the price of LeBron’s wall hanging to $17.41 o The year Benedict Arnold was born

o Famous U.S. traitor

• Cleveland is heartbroken

• Seven out of every 100 homes in the US’s biggest cities watched the show o In Cleveland, one out of every four homes watched the show

o More than 13 million people were watching at its peak

o One of the most watched shows on ESPN in 2010

• LeBron controlled all the advertising

o Sold $6 million worth of ads

o $2.5 went to Boys and Girls Club

o $3.5 million went to other various charities

• ESPN was widely criticized for the program

o Covered an hour of prime-time television to an “ego-maniac”

o Is ESPN a news platform or an entertainment platform?

o ESPN essentially paid LeBron James $6 million for the right to have the story on  their air, plus paid for all the expenses even if the $6 million went to charity o LeBron used ESPN to further his own image.

▪ He looks like a good guy for donating the money and ESPN let him

• Jim Gray

o LeBron’s people insisted that Jim Gray do the interview

o Gray does not work for ESPN

o It was Gray who first came to LeBron with the idea for the show

o ESPN had no control over the interview

▪ Were told Gray would ask a few questions

▪ He asked 16

▪ It took almost 30 minutes for the reveal

• ESPN and LeBron are mocked

o People didn’t think it should be an hour long

o “I’m taking my talents to ______” becomes a popular joke

o Associated Press publishes an article “Was LeBron special ESPN’s deal with the  devil?”

o Q-score measures popularity

▪ LeBron with the Cavs viewed negatively by 22%

▪ LeBron with the Heat viewed negatively by 39%

LeBron with the Heat

• First four seasons in Miami

o The Heat go to the NBA finals all four years

o They win the championship twice

o LeBron wins two MVP awards

o SportsIllustrated Sportsman of the Year

• In 2013, LeBron is the NBA’s top earner off the court in endorsements o $42 million a year

o Coke, Nike, Samsung, Dunkin Donuts

• LeBron starts to express some regret about “The Decision” in interviews o Said he would do things differently

o Reporter asked him “what did it feel like to suddenly be hated?”

The Decision 2.0

• After the 2014 season, LeBron exercises the opt-out in his contract and becomes a free  agent again

• Does a first person story on him returning to the Cavs, no TV special • “My relationship with Northeast Ohio is bigger than basketball”

• Lee Jenkins (author of the article) proposed the story to LeBron’s team o LeBron’s team said yes but to keep it a secret

o A few days before the story Jenkins emailed his editors that it was a possibility o They do the interview, Jenkins tells his editors

o SI sends a tweet and posts the story

LeBron with the Cavs

• Cavs lost in the championship his first year

• Year two – the Cavs win the title

o First championship for the city since 1964

The Decision 3.0

• After the 2015-16 season, LeBron is set to become a free agent again • Widely expected that he’ll stay in Cleveland

• No TV show, no SI

• He announces it on a website called Uninterrupted.com  

o Why would he choose this website?

o It’s basically like The Player’s Tribune video edition

o He owns the website

• LeBron is set to become a free agent after this season

o Many predict he will sign with the Lakers

Lots of issues with the media and the players they cover; how can they be impartial C. LAVAR BALL

Who is LaVar Ball?

• Former college basketball and football player

• Was a practice squad member for the NY Jets and the Carolina panthers o Never actually played a game

• Former panthers when talking about ball

o Don’t remember him playing or practicing

• LaVar Ball is the father of three very good basketball players

o Lonzo, LiAngelo, LaMelo

• In 2015, CBS sports wrote a feature story about the family

o The first national exposure for the family

• Lonzo Ball

o Plays at UCLA

o National Freshmen of the Year

o LaVar said “he’s going to be better than Steph Curry”

• Big Baller Brand

o Clothing/sneaker company started by LaVar

o The first shoe – ZO2 – is Lonzo’s signature sneaker

o They’re $495

Media Fascination

• It seems like the media is more interested in him than his sons since he is so outspoken • He’s a bigger celebrity than his sons

• He’s a featured character in the video game NBA 2k18

• Appeared on WWE’s Monday Night Raw

• Signed a deal with a trading card company to sell 200 signed cards for $59.95 each o They sold out in 45 seconds

Sons are very talented

• Oldest son: Lonzo  

o Drafted #2 by the LA Lakers

• Middle son: LiAngelo

o Enrolls at UCLA to play basketball

• Youngest son: LaMelo

o High school junior

o Committed to play at UCLA

Ball in the Family

• A reality show featuring the Ball family

• Produced by the same company who does “Keeping up with the Kardashians” • On Facebook  

