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FSU / Music / AMH 2097 / What is ku klux klan?

What is ku klux klan?

What is ku klux klan?

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Music
Course: Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
Professor: Pam robbins
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: amh, amh2097, and Anna Amundson FSU AMH2097 History Terms list
Cost: 50
Name: AMH 2097, Final Study Guide
Description: These notes cover all of the terms listed in the final terms guide.
Uploaded: 12/10/2017
25 Pages 80 Views 7 Unlocks
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Monday, December 4, 2017


What is ku klux klan?



Final Study Guide

Race and Ethnicity in U.S. History

- Radical Reconstruction

• Specifically 1860-1877. Southern states refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.  Program ran by radical republicans in congress. It was based on idea that South  needed to change society and the way it worked. Defined by black political activity.  

- Fourteenth Amendment (1868)

• Anyone born in U.S. is a citizen of the U.S. The purpose was to clarify the status of  slaves.  

- 15th Amendment (1870)

• Inalienable right to vote. Eventually ratified.  

- failed woman’s suffrage.  

- Freedmen’s Bureau

• Collection of mostly black leaders, working together to establish civil rights and civil  utilities for newly freed people and defend those rights. They established an  education system for blacks in the south and some provision of health care in the  South. They were often part of the black elite, so they had a slightly different focus  and understanding than newly freed people.


Who is charlotte forten grimke?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of nutrients?

- Sharecropping

• This was a system implemented after abolition and the Civil War that involved  traditionally black individuals and families working and renting small plots of land  from a white landowner to get a portion of the crop money. This system ended up  taking advantage of the black families and giving them an unfair share of the crop  yields.  

- Carpetbaggers

• People who went from the North to the South. Whites believed they were taking  advantage of the south. Often they were free black people who wanted to help poor  people. Often teachers.

- Union League of America  

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• Organization used to bring black men together and encouraging them to vote  Republican. Secret society. Men initiated in through secret rituals.


He was born in the united states but was the son of jewish immigrants. he was the superintendent of the national pencil company, who is he?



- Ku Klux Klan

• Established in 1866. This party’s purpose was to go against the Reconstruction  agenda of giving blacks equal rights and sustain white supremacy. They used  intimidation methods to scare away black people and white republicans. It was  common for them to turn the violence into full blown murder.

- Compromise of 1876  We also discuss several other topics like What does “how often, what resistance, how many sets” refer to?

• Brought an end to Reconstruction. Complicated political thing involving a  presidential election dispute. Worked it out through allowing republican candidate to  win if they removed troops from the south. Ushered in era of Jim Crow.

- New National Era

• Another example of what was happening in black communities after Civil War. It  was a newspaper. The point of it was to follow activities of black office holders.

- Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911)

• Born free in Maryland in the 1820’s. Raised by an uncle who ran a black academy.  Wrote a book of poetry. Taught sewing at Union Seminary. She lectured for  abolition and women’s suffrage. Married in 1860. In 1870’s, she wrote about  reconstruction in the South. She wrote the novel Iola Leroy.  

- Iola Leroy

• One of first novels written by a black woman in the U.S. trying to express the idea  that black people with means needed to help the black people without, and you  should not be ashamed to be black.

- Charlotte Forten Grimke (Aug. 1837- July 1914)

• Born into a black, wealthy abolitionist family. She was well educated. Related to the  Grimke sisters by marrying their brother. She became famous as a writer and poet  and was a teacher at one point.  We also discuss several other topics like What is caquetorie or gossip chair?

- Freedmen’s Bank

• Made for free people so they could save their money, typically to buy land. In the  1880’s they started to invest in the stock market. Lost all the funds. It was a failed  bank so closed really early. If you want to learn more check out What is the henderson-hasselbalch equation?

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Monday, December 4, 2017 We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between a portion (ep) and as-purchased (ap)?

- Mary Ann Shadd Cary (Oct. 1823 - June 1893)

• An African-American, American-Canadian social activist, born free. She moved to  Canada to avoid the possibility of being re-sold into slavery. She argued that black  safety lied beyond the American border, in Canada.  

• She became the first female law student in 1869 to help working class free people.  Wrote to influence black workers to refine vocational skills.  

- Knights of Labor

• Labor union in the 1880’s. Different than others because they were trying to  organize everybody, black and white, men and women, immigrants and natives,  etc. Dedicated to how to deal with issues of labor in US. Involved in lots, but led to  their demise was 8 hour day movement, tibido massacre, and others.

- Populism

• A movement that came up in 1890’s to respond to changes happening in society.  Rural people, believed they were standing up for the regular persons against things  like railroad companies and other big companies. Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to information is stored and processed based upon the type & number of connections that neurons have?

- Colored Farmers National Alliance

• Part of populist movement. They would harvest crops and try to sell them, but  railroad wanted a cut for carrying their goods, others wanted cuts for holding goods,  etc. African American farmers in south wanted better rates. They used alliances to  negotiate down the fees businesses were charging them. Ended up allying with  other farmers groups for a stronger movement.

