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BGSU / Psychology / PSYC 4050 / How do you define social interaction?

How do you define social interaction?

How do you define social interaction?

Description

School: Bowling Green State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of Abnormal Behavior
Professor: Harold rosenberg
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: abnormal psych, Abnormal psychology, and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Abnormal Psychology Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers chapters 14, 9, 13, & 16 as well as the info covered from the Crisp article in class
Uploaded: 12/10/2017
10 Pages 57 Views 4 Unlocks
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PSY 4050: Abnormal Psychology  


How do you define social interaction?



Fall 2017 Final Exam Study Guide

Highlight = key term

Chapter 14 – Disorders that arise in childhood and adolescence  

Review key characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), including specific examples of communication, social, emotional, and motoric behavioral symptoms  

∙ Multiple deficits with onset early in childhood  

o Impaired social interaction:

 Poor eye contact

 Unusual facial expressions  

 Odd gestures/ posture

 Lack of enjoyment/ interest/ in playing with others  

 Lack of emotional reciprocity  

o Communication deficits:

 Delayed spoken language  


What causes cognitive communication deficit?



 Failure to initiate/ sustain conversations  

 Repetitive/ idiosyncratic language

∙ E.g., echolalia  

o Restricted or stereotyped behavior:

 Inflexibility of routine  

 Extreme resistance to change  

 Repetitive motor mannerisms  

∙ Rocking, hand waiving, head banging  

 Pre-occupation with parts of objects  

Review the concept of the “savant syndrome” in people with ASD (p. 485) ∙ A savant or someone with savant syndrome is a person with a major mental disorder or intellectual handicap who has some spectacular ability. o Some common savant skills are:


What is considered repetitive behavior in autism?



 Calendar calculating – the ability to calculate what day of the week a date will fall on Don't forget about the age old question of Which principle is the basis of retributive theory of punishment?

 Musical skills

∙ The ability to play a piece of classical music flawlessly from

memory after hearing it only once  

 Art skills  

∙ Being able to paint exact replicas of scenes they say years

ago  

Know the three diagnostic elements of Intellectual Disability Disorder (known as “mental retardation” in DSM-IV) and review the key genetic and other biomedical etiologies  

∙ The three diagnostic elements of Intellectual Disability Disorder are: o 1. The individual displays deficient intellectual functioning in areas such as reasoning, problem-solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgement, academic learning, and learning from experience.  If you want to learn more check out Which surface would have the lowest albedo?

o 2. The individual displays deficient adaptive functioning in at least one area of daily life such as communication, social involvement, or personal independence, across home, school, work, or community settings.  o 3. Onset must occur before age 18.

∙ Etiologies  

o Environmental deprivation and abuse/neglect

o Pre-natal injury and disease

o Genetic and chromosomal disorder (e.g., Down Syndrome)

o Perinatal complications (e.g., brain anoxia during delivery)

o Post-natal brain injury, infections, and poisoning  

o Etiology unknown in most people with IDD  

Review the specific types and accompanying consequences of Learning Disorders (p. 491) Don't forget about the age old question of What is ku klux klan?

∙ Specific learning disorder – children have significant difficulties in acquiring reading, writing, arithmetic, or mathematical reasoning skills

o Children may read slowly or inaccurately or have trouble comprehending what they are reading (dyslexia). Other children may spell or write very poorly and then others may have trouble remembering number facts, performing calculations, or reasoning mathematically.  

o Deficits are substantially below typical performance of one’s age o 6+ months despite remediation If you want to learn more check out It is the science that deals with heredity and variation; what is it?

o Not accounted for by IDD

∙ Communication disorders – include language disorder, speech sound disorder, and childhood onset-fluency disorder (stuttering)

o Language disorder – persistent difficulties acquiring, using, or comprehending spoken or written language  

 Trouble using language to express oneself  

 May struggle to learn new words

 Confine their speech to short and simple sentences  We also discuss several other topics like What are the components of dynamic training?

