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UW / Atmospheric Science / ATMS 111 / Which surface would have the lowest albedo?

Which surface would have the lowest albedo?

Which surface would have the lowest albedo?


School: University of Washington
Department: Atmospheric Science
Course: Global Warming
Professor: Frierson
Term: Spring 2014
Tags: global, warming, and atm111
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam
Description: Go over all material throughout the entire course, emphasizing key terms, concepts.
Uploaded: 12/10/2017
18 Pages 144 Views 2 Unlocks

Final Study Guide 

Which surface would have the lowest albedo?

Key term Key Concept Important 

★ Key Terms: 

○ Albedo: how well a surface reflects shortwave radiation from the sun. This ranges from 0-1, with 0 being least reflective and 1 being most reflective.

■ black= low albedo; white=high albedo

■ Ex: the ocean has a low albedo because it’s so dark. Snow has a high albedo because it’s so light colored.

○ Shortwave radiation: high energy waves that come from the sun to earth, which is why sunlight makes us feel so warm.

■ 50% is absorbed at the surface

■ 30% is reflected back to space

Why does the earth emit longwave radiation?

If you want to learn more check out What is ku klux klan?

■ 20% is absorbed by atmosphere

○ Longwave Radiation: low energy waves emitted by the earth. This is what helps cool the planet 

○ Greenhouse Effect: greenhouse gases act like a blanket and absorb and reemit longwave radiation back to earth; this causes global warming Don't forget about the age old question of It is the science that deals with heredity and variation; what is it?

○ Anthropogenic: human-caused

■ Ex: the ozone hole is anthropogenic

○ Forcing: something that forces the climate to change 

■ Positive means that it warms the globe

Why is the intertropical convergence zone itcz typically located at or near the equator?

● EX: releasing methane bubbles

■ Negative means that it cools it

● EX: releasing sulfate aerosols

○ Feedback: something that amplifies or muffles a forcing. They can double the amount of expected warming.

■ Positive means that it amplifies the forcing

● EX: temperature goes up, so water vapor forms, making it even hotter We also discuss several other topics like What are the components of dynamic training?

■ Negative means that it muffles the forcing

● EX: ice melts due to temperature increase, so low clouds form, cooling

the area and muffling the forcing (keep in mind that this example is NOT

proven in real life, but works as an example of negative forcing)

○ Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ): belt of low pressure near the equator where the Northern and Southern hemispheres meet. Lots of rainfall, storms here 

○ Global Warming Potential: how much heat something traps in the atmosphere ■ Depends on: 

● How much infrared it absorbs 

● How long it lives 

● the spectral location of its absorbing wavelengths 

○ Thermal Expansion is when water gets hotter and expands. This is the main contributor to sea level rise.

○ Coriolis Force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation, the force acts to the left of the motion of the object. We also discuss several other topics like Define louis xv­-xvi chairs (rococo).

○ Disrupted synchrony is when things that used to happen at the same time no longer do ○ Pacific Decadal Oscillation is similar to el nino, but only occurs in the Pacific North. They last much longer (20-30 years) instead of being short lived like el ninos.

○ chemical weathering is when rain or snow falls on silicate rocks and they take up CO2 out of the atmosphere; only natural way to reduce CO2. These are a negative feedback, as they’re most efficient in a warm climate

○ Proxy data is information gathered from natural resources like tree rings, ice cores, fossils, ocean sediment, etc. We also discuss several other topics like What is the henderson-hasselbalch equation?

○ Climate Models are computer representations of climates, based off of natural “laws” (like laws of energy, mass, etc) to form predictions and simulations of past or future climates

○ Chaos is when a small change leads to dramatic changes; slight changes in equations whilst doing climate models can show potentially different scenarios

1st Half

★ Greenhouse Gases 

○ Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

■ Most important to us in terms of threat 

● This is because there’s more CO2 than any other GHG in the atmosphere

● Has GWP of 1, but is most abundant and most emitted

■ Very long lived (at least 100 yrs, but up to 1000yrs)

■ 56% of anthropogenic effect

■ Is a forcing 

○ Water Vapor

■ Gas form of water Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between a portion (ep) and as-purchased (ap)?