- Pogroms

• Persecution of Jewish people. Used to describe Anti-Jewish violence in the Russian  Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

- Leo Frank

• He was born in the the United States, but was the son of Jewish immigrants. He  was the superintendent of the National Pencil Company.  

• 13 year old Mary Phagin was a worker at the National Pencil Company. She was  found strangled in the factory’s cellar in 1913. Leo Frank was described as the last  man to have seen her alive.  

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• He was tried and found guilty of murdering Mary Phagin and sentenced to death.  After looking at the case, the mayor decided there was a lack of real evidence to  convict him, so he changed his sentence to life in prison. People were very  unhappy with this, so a group of people known as the knights of Mary Phagin,  kidnapped Leo Frank from the prison and lynched him.  

• Afterwards, Postcards of Franks dead body were sold as well as pieces of his  clothes and the rope. The mayor said that those who did this would pay, but nobody  was charged.  

- Yiddish

• This was a Germanic language with Hebrew lettering. It was used by orthodox  Jews in America for their communication.

- Mezzogiorno

• Most Italians that had immigrated to the United States were from Mezzogiorno,  which was a part of Southern Italy.  

• Most of the citizens were peasants and tenant farmers. They’d often be a farmer  along with another job to support the family. They grew things like Chestnut trees  and grapes.  

• It was the unification of Italy that encouraged the emigration.  

- Ellis Island

• Most Italian immigrants had to go to the cities because they did not have enough  money to purchase land. This caused them to be processed on Ellis Island. Upon  arrival, they would be examined, numbered, searched. People could be turned  away if they had no visible form of support or had a disease.  

- Pick and Shovel work

• Considered the lowest rung o the economic ladder, generally workers were Italian.  Involved things like construction, mining, building railroads, etc.  

• The Italians would take the money they earned and send what they could to family  back home in Italy. Although, they were often in debt because they almost always  owed somebody for their passage to the U.S.  

• Italians were known as strike breakers because they would do the work that those  on strike wouldn’t do. They accepted more difficult work than native borns.  

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- David Hennessy

• He was a police chief in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1881, he became known for  capturing an infamous Italian criminal, Giuseppe Esposito. He was a very well liked  member of the community.  

• He was assassinated in 1890, gunshot inflicted by several men. It was believed that  those who killed him were Italian. There were many men being tried for it, but then  not actually being convicted, so the public was very angry. A mob formed outside  the prison where they forced open the doors and lynched 11 of the 19 men who  were accused of being involved with Davide Hennessy’s murder.  

- Costa George Najour (1886-?)

• A Syrian immigrant who wanted to be granted U.S. Citizenship. He had passed all  requirements except the racial requirement, which stated that you had to be white  or of African descent.  

• He hired a lawyer who argued the Syrians are in fact white, and the judge agreed  with the case presented, so he became the first person to prove his whiteness to  get citizenship.  

- United States vs. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923)

• Bhagat Singh Think was an Indian Sikh man who filed a petition for naturalization,  but was rejected because of his race. The court decided that Indians were too far  apart from white people, although they recognized that Indians had some historic  connection to caucasians, but deemed that they had mixed too much with the non white people of India. The court eventually decided to change the way the law is  written so that you couldn’t use scientific arguments to class yourself as white.  

• Thind was granted naturalization after his third time petitioning because of the Nye Lea Act which granted any immigrant who served in World War 1 the right to be  naturalized.  

- Silk

• Workers in Lebanon would create thread from silk to then create fabric. Children  would work in factories where the silk had been turned into a mechanized  processed. It transformed the lives of the poor people from Lebanon in the late 19th  century

• Immigration to the U.S. started because prices for silk collapsed which resulted in  layoffs. 1/3 of the people of Lebanon emigrated, but did not intend to stay in the  

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US. It was common for people in Lebanon to marry people in their family in order to  keep the wealth in the family, but this fell apart with the migration of Lebanese  because families were apart.  

- Peddling

• Lebanese Americans worked as peddlers, which were people who went door to  door selling items like spices or cloth. Men and women took part in this practice.  Older immigrants would help newer immigrants by giving them more things to sell.

• This is credited as to how Lebanese people became accepted in the U.S. Many  people in this line of work became successful. Usually made enough to make a  brick and mortar store.  

- San Joaquin River Delta

• Every spring, the two rivers flooded its delta. It would distribute nutrients into the  soil. Chinese developed the Levis to clear the area to be farmable.  

• There was a flood at one point, and the Chinese that survived remember seeing  land owners sending a boat to save the livestock instead of them.  

• The Tule Shoe allowed horses to aid in clearing the land. Without it, horses got  stuck in the mud.  

• By the end of the project, it had made a ton of profits for the land owners. After the  clearing, the worth of the land went from $2 per acre to $75 per acre.  

- San Francisco

• Was home to a Chinatown and many Chinese. By the 1870’s, 1/4 of Chinese in  America lived in San Francisco. The 1850-60’s experienced a bust. San Francisco  fires devastated areas of the place.  