USA Today

• Created a separate website called Lonzowire.com

• “One stop shop for all things Ball”

• People are obsessed with them

Ball creates content

• ESPN has to fill air time 24/7/365

• The Ball family = ratings

• FOX Sports 1 had eight TV appearances and tweeted about him 105 times in two  months

• ESPN had him on FirstTake, Sports Nation, and SportsCenter

• With coverage focused on the Ball family both before and during the draft, ratings for  the NBA Draft were up 13% from previous years

Bad coverage

• If one wants “good” attention, they have to be prepared from “bad” coverage as well • Following UCLA’s elimination from the NCAA Tournament in 2016, LaVar said:  “Realistically you can’t win no championship with three white guys because the foot  speed is too slow”

• May 2017: LaVar Ball appears on Colin Cowherd’s television show

o Co-host Kristine Leahy

o He is incredibly rude to Leahy, says to “Stay in yo lane”

o Later makes a t-shirt that says “Stay in yo lane”

• Questions of his parenting skills

o LaVar removed LaMelo from high school this year

▪ Will instead home school him and train LaMelo himself

▪ LaVar says he doesn’t want to deal with the high school coach or  


o A few weeks earlier, LaVar debuted a signature sneaker for LaMelo called the  MELLO BALL 1 for $395

▪ If LaMelo gets paid for these sneakers, he’s likely ineligible to play high  school and college basketball

• Last week, three UCLA players were arrested in China for shoplifting

o LiAngelo was one of them

o Instead of the headline being “Three UCLA players arrested” it was “LiAngelo Ball  and teammates arrested”


Sports media rights are big business

• By 2018 – revenue from the selling of media rights is projected to surpass the revenue  generated by ticket sales

• What does that mean

o TV ratings are really important

o The fan at home is more important than the fan in the stadium

o TV and marketing rights make more than 80% revenue in the NCAA ▪ 1982 – CBS got 49.9 million

▪ 2010 CBS makes 10.8 billion

▪ a 4,718% increase in 14 years

▪ Baseball TV money

• Baseball TV money

o National contracts with ESPN, Fox, Turner

▪ 1.55 billion per year starting in 2014

▪ Up from 775 million

o Local TV deals

▪ Each team has their own individual deal

▪ Dodgers get 204 million per year

▪ Rays get 20 million per year

• Why do networks want to be involved in sports?

o Sports are DVR proof

• Broadcasting rights

o The broadcasting rights and contracts limit who can show footage of the sporting  event

o If you have broadcasting rights, no one else can show it

o Ex. The Food Network cannot suddenly start showing the Olympics • ESPN – worldwide leader in sports

o “Other networks need to create hits. We don’t. We are a destination network,  not a network with destination programming. People tune into ESPN without  even knowing what is on.”

▪ Artie Bulgrin, ESPN Director of Research

o Spend the most on the NFL at 1.9 billion

o NBA – 1.4 billion

o MLB – 700 million

o College football playoffs – 608 million

o SEC – 300 million

o ACC – 240 million

o Rose Bowl – 180 million

o MLS – 75 million (lowest)

• Broadcasting Rights Fees

o MLB (2014-2021)

▪ Fox pays 525 million a year – up 50% of previous contract

▪ Turner (TBS) pays 325 million a year – up 55%

o NFL (2014-2022)

▪ CBS pays 1 billion a year – up 55%

▪ NBC pays 950 million – up 58%

How does the media make money?

• Print/web

o Subscribers/newsstand buyers – consumers paying for content

o Advertisers

▪ Paying for the right to expose their product to consumers

▪ Higher circulation products demand more advertising dollars for the right  to reach more potential customers

• Broadcast

o Cable subscriptions – portion of cable bill goes to the network

o Advertising

▪ More profit for cheaper production programming – ex. Reality TV

▪ More money for higher rated shows

o Subscriptions

▪ You pay more depending on where you live

▪ Ex. Southeast states pay more for the SEC network than the rest of the  country


• Works based on how many people are watching a certain show

• They want to know what they’re paying for

o Print – circulation

o Web – page views

o Broadcast – ratings

• How are ratings circulated?

o ESPN wants you and advertisers to know

o They paid a company to create a video to show the potential advertisers ** • How they determine ratings

o They create a sample that represents the population

▪ Gender, age, geography, race, cable status, etc.

