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CLEMSON / Biology / BIOL 3030 / What are the distinctive feature of synapamorphies?

What are the distinctive feature of synapamorphies?

What are the distinctive feature of synapamorphies?

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: Biology
Course: Vertebrate Biology
Professor: Richard blob
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Bio
Cost: 50
Name: Bio 3030 final exam
Description: These notes are a summary of ppts 21-25, which will account for 60% of the material on the final exam
Uploaded: 12/10/2017
9 Pages 97 Views 3 Unlocks
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li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_pmtt2x7iv4hx-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3xl71fm45krx-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_pmtt2x7iv4hx-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pmtt2x7iv4hx-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_25q9y030m0em-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_25q9y030m0em-7}.lst-kix_q8eh057hq25c-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_injw65xgjmd-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3xl71fm45krx-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_l9uzuwdq0o7g-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cmga8wdzp2wi-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cmga8wdzp2wi-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mp9k6giscr92-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ylnlkoc99fd6-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_b0wnnj8kw5a1-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3xl71fm45krx-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_d6zfc2fv07ay-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_okptf87xblh-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_mp9k6giscr92-7 > li:before{content:"○ 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li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_h6vusxjurwek-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_wa2znuuo11uv-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wa2znuuo11uv-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wa2znuuo11uv-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wa2znuuo11uv-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kz44m3qgw8sd-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_kz44m3qgw8sd-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_kz44m3qgw8sd-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_25q9y030m0em-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_25q9y030m0em-3 0}.lst-kix_hqpk2um3t0rx-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hqpk2um3t0rx-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hqpk2um3t0rx-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_hqpk2um3t0rx-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_hqpk2um3t0rx-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hqpk2um3t0rx-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qires4vevcfd-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_okmncuypi0y4-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_qires4vevcfd-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_okmncuypi0y4-4 > li:before{content:"○ 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"}ul.lst-kix_cdcztajfasp7-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cdcztajfasp7-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ldjudll8rt7c-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ldjudll8rt7c-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ldjudll8rt7c-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ldjudll8rt7c-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ldjudll8rt7c-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ldjudll8rt7c-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ldjudll8rt7c-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ldjudll8rt7c-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ldjudll8rt7c-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h6vusxjurwek-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h2ax4p5idi28-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_zh7b9o347kes-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h2ax4p5idi28-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_h6vusxjurwek-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h2ax4p5idi28-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_h2ax4p5idi28-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_85djqqn0c9do-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_85djqqn0c9do-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_85djqqn0c9do-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_85djqqn0c9do-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_85djqqn0c9do-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_85djqqn0c9do-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_85djqqn0c9do-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_l9uzuwdq0o7g-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_85djqqn0c9do-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_85djqqn0c9do-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kz44m3qgw8sd-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_injw65xgjmd-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h6vusxjurwek-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3xl71fm45krx-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_25q9y030m0em-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_25q9y030m0em-6,decimal) ". 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"}.lst-kix_ysufgdn0hwga-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_25q9y030m0em-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_25q9y030m0em-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_6a3eoe2dgdn7-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_cdcztajfasp7-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cdcztajfasp7-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q8eh057hq25c-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_25q9y030m0em-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_25q9y030m0em-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_injw65xgjmd-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3xl71fm45krx-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q8eh057hq25c-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_3xl71fm45krx-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_l9uzuwdq0o7g-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_l9uzuwdq0o7g-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_injw65xgjmd-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cmga8wdzp2wi-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mp9k6giscr92-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_cmga8wdzp2wi-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_25q9y030m0em-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_25q9y030m0em-2}ul.lst-kix_l3fg6hjv1p5o-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l3fg6hjv1p5o-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l3fg6hjv1p5o-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l3fg6hjv1p5o-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l3fg6hjv1p5o-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l3fg6hjv1p5o-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mp9k6giscr92-3 > li:before{content:"● 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li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_25q9y030m0em-5}ul.lst-kix_bsm4n4oo8t01-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bsm4n4oo8t01-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qires4vevcfd-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nznavahk41x8-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rf6hnxkogr1m-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_qires4vevcfd-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nznavahk41x8-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_l1nefa8wdbcs-5 > li:before{content:"+ "}.lst-kix_79vhrx9s99bg-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_nznavahk41x8-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h2ax4p5idi28-7 > li:before{content:"○ 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li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_okptf87xblh-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_mp9k6giscr92-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ylnlkoc99fd6-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_hqpk2um3t0rx-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_sd33ohf8wfcm-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd33ohf8wfcm-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd33ohf8wfcm-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd33ohf8wfcm-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d6zfc2fv07ay-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_sd33ohf8wfcm-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q8eh057hq25c-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_igbl0pidwld8-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_okptf87xblh-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_sd33ohf8wfcm-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd33ohf8wfcm-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6fw1t13jqqsg-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_okmncuypi0y4-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_sd33ohf8wfcm-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd33ohf8wfcm-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bsm4n4oo8t01-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bsm4n4oo8t01-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qires4vevcfd-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_bsm4n4oo8t01-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bsm4n4oo8t01-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bsm4n4oo8t01-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bsm4n4oo8t01-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7wrwj4x2rc53-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hqpk2um3t0rx-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_pmtt2x7iv4hx-2 > li:before{content:"- "}

We also discuss several other topics like What determines the equilibrium rate of interest?