■ Primary GHG

● Makes up 60% of natural greenhouse effect

■ Is a feedback 

● Heat increases=more water vapor in the air

○ Methane (CH4)

■ GWP: 25 

■ Shorter lived, but much more potent than CO2 per molecule

■ Both naturally caused AND anthropogenic 

● Natural EX: wetlands, swamps

● Anthropogenic: increased cattle, rice fields, landfills

○ Nitrous Oxide (NO3)

■ GWP: 310 

■ Only 6% of GH effect

■ Anthropogenic 

● Comes from agriculture, deforestation,

○ Ozone (O3)

■ At the surface, it’s a pollutant

■ In the atmosphere, it protects us from harmful UV rays

○ CFC’s/HFC’s

■ CFC’s are what caused the ozone layer

● Montreal Protocol helped stop the emission of CFC’s and they are now

no longer produced

■ HFC’s replaced CFC’s and are increasing

● Some of these are strong GHG’s

★ CO2 Emissions 

○ Total emissions:

■ 3100 gigatonnes in the atmosphere as of right now

● 1 gigatonne=1 billion metric tons 

■ 34 gigatonnes added per year

● China emits the most as a country, but the US emits the most per capita

○ Where do they come from

■ Fossil Fuels (coal, oil): 90% 

● Industries, transportation, electricity/power

○ As population grows, more people use cars which increases CO2


○ Similar effect to deforestation, below

■ Deforestation: 10%

● Keep in mind that this also means that less trees = less carbon sinks as

there aren’t as many trees to absorb CO2

○ Where do they go

■ 45% into the atmosphere, increasing GHE

■ 25% goes into ocean

● This leads to oceanic acidification

■ 30% goes into land ecosystems

★ Heat 

○ Weather v. Climate 

■ Weather is day to day, climate is average

● EX: today’s weather is sunny, but the climate of Seattle is wet and rainy ● Remember: no SINGULAR event can be contributed to global warming

○ Humidity

■ Caused by water vapor 

■ Heat Index: humidity makes it feel hotter than it actually is because evaporation is less effective 

● This is because the air is already filled with lots of water, so sweat

evaporates much slower. In dry climates, the air is fairly empty of WV,

so it evaporates very quickly and makes us feel cooler

■ This also causes nights to be much warmer

● Increases likelihood of human losses during heat waves

○ Dry Heat

■ In deserts

■ Is most likely to have extreme temperature ranges 

● Remember: “Stars bright, cold night”

○ Because there is less water vapor and therefore less clouds, there

isn’t anything to reflect longwave radiation back to earth at night

and makes it very cold. In the same way, during the daytime

there is nothing to reflect shortwave radiation back to space, and

it gets very hot

○ Urban Heat Island

■ Buildings act like clouds and reflect longwaves back to earth, trapping the heat in ■ Causes:

● Longwave radiation can’t escape 

● Increased solar radiation absorption

● Less evaporation

○ Future Expectations of Global Warming

■ Everywhere will increase in temperature

● Overall, hot extremes will become much more common than cold 


● Can be modified depending on humidity

■ Wet areas will become wetter 

● This is because hot air will hold more humidity

● So, rainy areas that get even warmer will be able to hold more WV 

■ Dry areas will get drier and expand 

● This is because the dry air will take all the moisture from surrounding 

areas and carry it elsewhere 

○ Midlateral weather will shift poleward

○ Think of Hadley Cells 

★ Precipitation

○ What’s required for rain?

■ Water vapor 

■ Rising motion

● This is because as hot air collects WV, it will rise upwards where it’s 

cooler. As it cools down, it becomes rain and falls. 