▪ Monitors usage on cable box, DVR, and game consoles

o Nielson sample

▪ Meters have remotes programmed with info

▪ Data gets sent back to Nielson to be analyzed

o To get accurate ratings, you have to look at viewing behaviors

o Ratings formula

▪ Meter projects the number of homes watching something

▪ Called impressions

▪ Figure out the percentage of cable users watching

• Super Bowl Advertising Ratings

o Average cost of a 30 second ad

▪ 1967 -$42,000

▪ 1974 - $103,000

▪ 1995 - $1,150,000

▪ 2011 - $3 million

▪ 2016 - $5 million

o Most expensive Super Bowl commercial ever

▪ 2011 - $12.4 million

▪ 2 minutes long

▪ Chrysler commercial with Eminem based in Detroit

▪ Eminem had never licensed “Lose Yourself”, gave it to Chrysler for 20% of  what he could have charged because he had a stake in the Detroit game

▪ The NFL then put a limit on commercials for 90 seconds

▪ Chrysler 200 was the number two search term on Google

▪ Chrysler sales improved 50% in the years since the ad

Teams getting in on the media

• Red Sox owners created the “Fenway Sports Group”

o They own the Red Sox, Fenway Park, Liverpool Soccer Club, 50% of Roush Fenway racing (NASCAR), and 80% of NESN

o Allows them to get all the advertising revenue

Media deals gone wrong

• Big Ten Network

o Started in 2007

o First game: Appalachian State at Michigan

o One of the biggest upsets in college football history

o People in Michigan didn’t see it becaue they didn’t have the netowkrs to view it  unless they had DirecTV

• LA Dodgers TV deal

o Time Warner agrees to a 25-year, $8.3 billion deal with the Dodgers to show  games on “SportsNet LA”

o Time Warner was the middle man, they charge customers more money so  everyone makes a profit

o Problem: other companies wouldn’t play along

▪ SportsNet LA demanded $4.90/month from subscribers

▪ DirecTV and all other cable companies refused

▪ Only Time Warner customers get the games (now Spectrum)

▪ 70% of the LA area couldn’t see the Dodgers play from 2015-2017

• Comcast SportsNet Houston

o Launched October 2012

o Aired Astros and Rockets games

o AT&T U-verse, DirecTV, Dish Network all refused to carry it

▪ Fees were too high

▪ Comcast was the only one to show the network

▪ Only 40% of Houston homes got the channel

o The Astros were terrible so people didn’t want to watch them anyway o Astros and Rockets lost $550 million in equity in the sports channel which had  been valued at $700 million in 2010

o The network was sold to DirecTV in 2014 for $1,000

▪ Now called AT&T SportsNet

▪ Southwest and all major companies carry it

Doesn’t stop media from spending billions of dollars

• NBC (Comcast) pays $4.38 billion for US media rights to Olympics 2014-2020 • International media rights

o Bundesliga (Germany) - $867 million per season

o Premiere League (England) - $1.6 billion a year

o Real Madrid - $664 million in revenue from the media

Issues in the sports media business

• Competition among sports media outlets = higher media rates

• Increasing amount of sports programming = decrease in ratings = decrease in ad  revenue

• New media technologies

o Pirating of sports programming online

• Sponsorship and endorsements

o Cristiano Ronaldo - $93 million

o LeBron James - $86.2 million

o Lionel Messi - $80 million

o Roger Federer - $64 million  

▪ Success is because of the deals not because of his success in tennis o Kevin Durant - $60.6 million

o Three of the top 5 aren’t American

o Top woman is Serena Williams (51st - $27 million)


Joe Paterno

• Head football coach at Penn State University

• Hired in 1966

• All-time winningest coach in Division 1 history (409 wins)

• Two national championships (1982, 1986)

• 1986 Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year

• Credited with running a “clean” program

• Off the field

o He and his wife Sue have contributed over $4 million to Penn State

o The library is named after him

Jerry Sandusky

• Defensive coordinator at Penn State

• 1977-1999

• National Assistant Coach of the Year (1986 and 1999)

• In 1977, Sandusky founded The Second Mile

o Non-profit charity aimed at sering under privileged and at-risk youth

o After retirement he continued to work with the charity

Sara Ganim

• Was a 22-year-old crime reporter for The Patriot News

o Newspaper in Harrisburg, Pennsylbania

• Penn State Graduate

• In 2009, Ganim asked her source at the police station if there was anything going on o The source said a boy just come forward to the police and alleged a sex crime  against Jerry Sandusky