Pelycosaur

Thrapsid

Skulls

  • Rear skull slopes forward        
  • Rear skull slobes back
  • Larger brain

Teeth

  • Many K-9 teeth        
  • Single pair of K-9 teeth
  • Food processing

Jaw

  • Large post-dentary bone
  • Smallest post dentary bone
  • Temp finestral consolidation

Stana / bones

  • Terminal femur ⇒ horizontal
  • Sprawling stance
  • Angled femur head ⇒ vertical
  • Upright ⇒ more dorsal movement

       ↓If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of impaired control of substance?
If you want to learn more check out Whata re the different classical musical genres?

Both lungs

Synapsid trendsWe also discuss several other topics like Who is diana baumrind?

  1. Different jaw closing muscles (see ppts)
  2. Different teeth

Homodont        ⟶        heterodontIf you want to learn more check out What is the purpose of the ego defense mechanisms?

Call K-9s                (better food processing)

  1. Secondary palate

Common                separate

Air + food        ⟶        air + food        (breathe w/ food in mouth)Don't forget about the age old question of What constitutes criminal behavior?

Passage                passage

  1. Jaw bones ⟶ earbones

(see ppts)

  1. Change in posture

Sprawling                ⟶                upright

(lateral bending)                        (dorsal bending)

  1. Tail shortens

Legretractor muscles                 ⟶        retractor muscles

In tail (heart)                                around pelvis

  1. Loss of lumbar ribs

No diaphragm ⟶ diaphragm

  1. Develop nasal turbinates
  • Warm / moisten air ⇒ allows increased on supply

 

  • Synapamorphies
  • Hair (w/ harderian gland)
  • Produce milk w/ glands
  • Distinctive features
  • Occluding rheterodont teeth
  • 1 set replacement teeth = (Diphydonty)
  • 2 roots in molars & pre-molars
  • Larger brain
  • Hearing & smell ⇒ noctarnal
  • 2 new ear bones (middle ear from jaw)
  • Articular ➝ malleus (on eardrum)
  • Anadrate ➝ incus (middle)
  • Determinate growth
  • Growth plates (dark band) replaces cartilage w/ bone
  • Epiphyses - cap growth plates, halting growth
  • Vertebral differentiation
  • Cervical (7 vertebrae)
  • Thoracic (ribs)
  • Lumbar (ribless, diaphragm, nursing)
  • Sacral (fuzed to pelvis)
  • Candals (tails)
  • 2 neck joints (1 ↕️ 1 ↔️) see ppts
  • Hair (keratin)
  • Forms from epidermis, grows into dermis (opposite of feathers)
  • Can be tactile organ (vibrissae)
  • Stand up to insulate (erector pilli muscles)
  • Glands
  • Ecrine sweat
  • Watery, soles of feet, independent of hair
  • Sebacious
  • Oily, whole body, associated w/ hair
  • Apacrine
  • Sweat, cooling, chem + scent, associated w/ hair
  • Glands (mammary)
  • Branching structure
  • Along milk ridge (armpit tag rain)
  • Resemble sweat / sebacious cloud but not homologous
  • Not always a nipple
  • 4 chambered heart (see ppts)

  • Respiratory
  • Branching alveolar lungs
  • Muscular diaphragm

  • Excretary
  • Loop of tenle ⟶ liquid nitrogenous waste
  • No H2O absorption is bladder

  • Brain
  • Large folded cerebellum
  • Big olfactory
  • Vision
  • Many ritual rods = light
  • Few cones = sharp vision
  • Nocturnal Z

  • hearing
  • Pinna - outer ear
  • Cochlea - spiral aids in frequency detection

4. Re-invading water

  • Several Eutherian groups (sirenians, pinnipeds, carivorans)
  • See ppts

5. Convergent evolution across continents

  • Similar, isolated habitats yield similar body plans

6. Great american exchange

1st only small / flying tax a invaded SA

  • Isthmus forms in Pliocene -
  • Cats, elephants, deer, wolves, horses ↓
  • Sloths, glyptodonts, armadillo, etc ↑

Exchange added to both sides

Undulates

(Mase, giraffe zebra)

  • Keratin hooves cover angular phalanx

(last toe bone)

  • Walk on toe / support pad
  • Horn = keratin covered bone = permanent
  • Antler = bone = shed yearly

  • Bovid = horns
  • Artiodactils = eventold (deer)
  • Proboscideans = elephants
  • Sirenians = manatee
  • Perissocactyls = add tal (zebra, rhino, tapier)
  • Cetaceans = whales

Basal Eutherians

Clade Xenartha

(sloths, anteateis, armadillos)

Clade Pholidota

(Pangolins)

  • Xenarthrae = vertebral articulation

  • Big, digging claws
  • Reduced teeth

  • Karatin scales
  • Reduced teeth, long tongue
  • Flexible / prehensive tail

Rodents

Lagamorphs

  • Upper & lower incisors are always growing
  • Enamel on outer edge
  • Growing teeth        
  • 2 upper incisors, one in front of other
  • Large ears & legs
  • Saltation ⇒ jumping

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