○ Average precipitation

■ Rainiest spots will be in narrow bands near equator

■ Most deserts are at 30° N/S latitude

● Look to Hadley Cell 

○ Hadley Circulation/Cell 

■ Has widened, and is expected to continue to do so

● As this continues, dry regions will expand poleward 

○ Monsoon Circulations

■ Land heats up in summer

■ This leads to rising motion and rain

■ El Nino cycles greatly modify location and severity of monsoons in India and Australia 

○ Midlateral Precipitation

■ Associated with storm systems

● Rising motion is generated in particular regions

■ Storm Tracks

● Relatively narrow tracks in the seas/oceans where storms are driven

forward by the wind

○ Floods

■ Floods with heavier rains are expected

■ Hard to quantify flood frequency trends because:

● They’re rare

○ This makes it difficult to establish statistical significance

■ Affected by many factors besides extreme rainfall

● Deforestation makes flooding more likely

● Soil erosion

● Land use

○ Drought

■ Usually from below average precipitation, but can also be caused by evaporation ● Hadley cells widening could increase drought

★ Ice

○ Sea Ice

■ Doesn’t affect sea level rising 

■ Has high albedo

● Sea ice melting = increased temperature 

○ albedo lowers as dark ocean appears underneath ice

● Shrinking in Arctic

○ Land Ice

■ DOES cause sea level rise (SLR) 

■ 2 ice sheets in world

● Greenland

○ Would cause 6m rise in sea levels

○ Will take centuries to melt completely 

○ Fastest melting of the two

○ Currently only small contributor, but could increase

● Antarctica

○ Has “ice shelves” that don’t contribute to SLR

■ East makes up 90% of ice

■ West makes up 10%

● West is melting much faster than East 

■ Ice shelves reduce “calving”

○ Because Antarctica hasn’t been affected as much by GW, it’s not

melting as much

● Loss in two ways

○ Melting

○ Calving, where icebergs break off and go into ocean

○ Mountain Glaciers

■ Currently biggest contributor in SLR 

● Mass Balance 

○ Gains with snowfall

○ Loses with melt

○ Currently losing more than gaining

○ Permafrost

■ Frozen year round except for “Active layer”

● Active layer melts and re-thaws every year

○ This layer is getting deeper each year

■ Causes:

● Road and building damage

● Frees methane

● Increases vegetation

■ Potential:

● Could release thousands of gigatonnes of CO2 and methane hydrates 

● If increased vegetation, could take up more CO2

Part 2

★ Ocean

○ Concerns:

● Ocean Acidification 

○ Remember: the ocean takes up 25% of CO2 emissions

○ When CO2 dissolves into the ocean, it creates ocean

acidification, and carbonic acid is formed (H2CO3)

■ So, more CO2 = more ocean acidification

○ Why does this matter?

■ Carbonic acid eats away at the calcium carbonate shells 

of marine life, threatening their existence and potentially

shaking up the entire ocean ecosystem

● Algae Blooms

○ Fertilizer runoff has caused algae blooms to increase, which 

lowers the oxygen in the water 

● Coral

○ Highly dependant on phytoplankton algae, which is “expelled”

when temperatures rise about 24°C

■ Usually occurs during El Nino years, which are expected

to increase

○ Value:

■ Worth over $100mil from US fisheries

● Lots of fish live in/near coral reefs

■ Worth billions in recreation

● Florida alone profits $1.2bil each year

● Ocean Circulations

○ Thermohaline circulations (THC) 

■ heat/salt circulations

■ Driven by heavy (cold and salty) sinking

■ Changes:

● More freshwater input into high latitudes in

future, due to ice melt and increased


● This will decrease the salt content in the ocean, 

slowing down the THC as the water will be less

heavy and won’t sink as much

● Less warming in N. America and little less in


■ Two main THC’s:

● N. Atlantic Drift

○ Will slow down some

● Gulf Stream

○ Won’t slow down, as it’s wind driven

○ Sea Level Rise (SLR)