• Became a manufacturing center, known for producing flour, packaged meat, cigars,  clothing. By 1870’s, half of people making shoes were in San Francisco. 90% of  them made of workers in the Tobacco industry.  

- “Plain Language from Truthful James”

• September 1870, magazine published a poem known as “Heathen Chinee” or  “Plain Language from Truthful James.” It tells the story of card players, one Irish,  one Chinese. Irish man blatantly cheats but keeps getting beat and frustrated by  Chinese. Irish starts to beat/hit the Chinese and discovers Chinese man had cards  up his sleeves.

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• Poem struck a cord with Americans, native born Americans were aware of the  animosity between the Irish and Chinese. It became very popular. It was viewed as  enforcing racism rather than challenging it, which was what the author intended.  

- Cubic Air Law (1870)

• This law was generally ignored among the white community, but enforced among  the Chinese. The law stated that boarding houses were required to have 500 cubic  feet of air in a room per each occupant. This was targeted toward the Chinese  because they were known for cramming into one room, helped with price.  

• Those who were caught violating the law would be fined or jailed. They were not  paying their fines and the jails were overfilling, so it started to be implemented that  their braids would be cut off if they violated the law. This was very scary for the  Chinese because their braid was their ticket back to China.

- Chinese Massacre

• Occurred on October 1871 in Los Angeles’ Chinatown. Two Chinese factions had  been developing tension amongst each other due to the kidnapping of a Chinese  woman. This eventually led to a shootout amongst them.  

• Two white police officers heard the shots and headed over to defuse the situation.  One of the officers were wounded in the crossfire, but not killed. A local white  farmer named Robert Thompson had come over to help defuse the situation, but  was caught in the crossfire and killed.  

• The news of the killing of Robert Thompson spread and resulted in a mob of 500  people largely made up of white men, with some latino, coming to the Chinatown  and killing, torturing, and ransacking the Chinese residents of the city. About 17-20  Chinese were tortured and then lynched that day.

- Denis Kearney (1847-1907)

• He lived in America, but was in fact an Irish immigrant.  

• He was Violent in his rhetoric; advocated for the overthrow of the government; tried  to convince the mob to kill police, burn the law books, and then write new law  books

• Widely known for his racist views about Chinese immigrants though he was  criticized for being an immigrant himself. He believed the Chinese took their jobs  away because they worked for cheaper pay.  

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• He was the leader of the Workingmen's Party and a leader of Anti-Chinese  movements.  

- Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

• Enacted in 1882. Stopped Chinese from entering the U.S. for 10 years and from  becoming U.S. citizens.  

• If you were Chinese and already in the U.S., you couldn’t become a citizen, but you  could stay if you were there legally. However, if you left, you’d have to go to a lot of  paperwork and trouble to be able to re-enter, so most people were unable to re enter.  

• The Chinese Exclusion Act was put into place because white laborers were blaming  them for not having jobs and for having their wages be so low, so they pushed the  government to stop them from working in the U.S.  

- Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

• A sweatshop that employed mostly teenage girls. The working conditions were  harsh and no safety regulations were put in place. There was one elevator and and  two stairways, but one of the doors was always locked.  

• March 25, 1911, a dropped cigarette caused a fire to start in the Asch building. No  one alerted the people on the 9th floor because of the panic. The stairway was  blocked by smoke and fire.  

• Deaths was 145. 53 had jumped or fallen from window, 19 fell through the fire shaft,  50 burned to death on the factory floor.  

- Uprising of the 20,000

• The New York shirtwaist strike of 1909, a labor strike with mostly Jewish women.  Led by Clara Lemlich and the National Women’s Trade Union League of America.  By 1910, most shirtwaist factories gave into demands.  

• These women wanted better working conditions that were not so dangerous. The  Triangle brothers used private detective agency to find new workers, hired  prostitutes to pick fights with the women, paid off the police to not intervene. But  everyday the women continued to strike despite physical abuse.  

- Clara Lemlich (1886-1982)

• A leader of the Uprising of the 20,000. She organized a strike and was beaten. She  stepped up to the podium at the meeting for strikers and gave a speech advocating  

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that they all go on a nationwide general strike. She was blacklisted from the  garment industry because of this.  

- Women’s Trade Union League

• An organization of women formed in 1903 as a method to support women in their  efforts to have labor unions and have better working conditions a result of the  sweatshops they often worked in. Helped to form strikes. They supported the  Uprising of the 20,000 by joining strikers, providing them with food, shelter, and  money, and organized the meetings. Differentiated because it was a cross-class  alliance, so working class, middle class, and upper class women.  

- Ann Morgan (1873-1952)

• The daughter of Piermont Morgan, from a wealthy family.  

• When she saw that strikers/picketers were being beaten by prostitutes and police,  she stepped in and formed a committee within the Women’s Trade Union League to  fight against it. This was labeled as a “mink brigade” as a mocking term to refer to  the wealthy people who would step in to help the strikers, like Anne Morgan. Her  people would provide financial support for those who were arrested.  