• Huge story, but can’t just report on that one tip

• Ganim interviewed more than 24 people and investigates for TWO years • Publishes a story two years later detailing the assault, Sandusky showered with a 12- year-old boy

o Boys from The Second Mile charity

o The article implies that this is not an isolated incident and it has been happening  for years

Local reaction

• Football at Penn State is a huge deal

• Stadium seats over 100,000 fans

o Third largest in the world

• Loyal fans didn’t have much interest in hearing bad things about their school’s football  program

National Reaction

• People ignored the story nationally  

• Associated Press wrote the story, people ignored it

• No one reported on it

Grand Jury report released

• Pennsylvania attorney general indicted Sandusky on 40 counts of sex crimes against  young boys

• Arrested the next day

• A photo of Sandusky arrested and in handcuffs is released, the photo sparks media  interest and everyone reports on it


• Almost every media outlet is devoting resources to covering this story… except ESPN • The story broke Saturday and ESPN waited until Tuesday to report on the story • Penn State cancels a press conference Tuesday morning, ESPN brings on college football  analyst Matt Millen to discuss the topic

o Millen went to Penn State, played for Joe Paterno, on the board of The Second  Mile charity – wrong guy  

Back at Penn State

• The big question is “What did Joe Paterno know?”

• Paterno announces he’s going to retire at the end of the season

• The school president is told to quit or he’ll get fired, he quits

• Paterno is instead fired immediately

• The school holds a “press conference” to announce that Paterno has been fired o It’s attended by many people who are not journalists

o People are outraged by Paterno being fired and don’t care at all about the  president being fired

o First question asked is “who will coach the team on Saturday?” not about the  scandal and the actual story, they only cared about the football team

• Students protest – furious that Joe Paterno has been fired

o 10,000 people protest

o Flip over a news van

o Cause $200,000 worth of damage  

o Police spray tear gas to break up the crowd

o 47 people arrested

Bob Costas Interview

• Costas is a legendary sports casters of all time

• He’s about to interview Sandusky’s lawyer on NBC

• Right before they tape the interview, the lawyer gets Sandusky on the phone to  interview

• Sandusky says he is innocent with the charges and denies any sexual contact with the  boys, admits to showering with them but not in a sexual way…

• Costas had 15 minutes to prepare for the interview, and makes Sandusky look very bad

Verdict is released  

• Sandusky is concvicted of 45 counts of sexual abuse

• Sentenced to a minimum of 30 years in prison

• In the trial, Sandusky’s autobiography is used to confirm allegations o The book talks about his relationship with the charity and the boys

o The book is called “Touched” – ironic

• ESPN spends 45 seconds talking about the trial, and 15 minutes talking about LeBron  James “clutch factor”

o For 21 episodes that month, they spent a total of 13 minutes talking about the  trial

• ESPN wants to “own” the story

o If ESPN doesn’t break the story, they aren’t as invested

o Same thing with Jason Collins coming out

Bernie Fine

• ESPN missed the boat on Sandusky

• Instead, they’re all in on Bernie Fine

• A Syracuse assistant basketball coach, multiple men accused Fine of sexual misconduct • ESPN went all-in on Bernie Fine, then the story turned out to not be true • The accusers admitted they made it all up

Joe Posnanski and Paterno

• Posnanski was writing a book about Paterno when the news of the scandal broke • Instead of re-writing the whole book, he briefly touches on the scandal

• The book debuted at #1 on NY Times bestseller list

o 29,000 copies sold out of 100,000 copies printed, didn’t do well

Harrisburg Patriot News

• Newspaper Sara Ganim wrote for, that broke the story

• A circulation of 67,000

o Website got 2 million hits a day during the scandal

• April 2012, Sara Ganim wins the Pulitzer Prize at 22 years old

o Ganim works for CNN now

• People harassed Ganim, saying she was a liar

Paterno Death

• Two months after Paterno was fired, he was near death due to lung cancer • Night of January 21, 2012 he died

• Media reported wrong, both of his sons tweeted he was alive but in very delicate  condition

Story won’t go away

• This past Sunday: Tennessee was going to hire Greg Schiano as a football coach • Schiano was an assistant under Paterno

• Tennessee backs out of hiring him, even though he wasn’t associated with the scandal


The Super Bowl is not the most popular sporting event in the world – 2016 Summer Olympics,  2016 Tour De France, 2016 Cricket World Cup are all bigger than the Super Bowl (by a lot).