■ Does Affect:

● Thermal expansion 

○ Main contributor (60%)

○ Water expands when it gets warmer

● Mountain glaciers

○ Contributes 25%

● Ice Sheets (Greenland and Antarctica)

○ Contributes 15%

■ This is expected to eventually overtake mountain 

glaciers, however 

○ Not to be confused with ice shelves, as these don’t contribute at 

all to SLR 

● Oil and Gas Industry

○ In Louisiana, over 50,000 oil/gas have been dug since 1930

○ 10,000mi of canals have been dug

■ This has led to land erosion and assists in SLR

■ Doesn’t Affect:

● Sea Ice

● Ice Shelves

■ Natural Influencers:

● Tides

● Ocean currents

● Winds

○ These drive ocean currents

● Tectonic Activity

○ Some parts of the world are rising and falling, especially areas

which were once covered in ice--these are now rising

■ How do we measure SL?

● Tide Gauges

● Always measured on coasts to ensure accuracy

● Satellites are most accurate

■ Future of SLR

● Happens very slowly

● 50-100 cm in extreme scenario

● 30-60 cm in utopia

● Coastal populations most at risk 

○ 634 million people live less than 30 ft above SL

● Costs:

○ Salinization of aquifers and crops

■ This harms the agriculture industry and threatens safe

drinking water

○ Need money to construct barriers and dikes to hold back water

○ Relocation of entire communities, especially island nations

■ Also has the question of, how will migration threaten

social structures?

○ Threat to wetlands

■ Hold valuable clean water

■ They reduce flood risk

■ Loss of income from recreation

○ Natural Climate Variability

■ El Nino 

● Warm water spreading

○ This means that rain patterns shift to follow the warm water 

○ Can mess up monsoon seasons and cause droughts, hurting


● Future of El Nino

○ Very uncertain how El Nino will change

○ Affects local warming and ecosystems, agriculture

■ La Nina

● Opposite; cool water spreads

★ Hurricanes

○ Anatomy of a hurricane:

■ Eye

● Clear area in center of hurricane, due to sinking air

■ Eyewall

● Clouds immediately surrounding the eye

● Highest winds and rain

■ Spiral Rainbands:

● Outer raining areas

○ Conditions needed:

■ Occur over warmest waters 

● Surface must be above 26°C

○ This helps evaporation/condensation

● Could potentially increase due to global warming

■ Can NOT occur over an equator, as they require Coriolis Force 

● Must be at least 5° off the equator

■ Water Vapor 

● Acts as fuel 

● Condensation (in humid areas) creates water vapor, and heat is released ○ Evaporation stops this, as it causes cooling 

■ No wind shear 

● When wind force changes with height; this rips the hurricane apart 

○ Biggest cause of uncertainty of hurricanes in future; not sure 

how wind shear will change in response to GW 

○ Damages: 

■ Flooding, high winds, storm surges 

■ Financial costs in coastal areas 

■ Land subsidence 

○ Forecast: 

■ Very uncertain 

● This is because there hasn’t been a lot of reliable data collected yet 

● We also don’t know how wind shears will change in the future, and 

hurricanes require no wind shear to form 

● We do expect them to strengthen, but maybe not increase in frequency 

★ Tornadoes 

○ US is particularly susceptible to tornadoes 

■ This is because we have more super-cell thunderstorms, which are needed to form tornadoes 

■ No clear trend, though 

○ Overall, research is even less certain than that of hurricanes 

★ Agriculture 

○ HUGE impact on environment 

■ 30% of total GHG emissions comes from agri 

● Where? 

○ Cows

○ Methane from rice 

○ NO3 from fertilizers 

○ Deforestation (10% of CO2 emissions) 

■ Meat causes much more CO2 emissions than grain/plants 

● 1 kg of wheat = 1.1kg of COs 

● 1kg of beef = 31.0kg of CO2 

○ About 35% of all crops are used to feed animals 

● Emissions are expected to go up because as people gain wealth, they tend to eat more meat. It is NOT due to population growth, but instead having 

less people in poverty. 