• When the women on strike refused to back down after being offered better pay and  hours by the companies, but denying them unions, Anne Morgan dropped her  support of the strike because she did not agree.  

- Isaac Harris and Max Blanck

• The owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory. They were Jewish immigrants who  arrived in America about 20 years before the strikes. They did not provide safe  working conditions for their workers. Hired people to harass the women who  worked for them that were on strike.  

• By December, Max and Isaac felt the tide turn against them as newspapers started  to sympathize with the workers. Eventually, workers went back to work, and the  famous fire occurred on March 25, 1911. They were in the building at the time and  escaped through the roof.  

• They went to trial for first and second degree manslaughter charges. They were  acquitted. This made people angry.  

- Progressivism

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• Movement of group of reformers trying to address issues like, the government was  corrupt, labor laws were bad, alcohol is bad and causing issues, and working  conditions were bad.  

• This movement was mainly made up of both white and black upper-to-middle class  people. Resulted in prohibition, women’s suffrage, and the 19th amendment. Many  supported limiting the freedoms of people they saw as inferior, like poor people and  immigrants.  

• They had a number of different reasons for wanting immigration restriction, such as:  believed they had a negative effect on wages, they saw them as members of  another race who could not adjust to American life, and they believed they were  responsible for the high crime rate.  

- The Page Law (1875)

• In 1875, congress passed the page law. It was directed at Chinese women. It  banned the immigration of criminals and people coming for sex work. It required  Chinese women to prove that they had some family connection or reason for  coming to the U.S.  

- The Immigration Restriction League

• Founded in 1894 by the progressives. Purpose was to convince congress to pass  legislation to require every immigrant to prove they’re literate. It passed in 1917.  They did not have to be literate in English, but they had to prove literacy in at least  one language. They made alliances with labor unions, etc. They wanted to limit the  influx of immigrants who they considered inferior.  

- Committee on Public Information  

• The first time that the U.S. government becomes actively involved in moving public  opinion on a topic. They were trying to get people to want to enter WW1.  

• They made films, hired people to make pro-war speeches, and put up pro-war  propaganda. They made German people look unpatriotic, bad, and unable to trust  them.  

- Prohibition (1920)

• Took effect in 1920. Progressives wanted to ban alcohol. Employers believe it  would create a more orderly work force. Believed it could cause political reform.  Women were concerned about domestic violence because of alcohol.  

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• Alcohol was associated with the working class, immigrants, and people of color.  Additionally, government mandated all grain be used for food instead of alcohol.  

- Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917-18)

• Espionage was enacted in 1917. Espionage prohibited spying, interfering with the  draft, or making statements that might impede the success of the military. Still  around in modern times. Interpreted newspapers and magazines could no longer  be used.  

• Sedition act was enacted in 1918, made it a crime to make spoken or written  statements that are critical of the form of government of the U.S. A man was  overheard saying something in his own home, sent to prison.  

- 100% Americanism

• Employed after WW1, anti-German sentiments and patriotism led to this  movement. It became very dangerous for foreigners to showcase any sign that they  were foreign. You would be questioned for speaking a language other than English.  Sometimes telephone convos recorded to see what language they were speaking.

- New Ulm, Minnesota

• WW1. Predominantly german area, close knit community. Largest ant-WW1  gathering. Mainly germans. Didn’t like the restrictions on their culture or being  drafted to fight their home country.

- Sacco and Vanzetti  

• Italian immigrants, anarchists, radicals.  

• August 1927, Accused of robbing a bank and killing a security guard, found guilty,  sentenced to death. This became an International cause. People started to petition  for their release from prison because there was no evidence they committed the  crime.  

• State of Massachusetts established a 3 person commission studying these events  trying to determine if the verdict was correct.  

- Johnson-Reed Act (1924)

• Restriction of immigration to the US. Numerical restriction, immigration only allowed  people from certain countries. Purpose to stop immigration from eastern and  southern Europe.

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• Each European country was only allowed to send a certain number of immigrants  per year. The quota number was based on 2% of how many people in the U.S.  were born from that country. Would reallocate the quote from time to time.  1924-1965.

• Impact: flow of workers stopped almost completely, like laborers and factory  workers. There was a continued need for workers. After 1924, African-Americans,  Mexicans, and whites took up the positions.  

• During WW1, the U.S. recruited workers from Mexico. After war, they sent people  back to Mexico. Mexico was excluded from the Johnson Reed Act just so they  could get workers the they wanted. But they would not let them be permanent  residents.  

- Louis Adamic (1898-1951)

• One of the main people that started to speak on behalf of the immigrants.  Introduced the idea of cultural pluralism. Argued that 100% Americanism was  wrong and damaged immigrant families. Believed people should be allowed to keep  their native culture.  

• He was a journalist and immigrant from Slovenia. Well known for the book, “The  Natives Return” about his first return trip to Slovenia. He became a popular author  because he was one of the first to write about immigration life.