In Europe: they have public TV, TV is funded by the government

• 40% of the audience watches public TV

United States: mostly commercial stations

• 2% of the audience watches public TV (ex. PBS)

ex. Germany

• National coverage, no regional sports coverage like SEC

• Sports programming through a premium cable subscription

• Paid for by taxes/government fees

• No advertising during most live coverage

o None after 8 pm

o None on Sundays

o Only 20 minutes per day total


• NBA is huge in China

• Weibo (social media account in China)

o NBA account has 33 million followers

o Six million more than Twitter account

o 2.9 million video views on Weibo during playoffs

• NFL just signed a deal in China

What the US covers is different

• The United States media will cover things differently than the rest of the world  does • What the rest of the world thinks is a big story, sometimes we don’t (and vice versa) • Internationally: More coverage/interest of player families and WAGs • “No cheering in the press box” in the US, announcers throughout the world are a little  more likely to show their support for their favorite team

ex. 2012 London Olympics

• Men’s 10,000 meter final

• Mo Pharah (Great Britain) wins the race

• British announcers are very excited, American announcers just say who wins

CBC – “Hockey Night in Canada”

• Hockey is the sport in Canada

• This show is a huge deal

• Fired the host: people went nuts so they brought him back

Europe doesn’t care about the NFL

• There are now multiple NFL games in Europe each year

• Forces the international media and fans to pay attention

• People in London have become fans of the sport, not specific teams

US still holds a lot of power in the sports media

• 2008 Beijing Olympics

o Michael Phelps going to break records

o The semifinals and finals were held at 10 am Beijing time so they could be prime  time in the US

o NBC pays $3.5 billion to televise the Olympics (more than double everyone else),  so they can tell them when to hold the race

• International media is much different, but the American sports media still drives the  narrative



Who is Lance Armstrong?

• Survived testicular cancer in 1996

• Won the tour de France seven consecutive times from 1999-2005

• His Livestrong charity has raised $500 million for cancer research

• Was stripped of seven victories in 2012 for evidence of doping


• In October 1996 (25 years old), Armstrong is diagnosed with testicular cancer • The cancer had spread to his brand lungs and abdomen

• Doctor said he thought he had almost no hope of living

• Given a new cancer drug

• February 1997 – less than a year after diagnosis he is cancer free

Road Racing Cyclist

• Pre-cancer

o Armstrong had participated in four Tour de France races – no wins

o Successful, but not world class

• 1998 – Begins racing competitively again

• 1999-2005 – Wins the Tour de France

• His sponsor was the U.S. Postal Service – can’t get more American than that • The 2002 Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year

• AP Male Athlete of the Year (2002-05)


• Livestrong Foundation

o Provides support for people affected by cancer

o Raised over $500 million

o Bracelets – sold 80 million for $1 each

• Endorsements

o Nike

o Michelob Ultra – beer

o Various bike-related companies

• Wrote two NY Times best-sellers  

Rumors of Cheating

• European media has rumors that he’s cheating

• 1999 Tour de France: European newspapers say there is no way he could have won  naturally

• 2004: David Walsh and Pierre Ballester published a French-language book alleging  Armstrong had used performance-enhancing drugs

o Masseuse says Armstrong once asked her to dispose of used syringes and to give  him makeup to conceal needle marks on his arms

o Other riders claim Armstrong has been using drugs since 1995

• 2010: Wall Street Journal publishes first American Media article about him doping, rest  of the American media ignores it

• When questions are raised about doping, Armstrong denies it consistently and forcefully • Starts to become Lance vs. Journalists

2005: Armstrong wins 7th straight Tour de France

• Previous record was five in a row

• Day the Tour ended, Armstrong announced his retirement from professional cycling • 2008: Armstrong unretired

• 2009: Finished 3rd in Tour de France

• 2010: Finished 23rd in Tour de France

• 2011: Armstrong announced his retirement from competitive cycling for good

June 2012: US Anti-Doping Agency said Armstrong had been engaged in “the most  sophisticated, professionalized, and successful doping program that sport has ever seen” • USADA banned Armstrong from competitive cycling for life for doping offenses • Stripped him of his results dating from 1998

• Official Tour de France page says nobody won the race for those seven years

His admission

• January 2013: Lance Armstrong comes clean on a nationally televised interview with  Oprah Winfrey