■ Irrigation

● 70% of freshwater goes to feed crops

● About 1 liter of water per calorie of food

○ However, areas with less water availability have found ways to

“make do” with less water but still producing enough food to

feed people

■ May be important in areas that will experience drought

■ Future

● may need more farmland

○ Causes more deforestation

○ We would need to become more efficient in irrigation and

climate change resilience

● Subtropics most likely to suffer

○ 95% of food insecure live here 

○ Expected to have reduced rainfall

● Crop yields

○ Uncertainty around el nino, precipitation, storm track shifts,

monsoon seasons being late

■ These all affect crop yields

★ Ecosystems

○ What drives them?

■ Invasive species, natural disturbances, pests, disease, pollution

○ Animals

■ Migration

● Some species expected to migrate if they can

● Have mostly moved poleward

● Species that can’t move or cannot do so quickly face extinction 

■ Timing changes

● Some species depend on timing events

○ Because spring is happening 5-15% earlier, this could cause

disruption and mess up mating, eating, hunting cycles

○ Results in disrupted synchrony 

○ Different latitudes

■ GW effect is largest in high latitudes

● But, organisms in these areas are already used to huge temperature


○ This means that subtropical species are most at risk as they aren’t

used to temperature swings

■ Huge amounts of biodiversity at risk in subtropics

■ Amphibians and reptiles are most at risk as they can’t

control their internal body temperature

○ Parasites

■ Expected to increase in warmer, wetter climates

■ Insects:

● Bark beetles, which kill trees, have increased and spread across N.



■ Warming across the entire region

● Expected to increase by 1.3°C by 2040

■ Pacific Decadal Oscillation affects ocean temperatures, which then has an effect on the entire region

■ Snowpack 

● Seasonably melting snow that provides fresh water every summer

● Expected to lessen in the coming years, threatening water supplies

○ Partially due to PDO, mostly due to temperature increases that

cause more rain than snow 

● Threatens glaciers as they don’t have anything to build with

● Less hydropower, as they are driven by melt from snowpacks

■ Coasts

● Rising RL threaten coastal communities

● Olympia and parts of Seattle are expected to see more flooding

● Parts of the Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island are rising due to

plate tectonics and glacial subsidation

● Puget Sound is sinking, so more flooding

★ Paleoclimate

○ Things that affect the climate

■ The Sun

● Changed magnitude many times over earth’s history

○ Increased by 10% in last billion years

○ Initially 75% as strong is it is now

■ Continents

● Have shut down trade winds (n and s america)

● Caused mountain ranges by crashing into each other

○ Increased chemical weathering 

● Allowed ice-sheets to form by moving over poles

○ Raised planet albedo

■ Earth’s Orbit

● Other planets and moons have causes the orbit to change over time ● Earth’s tilt also changes every 41,000 years or so

■ Volcanoes

● Short timescale:

○ Causes cooling through aerosol particles

● VERY long timescale:

○ Add in lots of CO2

○ How do we know?

■ Proxy data 

● Biological data

○ Tree rings, pollen, fossils

● Geological data

○ Rocks, sediment, shape of the land

● Ice cores

○ Hold air bubbles that can tell you about the atmosphere of when

they were frozen

○ Can be as old at 800,000 y/o

● Isotopic data

○ Uses carbon data techniques to date

○ Can tell about precipitation and temperature

○ O18

■ Heavier and rains out more easily

○ O16

■ Lighter and evaporates more easily

○ Can record ocean sediments glacial ice volumes

○ In ice cores, can indicate local temperatures

○ Past Climates

■ Faint Young Sun

● Sun was once very weak, but we know because of microfossil algae, rounded pebbles, and mud cracks that the earth was still very hot at this time

○ This was due to GHG 

■ Snowball earth

● Ice-albedo spiraled out of control and entire earth was covered in ice ● How did it end?