• After the book, he went on to do studies of immigrants in the U.S.’s quality of life,  attitude about life, living conditions, etc. He cautioned his readers that identifying  with another nation does not lessen loyalty to the U.S.  

- Cultural Pluralism

• When a small group in a society goes along with the laws and way of life, while still  maintaining parts of their original culture. So, immigrants to the U.S. had to abide  by the U.S. society, but could maintain their culture. Immigrants argued that they  were allowed to have their own culture because U.S. was built on idea of freedom.  

- The Native’s Return

• A book written by Louis Adamic, an immigrant from Slovenia. The book was about  returning to his home country of Slovenia for the first time. “The story of a man who  finds he cannot slip comfortably into his former life as a peasant.”

- Repatriation (1930’s)

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• Process by which many Mexican Americans returned to Mexico in the 1930’s.  Some left voluntarily. Some were involuntarily returned. Raids of areas they  resided, would be taken to return to Mexico. Many had never been to Mexico, didn’t  even speak spanish.  

- La Placita Raid

• Public park center of Mexican-American neighborhood. City officials posted notices  that a raid was coming days before the raid.

- February 26. All kinds of people in the park. At about 3 pm, officers surrounded  the park and raided it. Anyone who did not have identification on them would be  returned. 400 people deported that day.

- Raids elicited fear. People that lived through their period had a thing about  always having their ID info on them at all times.  

- Father Charles Coughlin (1891-1979)

• Priest, catholic. Served a church in Detroit area. Started radio when his church was  bombed by the KKK.

• He was a radio priest. By the end of the 1920’s, he was a nationally known  broadcaster. Not until the depression that he started to talk about politics. Over  time, politics started to take over his radio shows.

• He Started as a critic of communism. Said it was the fault of big business that  people were seeing communism as a good thing. In 1931, the CBS radio network  dropped him because they wanted to pre-approve his scripts before he aired.

• He had about 3 million listeners a week. He went on to do it himself. He was a  supporter of Franklin Roosevelt. By 1934, he believed that the bill didn’t go far  enough. Roosevelt tried to get supporters to got talk to him, to stop being so critical.

• Started to openly talk about his opinion on Jewish people. Promoted Anti-semitism.  Believed Jewish people were responsible were responsible for wars breaking out.  Jewish-Americans started to picket radio stations that played him.

• The U.S. government ended up shutting down his radio show. Caused him to leave  radio and publish magazine. He did not leave public life until early 1940’s, when his  bishop told him to stop.  

- The Scottsboro Boys

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• 9 African-American boys. The oldest was 19 and the youngest was 13. One of the 9  was blind, one had severe syphilis that impaired his ability to walk.  

• These boys were accused by two white women, Ruby Bates and Victoria Price, of  raping them on a train in 1931. Led to nationally recognized and protested trials.  

• They received a plea of guilty. All were sentenced to die in the electric chair, but  they were debating what to do with the 13 year old. Ended up going through 3  different trials.  

- Ruby Bates (1931)

• White, 17, soft spoken. A worker in cotton mills because of economic necessity.  She lived in the black district of town. She would have sex with white and black  men in exchange for food and clothes.  

• Ruby Bates backed up Victoria Prices claims that they were raped. When a new set  of trials came forward after the initial ones, Ruby Bates disappeared and Victoria  Price had to testify alone. Ruby ended up showing up and declaring the whole story  was a lie.  

- American Communist Party

• By 1931, this was a small, but dynamic force. Came to the aid of the Scottsboro  boys. 200 communists marched in defiance of the police. Demonstrations were  everywhere; in Spain, Moscow, Germany, etc. The fact that they helped the boys  looked good for them because it showed they were committed to black rights.  

- Clarence Norris (1931)

• One of the 9 Scottsboro boys. He was the last one alive. He went through 3  different trials for the case and each time sentenced to death. The third time, a  governor changed it to life in prison. He fought a lot in prison. But he managed to  get parole a few times.

- Samuel Leibowitz (1931)

• Considered the best criminal lawyer around, because he won almost all of his  cases, was assigned to defend the Scottsboro boys.  

- Issei

• A Japanese immigrant to the U.S. They started to arrive in 1882, post-Chinese  exclusion. Men were typically the first Issei, women came after the gentleman’s  agreement. They were ineligible for citizenship.  

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- Nisei

• Someone born in the U.S. that has parents w\ho were immigrants of Japan. About  a 20 year age gap between youngest Issei and oldest Nisei. Nisei were allowed to  be granted citizenship.  

- Kibei

• American born Japanese that returned to Japan in order to be educated in Japan. - Japanese-American Citizens League

• Looked down on by Japanese Americans as a traitor party for advocating  cooperation, parents were excluded. Wanted to expand the citizenship rights of  Japanese Americans.  

• Criticized for aiding the U.S. in finding “disloyal” Issei and going against Japanese.  - Harry Ueno (1907-?)

• A Kibei. Arrived at Manzanar relocation center as a cook. Organized order. Harry  could not cook rice, needed sugar. He investigated and found a lacking promise in  sugar supply. He tracked theft to administrators, but scapegoated by the officers  and sent away to a secluded jail.  