 General lag in language development

o Speech sound disorder – persistent difficulties in speech production  Cannot make correct speech sounds at an appropriate age resulting in speech that sounds like baby talk

 Stuttering – disturbance in the fluency and timing of their speech, characterized by repeating, prolonging, or interjecting sounds, pausing before finishing a word, or having excessive tension in the muscles they use for speech

∙ Developmental coordination disorder – the performance of coordinated motor activities at a level well below that of others their age

o Younger children

 More clumsy  

 Slow to master skills like tying shoelaces, buttoning shirts

o Older children

 Great difficulty assembling puzzles, building models, playing ball, printing and writing  

Review the symptoms of Tourette’s disorder  

∙ Tourette’s Disorder 

o Motor and vocal tics

o Multiple times a day, nearly every day  

o Duration at least 1 year

o Onset before age 18

o Social/ occupational impairment

o Coughing, barking, or grunting more frequent, but 10% experience  coprolalia (blurting out of obscene words unwillingly)  If you want to learn more check out What is savonarola (v.i.f.)?

o Not due to another medical condition

Review diagnostic features of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder

∙ Separation Anxiety Disorder 

o Excessive fear of separation from caregivers

o Resistance to being left with others, left alone, attending school,  sleepovers

o Nightmares and somatic symptoms

o Developmentally inappropriate and disabling  

∙ ADHD 

o Inattentive Type 

 Careless mistakes  

 Doesn’t follow instructions

 Easily distracted or forgetful

 Difficulty initiating or modulating attention

o Hyperactivity/ Impulsivity Type 

 Fidgets or squirms

 Difficulty playing quietly  

 Talks excessively  

 Can’t wait turn

 Interrupts

o *Some inattentive, some hyperactive, some combined

o Other features of ADHD 

 Frequency and severity  expected  age

∙ The frequency and severity of symptoms do not correlate  

with the expected behaviors of other people their age

 Multiple settings (school, home, work, others’ homes)

 Social, academic or occupational impairment  

 Onset by age 12

 More boys/ men are diagnosed w/ ADHD than girls/ women

∙ This is because boys tend to have more hyperactivity so it is  

more easily noticeable/ diagnosable

 About half of those diagnosed as children also experience  

symptoms of ADHD as adults

∙ Oppositional Defiant Disorder 

o Recurrent pattern (6+ months) of age-inappropriate negative, defiant,  disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures  

o Significant social, academic, or occupational impairment  

o Has DSM pathologized nastiness?

 Should oppositional defiant disorder be considered a disorder or  are they just bad kids?

∙ Current debate in the field

∙ Conduct Disorder: repetitive and persistent violation of social norms, rules, and  rights of others

o Bullying/ aggression/ cruelty to people and/or animals

o Sexual imposition on others

o Destruction of property

o Frequent lying/ deceitfulness, theft, breaking and entering

o Serious violations of rules (e.g., curfew, truancy, running away) o Symptoms are not primarily a reaction to social context

o Clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, and/ or academic  functioning  

o Onset: childhood (before age 10) or adolescence  

o May remit but sometimes manifests as ASPD as an adult

o Co-morbidity with learning disorders, substance abuse, ADHD  

Consider the advantages & disadvantages of using prescription medications to treat ADHD  

∙ Advantages

o Stimulant medications have a quieting effect on children of ADHD o Helps them focus, solve complex tasks, and perform better in school o Helps to control aggression  

∙ Disadvantages

o Clinicians worry about the possible long-term effects of the drugs  o ADHD is over diagnosed in America resulting in a large group of children receiving medication they do not need.  

What is the relationship between Conduct Disorder in children/adolescents and Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults?  

∙ Children with relatively mild conduct disorder often improve over time, but a severe case could continue into adulthood and develop into antisocial personality disorder.

* Review the graph illustrating different trajectories/pathways outlining recovery from and continuation of psychiatric disorders that begin during childhood and adolescence * (posted on canvas under ‘files’)

Know the key features and age of onset of Enuresis and Encopresis ∙ Enuresis – repeated voiding of urine into bed or clothes whether involuntary or  intentional  

o Child must be 5+ years of age  

o It must occur at least 2x a week for 3+ months

o It is not due to a general medical condition  

∙ Encopresis – repeated defecation (e.g., clothing or floor), whether involuntary or intentional  

o Child must be 4+ years old  

o It must occur at least 1x a month for 3+ months  

o It is not due to a general medical condition  

Chapter 9 – Eating disorders  

Review the key diagnostic elements of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN)

∙ The 3 key features of Anorexia Nervosa:

o Restriction of food intake  significant weight loss (severity coded based  on Body Mass Index)

o Intense fear of and actions taken to avoid gaining weight  

o Distorted perception of body shape or size  

 Does not acknowledge seriousness of low body weight

∙ The 5 key features of Bulimia Nervosa:

o Recurrent eating binges: large amount of discrete period of time (2-hour  period)

o Sense one can’t stop or control how much one eats

o Episodes 1x or more a week for 3+ months  

o Self-image is excessively influenced by body shape/weight  

o Recurrent use unhealthy compensatory behaviors  

Review methods people with Eating Disorders use to compensate for eating binges

∙ People with eating disorders compensate for their eating binges by forcing  themselves to vomit after meals; misusing laxatives, diuretics, or enemas;  fasting; or exercising excessively.  