○ Lots of volcanoes expelling CO2 over thousands of years

○ No chance for chemical weathering as rocks were covered in ice,

triggering global warming and ice melt

■ Hot Planet

● Immediately after snowball earth 

○ Too much CO2 heated up the earth to tremendous temps

○ Chemical weathering took up CO2

■ “The Great Dying”

● Permian-Triassic extinction

○ 252mil years ago

○ 90% of marine life extinct

○ ⅔ of land species extinct

○ Due to rising GHG

■ Ice Ages

● Caused by:

○ Changes in solar radiation due to changes in orbits around sun

■ Tilt changes

● High tilt = hotter summers, colder winters

■ Solar radiation in N. Hemi summer is responsible for

growth/decline of ice sheets and glaciers

● NOT caused by:

○ CO2

■ This is a feedback, not a forcing in this situation

★ Climate Models 

○ Predicting climates using computers

○ Thought of as “forecast” tools

○ Weather Forecasting v. Climate Forecasting

■ Similar mathematical equations and tools

■ Very different goals

● Weather models want to know exactly when a certain event is going to happen (it’s day by day, hour by hour)

○ Weather forecasting is getting the timing/location/intensity of

ONE event

○ Never entirely perfect, as theyre limited by chaos 

● Climate models want to know the average of all the daily

weathers--more seasonal, not daily.

○ Climate forecasting is getting the AVERAGE location and

intensity of events

● Remember difference between climate/weather 

○ How do they work?

■ They are based on physical laws and equations

● Such as fluid motion, gravity, conservation of mass, energy, physics


● Heat sources

○ Short/longwave radiation, condensation, ocean, albedo, etc

● Chaos may fit in here

○ Resolution 

■ Very important in climate models!

■ As they’ve gotten better (higher resolution) scientists are able to simulate flow around mountains and show smaller scale weather processes, as well as land usage

● Currently ~100km resolution

● Higher resolution = more accurate climate models 

■ Parameterization 

● Extremely small-scale items (such as clouds, vegetation, etc) aren’t able to be seen on climate models yet due to the resolution. However, we

know that these things are still extremely important for predicting the

climate, so scientists parameterize them

● This means that they are approximated, using equations, so their impact is still noted in the climate model

★ The Debate

○ 40% of Americans believe that there is a lot on uncertainty about climate change ■ This is due to lots of disinformation put out by people who have a lot to lose to climate change policies

● Think oil companies, industries that rely on “dirty” energy

○ Scientific consensus

■ 97% of climate scientists agree that climate change is due to anthropogenic causes

● This is backed up by scientific assessments like the IPCC

■ All scientific published studies have gone through peer review 

● This means that they were looked at very closely by a team of other

experts in the field to ensure the validity of their study, look at the

methods that they use, etc

● If found incorrect, it won’t be published 

★ What Needs to Be Done

○ 80% cut in CO2 emissions

○ Fossil fuels:

■ Coal is worst emitter

■ Oil is middle

■ Natural gas has least amount of CO2 emissions

○ Wedges

■ Idea to stabilize CO2 concentration at 500ppm

● Cut into 7 wedges

★ Solutions

○ We need to zero out carbon emissions; even if we flatten the rate, the concentration will still increase

○ Wind energy:

■ Uses wind power to turn turbines

■ No GHG after construction

■ Moderately priced

■ Use land underneath for farming, etc

■ Cons:

● Intermittent (only works when wind is blowing)

● Not available everywhere

● Requires large area

○ Solar

■ Three types:

● Passive

○ Using sunlight to reduce heating/lighting

● Solar Thermal Collection

○ Mirrors heat up steam in a tower that then powers a turbine

● Photovoltaics

○ Generates electricity directly from sunlight using solar cells

○ Very expensive, although price is going down

● Pros:

○ No GHG after construction

○ Long-lasting

○ Peak production lines up with peak demand for energy (daytime)

○ Can be placed on rooftops, etc

● Cons:

○ Intermittent

○ Hard to store/transport

○ Expensive

○ Geothermal

■ How it works:

● Taps into hot rocks underneath earth’s surface

● This heats up water and creates steam, which then turns a turbine to create energy

■ Pros:

● Reliable source

● Fairly simple

● Inexpensive

● Small land footprint compared to others

■ Cons:

● Regionally restricted

● Releases some CO2 and other harmful gases from below Earth’s surface ● Can trigger seismic activity

○ Nuclear Power

■ How it works:

● Split atoms, which releases heat and heats up water to create steam and spin the turbines

● Huge in France

● Massive decrease in building of nuclear power plants in recent years

■ Pros:

● No GHG emissions

● Available 24/7

● Plenty of uranium in US to continue this process

■ Cons:

● Expensive

○ About $9billion to create new facility

● Waste

○ Must be kept away from people

● Lots of water required

● Relation to weapons

○ Waste from nuclear plants can be used to create plutonium,

which is used in nuclear weapons

○ Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

■ Takes CO2 from plants and puts it into a storage sites, such as oil or natural gas fields

■ Works for CO2 from coal only

■ Requires lots of energy

○ Ethanol

■ Made from a simple carbohydrate (like sugar) and yeast

■ Using cellulosic ethanol would be much better for environment as it has a lower carbon footprint

● More expensive to grow

○ Biodiesel

■ Made from any type of oil (vegetable, restaurant grease, etc) + alcohol

■ Pros:

● Reduces CO2 emissions

● Better for health as it produces much less carcinogens

● Reduces acid rain

■ Cons:

● Less farmland for food

● Produces more NOx, which is bad for ozone

● High ethanol isn’t good for most cars

○ Hydrogen Fuel Cells

■ 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O + energy

■ Hard to get lots of H2 to create these fuel cells

★ Geoengineering

○ Strategies:

■ Taking CO2 out of atmosphere

● Air scrubber

○ These chemically remove CO2 from atmo and “bind” them

○ Would need lots of these (millions)

● Promoting photosynthesis

○ Fertilize ocean with iron to promote photosynthesis and take

CO2 out of air

○ Cons:

■ After the phytoplankton bloom, most CO2 goes right

back to atmo so it’s ineffective

■ Throws off food chain

● Burying Carbon

○ Putting it back into soil to create very rich, fertile soil

● Biochar

○ Made by burning biomass (natural material, like wood) without


○ This can make biomass synfuel, where half goes into fuel and

half goes to charcoal

○ If the carbon is buried, it becomes carbon negative AND helps

create quality soil

■ Reducing shortwave radiation

● Solar reflectors

○ Reflect shortwaves back to space

○ Placed in gravitational balanced zone in the orbit

○ Mirrors would orbit earth to reflect sunlight

● Clouds/Making clouds more reflective

○ Shooting tiny particles into atmo to make clouds more reflective,

increasing the albedo

○ $10-20 bil per year

○ Can take months to fall out

○ Can also create clouds:

■ Shooting small, fine spray of seawater into atmo to

create clouds

■ $2-4 bil per year

★ Managing Climate Change

○ Cap & Trade

■ Caps are set amounts of pollutant allowed to be emitted

■ Trades are allowances that are swapped between companies

● Buyers pay to pollute, sellers get rewards by reducing even more than

they were supposed to

■ Historically have been very successful

■ Creates revenue

○ Carbon Tax

■ Sets a price on carbon emissions and taxes everyone, so everyone has to pay ■ Could be revenue neutral: money goes back to taxpayers

○ International Agreements

■ Several have been made over the decades, few have been effective as they lack “teeth”

■ Contraction & Conversion as a mitigation tactic

● Requires all nations to emit equal amounts per capita (contract) and “converge”

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