• Manzanar rallied for his release, the army was sent in. Tear gas thrown in, turned  into gunfire. Harry was escorted to several jails across the country.  

- Manzanar disturbance  

• Manzanar relocation center where Japanese are kept. People angry at leaders,  JACL leader beaten. Caused demonstrations with Japanese internment. Occurred  before the first anniversary of the pearl harbor bombing. Officers fired at  demonstrators. Put in newspaper that they were celebrating pearl harbor.

- Statement of United States Citizens of Japanese Ancestry

• U.S. government trying to figure out a way to determine who was loyal and disloyal  amongst Japanese Americans so they gave out a questionnaire. Issue with it was  people answering it didn’t understand the purpose of it.  

- Questions 27 and 28

• Faith and loyalty was tested of the Japanese-American Citizens League to join a  segregated army unit. A questionnaire was given to those illegible for army service.  

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It was in English, so impossible for Issei to pass. The questionnaire created division  in the camps

• Question 27 asked “if Nisei men were willing to serve on combat duty wherever  ordered and asked everyone else if they would be willing to serve in other ways,  such as serving in the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps.”

• Question 28 asked: “if individuals would swear unqualified allegiance to the United  States and forswear any form of allegiance to the Emperor of Japan.”

• These questions were so controversial for a number of reasons. “Japanese American Citizens resented being asked to renounce loyalty to the Emperor of  Japan when they had never held a loyalty to the Emperor. Japanese immigrants  were barred from becoming U.S. citizens on the basis of racial exclusion, so  renouncing their only citizenship would be problematic. Young men worried that  declaring their willingness to serve in combat units of the army would be akin to  volunteering.”

- War Brides

• Any spouse of a military member may emigrate to the United States beyond the  quota. War Brides Act enacted in 1945.  

- The Great Migration

• A mass migration of over 6 million African Americans from the South to the North  during 1916-1970. They left the South because of the racist nature and hard  segregation laws. They took advantage of the open industrial jobs created by  WW1. The influx of African Americans to the North resulted in contempt towards  them and increased racism.  

- The Double V Campaign

• African-Americans were tired of the way they were being treated, they wanted  change. The army even discriminated against them and they did not like that. The  campaign called for the desegregation of the army and more rights/better treatment  everywhere. NAACP active in civil rights during wartime to raise awareness and  grant rights and fair treatment.  

- What the Negro Wants

• 1944, a book of a collection of 14 essays written by African Americans on the topic  of “what the negro wants.” The views were highly pro-desegregation and  considered extremely liberal. It set the agenda for the Civil Rights Movement.  

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- Wendell Wilkie (1892-1944)

• An American lawyer, corporate executive, and 1940 Republican nominee for  President. He ran against Franklin D. Roosevelt and lost. He criticized Roosevelt’s  New Deal.

• He wrote a book called One World in 1943. It was “largely an outgrowth of his  travels, made a strong plea for postwar cooperation and was influential in turning  many Republicans away from isolationism.”

• Example of a white man saying that racial discrimination is the main problem that  needs to be dealt with.  

- Brown V. Board of Education (1954)

• A nationally known Supreme Court case that deemed segregated black and white  public schools to be unconstitutional. This was a great victory for the Civil Rights  Movement.  

• However, most schools did not start to desegregate for a long time because there  was never a method stated that should be used and it was not a law that was  enforced. When schools actually did start becoming integrated, it was met with  violent outcry by white parents.  

- The Children Were Watching

• A documentary By Richard Leacock in 1961 about the struggle for school  desegregation in New Orleans while white parents actively protested against it with  violent outbursts. Many white parents stopped sending their children to school for a  while as a form of protest.  

- Tessie Prevost (1960)

• A 6 year old African American girl who was among the first three African-Americans  to attend what was previously an all-white elementary school known as McDonogh  No. 19.  

• The public/white parents were furious at this integration and would regularly gather  outside the school and yell in protest of her and two other little girls attendance.  They had to be guarded by police and new, odd safety measures were put into  place to protect them, such as; windows being covered in brown paper, recess  being held inside the school theatre, and the water fountains being shut off for fear  of poisoning.  

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- Yolanda Gabrielle (1960)

• A 6 year old white girl who was one of only three children who were attending  Frantz elementary school. There was only three children because a young Ruby  Bridges was African American and attending the Frantz school. She was the sole  African-American girl at this school, but it caused every white parent to withdraw  their children from the school, except for the parents of Yolanda Gabrielle and Pam  Foreman.  

• Inside of the Frantz school, the two white children were separated from Ruby. White  parents gathered outside the school everyday. They were especially made at  Yolanda’s mother for being white and allowing her child to attend school with an  African-American. Yolanda had to be escorted to school everyday by her mother.  Eventually forced to leave the city.  