Review medical complications of AN and BN

∙ Medical complications of AN

o Amenorrhea – the absence of menstrual cycles  

o Lowered body temperature

o Low blood pressure

o Body swelling  

o Reduced bone mineral density

o Slow heart rate

o Metabolic and electrolyte imbalances  heart failure or circulatory  collapse

o Rough, dry, & cracked skin

o Brittle nails  

o Cold & blue hands and feet

o Loss of hair from scalp  

o Growth of fine hair all over body  

o Changes in brain chemistry  

o Weak muscles, swollen joints, fractures, osteoporosis

o Kidney stones, kidney failure  

o Constipation/ bloating  

o Bruise easily  

∙ Medical complications of BN

o Amenorrhea  

o Irregular heart beat  

o Weakened heart muscle  

o Heart failure

o Low pulse & blood pressure  

o Irregular bowl movements (constipation/ diarrhea)

o Bloating and abdominal cramping  

o Anemia  

o Depression

o Anxiety  

o Dizziness  

o Cavities, tooth enamel erosion, gum disease  

o Throat can tear/ rupture  

o Blood in vomit  

o Fatigue  

o Ulcers  

o Abrasion of knuckles  

o Dry skin  

Review the difference between restricting and binge/purge sub-types of AN  ∙ Those with binge-purge syndrome engage in recurrent episodes of  uncontrollable eating, or binges. These episodes take place over a limited period of time, often two hours, during which the person eats much more food than  most people would eat during a similar time span.

o After the binge session, a person with this disorder will engage in  unhealthy compensatory behaviors like forcing themselves to vomit,  misusing laxatives, fasting, or exercising excessively.  

∙ Those with restricting-type anorexia nervosa reduce their weight by restricting  their food intake.  

o They start by cutting out sweets and fattening foods, then they start to  eliminate other foods until they have no variability in their diet.  

Review the prevalence estimates of AN and BN in males vs. females ∙ AN and BN are both more prominent in females. In fact, males only account for 5-10 percent of all people with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Review the many etiological hypotheses to explain eating disorders, including the possible role of “body dissatisfaction” and cultural standards of physical attractiveness  

∙ Body dissatisfaction – when people evaluate their weight and shape in a  negative way

∙ Ineffective parenting  low self-esteem  striving for self-control  ∙ Unrealistic expectations of body shape/ weight

∙ Dysregulation of chemicals  lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial  hypothalamus

∙ Social and cultural messages about attractiveness  

o Society’s emphasis on thinness and bias against obesity  

∙ Peer influences  

∙ Enmeshed family pattern  over-controlling parents  

Review the similarities and differences between Binge Eating Disorder and BN

∙ Binge-Eating Disorder 

o Recurrent and distressing episodes of rapid consumption  

o Loss of control  

o Episodes at least 1/week over 3 months  

o Without unhealthy compensatory behaviors 

∙ Bulimia Nervosa 

o Recurrent and distressing episodes of rapid consumption  

o Loss of control

o Episodes at least 1/week over 3 months

o With unhealthy compensatory behaviors  

Review the concept of Pica  

∙ Pica - Persistent (1 month or more) eating of non-nutritive/ non-food substances o Dirt, cat litter, paper clips, rocks, bits of twine, chalk, glue, and paint  chips  

Chapter 13 – Personality disorders

Review distinction between personality traits and Personality Disorders ∙ Personality Traits 

o Psychological characteristics reflecting:

 How one perceives, relates to, and thinks about other people and one’s environment  

o Enduring but still flexible  

 Traits influence behavior across time and circumstances

 Some more and some less adaptive

 Little distress and/ or disability  

∙ Personality Disorders 

o Persistent, inflexible, and maladaptive traits

o Impact self-confidence and relations with other  

o Personal feeling of distress

o Only 10 maladaptive personality styles are diagnosable  

o Typically experience social/ occupational impairment

Review the BIG 5 dimensional model of personality traits  

1. Introverted/ shy <-------------------------- > Extroverted/ outgoing

2. Hostile/ cynical/ cold < ---------- > Friendly/ trusting/ agreeable

3. Conscientious < ----------------------------- > Unreliable/ impulsive

4. Neurotic/ anxious < ------------------------------ > Emotional stable

5. Open to experiences <----------------------> Conventional/ closed

* Review the symptom-disorder matrix (Figure 13-1) noting the unique and overlapping features among the 10 DSM-5 Personality Disorders * (In Comer text book page 423)