• Two-night event, aired on the OWN Network

• 4.3 million people watched in the US, 28 million watched worldwide

• Armstrong did not get paid for the interview

• Questions were not agreed to beforehand

• Reaction was not positive

o People thought it was rehearsed and dispassionate

o Seemed like he had prepared


• Documentary films about the story called The Road Back

o About his triumphant return to cycling

o Then the doping ban happened

o New title The Armstrong Lie

• Another documentary is called The Program

o About David Walsh and his reporting on the doping

• Mockumentary called Tour de Pharmacy

o About the 1982 Tour de France (not really)

o The majority of the riders are banned for doping and there’s only five riders left o Lance Armstrong is in it making fun of himself

• It wasn’t just Lance

o Many of the top ten winners of Tour de France also doped

o So he was just better at it than them


Sports Illustrated

• Said it would be a “fan’s world” in 2001

• Said every game in every league would be a pay-per-view event

o Didn’t anticipate the rise of ESPN

• Everyone owns a “Home Control Truck” to control the camera angles and replays o Not quite true today, but you can control the angles if you’re streaming o Have specific cameras for certain player

• Very Exciting Moment (VEM) – a crowd roar would superimpose a message on the TV  notifying you that an interesting play is about to happen

o Kind of like twitter with the conversation about sports

• Thought Michael Jordan would grow his hair back – he didn’t

Look into the recent past

• The ability to see any game

o NFL Sunday Ticket

o NBA League Pass

o MLB Extra Innings or MLB.tv

• For a seasonal fee, you can see every game wherever you are in the country • The biggest games and sports events were always on a broadcast network (ABC, NBC,  CBS, FOX)

o Now they’re on ESPN, TBS, etc.

o Paid TV

o Shows that if a game is on cable it doesn’t mean it’s a bad game

• You can watch games anywhere on your phone, you’re always connected


• Periscope is a live streaming app for your phone

• Let’s you broadcast and explore the world through live video

• See where news is breaking, visit a new place, meet people and connect • Owned by Twitter

• Periscope entered the sports world during the Manny Pacquiao vs. Floyd Mayweather  boxing match

o May 2015

o Was $99 on pay-per-view

o Tickets were thousands of dollars

• People began using Periscope to film their TV or film the fight in person • The app can be misappropriated for copyright infringement

o People used Periscope to show the Game of Thrones season five premiere, HBO  said the service needed better tools and policies to deal with copyrighted  content

o Periscope’s terms of service specifies that re-broadcasting copyrighted content  violates the service’s terms of service and can result in suspending and banning  accounts

• Stephanie Wei

o A golf writer

o Used Periscope to show live video of a practice round

o PGA Tour said that was a violation of their media rights

o Took her credentials away for the rest of the season

• Clay Travis

o Shows on Periscope called “Outkick the Coverage” and “Outkick the Show” o “Periscope makes every person a television network”

o People now advertise on his shows

o 200k people stream his shows

• Can be used for press conferences, breaking news, behind the scenes

Virtual Reality

• The ability to take someone directly to an event or to be a part of the event • During the Rio 2016 Summer Olympic Games, NBC showed free VR stories and events  through viewable VR headsets

o Wasn’t viewable until the next day

o Not live so people already knew the results

• Sports events

o Put you on the 50 yard line

o Put you in the quarterback’s helmet

Where we watch games

• Amazon may be the next great sports broadcaster

o Already show the NFL Thursday Night games

o Talked with NBA, MLB MLS about streaming games

• Facebook bid $600 million to show Indian league cricket

o Didn’t win the bid

• This could pose a big threat to traditional pay TV

Whistle Sports

• Over 9 billion views across all platforms

• 185 million online fans

• The number 1 most watched among ages 13-17

• “Dude Perfect”

o Make videos with trick shots

o The flagship video of “Whistle Sports”

• Recently raised $20 million from Tenga, NBC, and SkySports

• Partnered with the NFL to create football social media content

Video Games

• Hundreds of millions of YouTube viewers watch 144 billion minutes of gaming content  every month

• Six of the top 10 most viewed online channels in the United States are focused on  gaming

o People watch for tips

o Or to watch people who are really good

o Live contests

o Twitch, live streaming

• From August 2015 to May 2016, 100 million viewers watched more than 800 million  hours of competitive gaming on Twitch

• ESPN started covering esports

o Have an esports website

o Hired top esports writers

o Showed “Heroes of the Dorm” on ESPN2

• Not everyone supports this  

Do we even need the sports media?

• With things like The Players Tribune and Twitter

• Sports teams have their own websites, but they don’t report on everything

Will television still be the way we watch?

How will streaming technology evolve?


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