- Tallahassee Bus Boycott

• A city wide boycott of busses starting in May 1956 as a protest against segregation  and the unfair seating arrangements of busses. It started due to the arrest of two  female students from FAMU, Wilhelmina Jakes and Carrie Patterson, who refused  to give up their seats in the “whites only” section of the bus. They were charged  with ‘inciting riots.” Inter-Civic Council supported the boycott.  

- Wilhelmina Jakes and Carrie Patterson (1956)

• Two female, African-American FAMU students who sat down in the “whites only”  section of the bus and refused to get up. The bus driver pulled over and called the  police. The women were arrested and charged with “inciting riots.”  

- Inter-Civic Council (ICC)

• The leader was Reverend C.K. Steele. Organization created because there was too  much negative attention and feelings surrounding the NAACP. The ICC developed  a car pool system for the black residents of Tallahassee while the bus boycott went  on. Many members were from FAMU.

- Reverend C.K. Steele (1914-1980)

• The leader of the ICC, a preacher and civil rights activists. The ICC provided a  carpool service for African-Americans, but city officials charged them with operating  an illegal for-hire operation without a franchise. Steele was among the leaders that  were arrested for this. He was arrested many times. He led many marches and  protests. Trusted by student activists.

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- CORE

• 1959 here in Tally. Black and white citizens come together and work towards  equality. Mostly students. Became pretty widespread around civil rights era. Led sit in movements.

- Sit-ins

• A protest, political movement where typically black citizens would sit in areas  anywhere deemed “whites only” and refuse to sit in what was considered their  designated area.

- Priscilla and Patricia Stephens

• Sisters that were leaders in African-American civil rights in Florida. They were a  part of CORE and participated in nonviolent protests. They were FAMU students.  

• They, as well as 9 other FAMU students, were arrested for ordering food at a  “whites only” lunch counter. This led to multiple sit-ins, all who participated were  arrested. The sisters joined in a march, but police interfered and threw teargas.  Patricia was hit in the face with the tear gas and suffered permanent eye damage.  

• They were all found guilty and charged a $300 fine, but they all refused to pay and  went to jail instead. It gained national attention, they were even reached out to by  Martin Luther Kind Jr.  

- Louis Rabinowitz (1960)

• On August 28, 1960, she had her husband drive her to the court house to pay a  ticket for her boss. She entered wearing slacks. The man she had to see reacted  with outrage that she was wearing slacks, because he saw it as, “she’s too pretty to  dress like a man.”

- Civil Rights Act (1964)

• Sex/Gender was added to the legislation in an attempt to make the bill seen more  as a joke so that it wouldn’t be passed, but it was passed.  

• The Civil Rights Act was enacted in 1964 and made it unconstitutional to segregate  a public place or to discriminate on grounds of race, sex, religion, etc.  

- National Organization for Women

• Betty Friedan and Pauli Murray were the founders of this organization. Wanted  change in American society for women. They went after every aspect of American  

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culture. Staged sit-ins at magazine offices amongst others. Relatively small  movement but had a major impact. Many women thought they deserved to be able  to do more things.  

- Pauli Murray (1910-1985)

• A founder of NOW. She brought back the popularity of sit-ins and wanted to see the  enforcement of the civil rights act. She had a long history of activism. Wanted to  desegregate University of North Carolina which didn’t’ work. Attempted to go to  Harvard, would not admit her, not because she was black, but because she was  female. Started to see discrimination between women and blacks was similar. Tried  to build a bridge between women movement and civil rights movement  

- The New Left

• Student based movement, particularly in FSU. Students involved angry at  institutions because they believed they were not preparing them for life. Preparing  them for working in a corporation, cogs in a machine, not being treated as  individuals. Wanted to enact change in colleges and universities. Protested against  drafts and wars, protested against codes for genders in universities, Like men had  to have beards.  

- Miss America Protest

• More than half of Americans watched Ms. America pageants. A group of feminist  women talked about the pageants and decided to go protest it. Designed to get  attention and it was. Chanted things like, “Miss America isn't she sweet, making  money off her meat” attached slabs of raw meat onto their bodies. “Bra burners”.  Idea was to reject the idea that your sense of a woman comes from consumer  goods. 16 demonstrators got into pageant and showed a banner called “womens  liberation” that got on TV.  

- Women’s Strike for Equality

• Occurred on August 26, 1970. It was the anniversary of women getting the right to  vote and used it as an opportunity to strike to protest for women’s rights. They  wanted things like, equality in education and workforce, equality in relationships,  legal abortions. It was the largest protest of women’s rights ever held in history.

- Roe V. Wade (1971)

• A judge testified that abortion should be allowed for people who “did their duty,”  which meant that a woman had already given birth to 4 children. Gloria Steinman  

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got up and talked about her personal experience, told to sit down and act like a  lady.

• A women who’s original name was unknown at first, became known as Jane Roe.  Woman was actually Norma McCorvey, a Texas woman who sought an abortion  after being raped. They wouldn’t allow it unless she filed paperwork against her  rapist.  