Review Comer’s descriptions of the core themes and core symptoms of the 10 DSM-5 Personality Disorders (paranoid personality disorder, schizoid

personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder)

∙ Cluster A: Odd and Eccentric

o Paranoid: excessively suspicious; expect to be harmed; avoid close  relationships; assume others have hostile intentions

o Schizoid: emotional detachment; loners (but not lonely); few  

interpersonal relationships; viewed by others as cold, humorless, or dull o Schizotypal: odd patterns of thinking; behavioral eccentricities;  interpersonal problems

∙ Cluster B: Manipulative, Dramatic, Emotional, and Self-centered  o Anti-Social: disregard/ violate rights of others; lack of empathy; little or  no shame or guilt

o Borderline: instability of mood, relationships, and self-image; impulsive;  self-destructive  

o Histrionic: emotionally dramatic; self-centered  

o Narcissistic: grandiose; little empathy; seek attention; reject criticism;  immature  

∙ Cluster C: Fearful; Anxious; Inhibited  

o Avoidant: uncomfortable and inhibited in social relationships; fear  rejection; feel inadequate  

o Dependent: clinging; overly obedient; fear of separation; over reliance on others

o Obsessive-Compulsive: perfectionistic; rigid; need for control and order;  stubborn; detail-oriented

Chapter 16 – Legal and social issues  

Review the similarities and differences between Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Competence to Stand Trial

Competency to Stand Trial 

∙ Role of the psychologist in evaluation of competency

o Assess current mental status  

o Mental state at the time of the alleged criminal conduct is NOT  considered  

∙ Who decides if the defendant is competent to stand trial?

o Mental health experts do NOT decide competence, but offer testimony to  judge  

o The judge determines competence  

∙ To stand trial for a crime, defendant must:

o Understand roles of judge, jury, and lawyers

o Be able to assist in his/her defense  

o Appreciate seriousness of the charges and results of conviction  Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity 

∙ Clinicians assess mental state at the time of the alleged criminal conduct  ∙ Judge and jury  guilty or not guilty  

∙ Principles underlying NGRI

o One should not be held morally and legally responsible for a crime unless:  Intended to commit a crime  

 Knew right from wrong

 Was capable of controlling his/her behavior

Review the process of assessment and intervention with defendants who are evaluated for Competence to Stand Trial

∙ What steps are taken to assess and intervene with defendants who may not be  competent to stand trial?

o Trial postponed  assessment  

 Assessment will determine if the defendant is competent or not  competent  

∙ If the defendant is not competent there will be an  

intervention and then they will be reassessed

o Typical outcomes:

 Trial or Involuntary Hospitalization or Release  

Review the similarities in the historical conceptualizations of the “insanity defense”

∙ McNaughton Rule (1843): Person did not know what he or she was doing or did  not know it was wrong

∙ Irresistible Impulse Rule (1887): Behavior was outcome of uncontrollable drive  or impulse

∙ Durham Rule (1954): Behavior is the product of mental disease or mental defect ∙ American Law Institute (1972): Person was unable to appreciate the  wrongfulness of his/her conduct or conform conduct to requirements of law at  the time of the offense because of a mental disease or defect  

∙ Federal Insanity Defense (1984): Person, as a result of a severe mental disease  or defect, was unable to appreciate the nature and quality or the wrongfulness  of his/her acts

∙ The public overestimates and opposes the use of NGRI because of the way the  media portrays it. NGRI cases are more publicized by the media so it makes it  seem like it is more prominent than it actually is.

Review the frequency with which defendants plead NGRI and how often the plea is successful  

∙ How often do defendants plead NGRI?

o Less than 1 in 100 defendants plead NGRI

o Only about 1 in 4 of those are successful  

o Only 15% of those who plead NGRI have been charged with murder

Know the bases for civil commitment (aka involuntary hospitalization) Four bases for civil commitment: 

1. Substantial risk of physical harm to self/ OR

2. Substantial risk of physical harm to others / OR

3. Unable to care for self and lack of community resources/ OR

4. Need for hospital treatment  

Review the differences between short-term and longer-term civil commitment

∙ Short-term (3 days in Ohio) involuntary hospitalization by order of physicians,  psychologists & other approved professionals  

∙ Longer-term (weeks to months) hospitalization by order of a judge following a  hearing  

Review the rights of mental patients when they are hospitalized Legal Rights of hospitalized Psychiatric patients 

1. Right to Treatments  

a. Active treatment in human environment

b. Should not be “warehoused” in a hospital for convenience of family or  legal authorities  

2. Right to Least Restrictive Environment  

a. Balance liberty with safety of patient and others

b. Outpatient settings > inpatient settings

c. Open wards > locked wards

d. Limited use of restraints and isolations rooms  

3. Right to information regarding their treatment, risks, benefits, and alternatives a. Patients have the right to refuse medical treatments, including drugs and  ECT

b. Right to refuse may be overridden only if the person is legally  

incompetent or dangerous  

c. Safeguards (e.g., court review, patient rights review board)

Review the Tarasof case and the steps mental health professionals may take to discharge their “duty to protect”  

What was the Tarasoff case? 

Prosenjit Poddar was in love with Tatiana Tarasoff but she didn’t feel the same. Poddar told his therapist he was going to kill Tarasoff because if she refused to be with him, she would never be with anyone else. His therapist took action and told the college that both Poddar and Tarasoff went to about his threat. The campus police interviewed Poddar and predicted that he was not dangerous and they let him go. Later on, he stabbed Tarasoff to death. This is a false negative. Tatiana’s parents sued the campus police, Health Service employees, and Regents of the University of California for failing to warn their daughter she was in danger. The trial court dismissed the case holding that, although a doctor has a duty to a patient, there is no duty to a third party. Upon appeal, the California Supreme Court held that, under certain conditions, psychotherapists may be sued for failure to protect a third party.  

Review of “Tarasoff” situation: 

∙ Patient presents a serious danger to another person:  

o Explicit, credible, imminent, physical harm, identifiable

 Therapist has an obligation to use reasonable care to protect intended victim against such danger

∙ Notify police

∙ Intensive outpatient therapy  

∙ Hospitalization of patient (Duration; basis; rights)

∙ Warn intended target  

∙ Compare to mandatory reporting laws  

Why do evaluators tend to make false positive rather than false negative predictions of dangerousness?  

∙ Because in a false positive situation, no one gets hurt. In a false negative situation, people could be in danger and could potentially be extremely harmed or even killed.  

Review the definitions and examples of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Prevention

∙ Primary prevention: intervene with entire population of individuals to reduce development of psychiatric disability regardless of risk  

o Medical examples: pre-school measles vaccination; fluoride in public water supplies

o Psychology example: DARE programs in public school

∙ Secondary prevention: intervene with individuals who are more likely to develop disability – or – who show beginning signs of disorder to correct problem or prevent disability from getting worse

o Psychology examples:

 Post – disaster counseling to prevent PTSD

 Special tutoring to prevent learning disabilities and school failure  ∙ Tertiary prevention: intervene with individuals who have developed a disorder to reduce their disability, improve their functioning, and prevent relapse

o Psychology examples:

 Psychotropic medications to ameliorate symptoms and prevent relapse  

 Half-way houses for substance abusers and chronic psychiatric patients  

Stigmatization of people with mental illness: Crisp et al. (2000) study  

What does the term stigma mean when applied to people with mental disorders and what are the negative outcomes of stigmatization of mental illness?  

∙ The stigma of people with mental illness is not a positive one. The public tends to view people with mental illnesses in a negative fashion thus creating a negative stigma.

∙ Negative outcomes:

o People with mental illnesses may:

 Develop an intense fear of “coming out”

 Delay seeking necessary mental health care

 Develop a practice of self-stigmatization

 Endure discrimination  

* Review the method used by Crisp et al. (2000) to answer their research questions, including their stimulus materials, the specific attitudes toward mental illness they studied, the characteristics of their respondents, and their findings * (article is posted on canvas under ‘files’)

People with which specific diagnoses did respondents rate as more dysfunctional and which did they rate as less dysfunctional?  ∙ More dysfunctional:

o Drug addiction

o Alcoholism  

o Schizophrenia  

∙ Less dysfunctional:

o Eating disorders

o Severe depression  

o Panic attacks  

Did male respondents differ from female respondents in their attitudes regarding mental illness?  

∙ No.  

Did older participants have different attitudes than younger participants?  ∙ Yes. Older participants thought of people with certain disorders to be less dangerous than the younger participants did.

Was knowing someone with a mental illness associated with respondents’ attitudes regarding ratings of dangerousness and interpersonal skills? ∙ No.

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