• The court decided that having an abortion was allowed under the idea that women  have the right to a private relationship with their doctor, but that it must be  considered with the states interest in the stages of female pregnancy. The interest  in pregnancy grows the further along she is, categorized by trimesters.  

- Louise Day Hicks (1916-2003)

• A member of the Boston School Committee starting in 1961. She was very well  known for her strong opposition the desegregation of public schools and the  eventual court mandated shared busing between black and white students.  

• Her career ended in 1977 and a black man was appointed a place in the school  board.  

- South Boston High School

• A school within the Boston area that had court mandated integrated busing. White  people would stand outside of the school with signs protesting African Americans  entry into the once solely white school. People would hold bananas as if they were  apes.  

• Officers had to escort the kids off of the bus and put them through metal detectors  before school. There were fights everyday between white and black students in the  school. Black kids were unable to spell due to improper education.  

• A group of black students in Roxbury started to pelt rocks at whites after they had  perviously not approached the situation with violence, but were angered by white  people throwing things at them.  

• No public official every came out and just said that the desegregation was a good  thing. After the incident with Michael Faith, whites gathered outside of the school  and started throwing stones and did not want to allow the black students to safely  get back to Roxbury. A decoy bus was sent to the front of the school to distract the  angry white mob while the actual buses went to he back to safely bring the black  students home.  

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- Michael Faith

• A white student that was stabbed by another black student after they had an  altercation at South Boston High School. He did not die. The incident further  polarized the city and made racial matters worse.  

- Hart-Celler Act (1965)

• This act acted as a response to the nationally based quotas in the Johnson Reed  Act. People had come to believe that the Johnson Reed Act was racist. The Hart Celler Act allowed immigration from all over the world, no more quotas on race, but  still quota on numbers. Proponents of this act argued that this would not  significantly change immigration to the U.S., but they were wrong. It changed  immigration here permanently. Getting immigrants from all over the world.  

- Vietnam

• An old nation. A defining feature was how it dealt with colonization for almost all of  its history. The Trung sisters lead a successful rebellion against the Chinese who  were controlling Vietnam around the year 0.

• By the 1700’s, France became more interested in what was going on in Vietnam.  After 1787, French influence in Vietnam became significant. People would conform  to Catholicism. There was a wave of different independence movements in  Vietnam.  

- Trung Sisters

• They lead a successful rebellion against the Chinese who were controlling Vietnam  around the year 0, established an autonomous state for a short while.  

- Ho Chi Minh (1890-?)

• Traveled to France to study law. He attended negotiation after the war,  unsuccessful in trying to get Vietnam independence. He became seen as a hero.  Supporter of independence and believed in communism.  

• Actively involved in attempting to remove France from Vietnam. Over time, the U.S.  started taking on responsibility of trying to squash independent movement.  

• After WW2, Vietnam got divided into the North and South. U.S. was involved in  South Vietnam, sent American advisors. Conflict heated up when elections were  promised to unite one leader, was stopped by U.S. because believed Ho Chi Minh  would be elected.  

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- Vietnam War

• War became really unpopular in the U.S. Anti-war movement link to civil rights and  feminism. There was a draft during the Vietnam war. The U.S. pulled out of the war  in 1973, but the actual war went on longer. North Vietnam ended up winning, and  South Vietnam residents started to flee to any other country that would take them.  

- Refugee Dispersion Policy (1977)

• Government sent Vietnam refugees all over the country so that they were not all  centered in one city like the Cubans had been in Miami. This method did not work.  The reason it did not work is because the U.S. divided them up by grouping  together only nuclear families, but the Vietnamese think of family as including more  extended family. So, they went through a process of reuniting with each other over  time.  

- Jesse Jackson

• Civil rights leader, black minister. Ran for democratic president in 1988, a nationally  known figure.  

• Believed that refugees would irritate the current situation of homelessness and  joblessness, especially amongst the black and poor. Believed government has  misplaced priorities, putting more care into refugees than own Americans. Thinks  taking in refugees should stop immediately, that we could help them better in their  own culture.  

- Ft. Chaffee, Arkansas

• The largest military base for Vietnamese refugees, kind of isolated from other  communities.  

Chronology Section

- Laws

• 14th amendment (1868)

• 15th amendment (1870)  

• Cubic Air Law (1870)

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• The Page Law (1875)

• Compromise of 1876

• Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

• Espionage and then Sedition Acts (1917-1918)

• Prohibition (1920)

• United States vs. Thind (1923)

• Johnson Reed Act (1924)

• Repatriation (1930’s)

• Brown V Board of Education (1954)

• Civil Rights Act (1964)

• Hart-Celler Act (1965)

• Roe V Wade (1971)

• Refugee Dispersion Policy (1977)

- People (in terms of historical significance)

• Trung Sisters (0)

• Mary Ann Shadd Cary (1852)

• Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1859)

• Charlotte Forten Grimke (1862)

• Dennis Kearney (1878)

• David Hennessy (1890)

• Costa George Najour (1909)

• Clara Lemlich (1909)

• Anne Morgan (1909)

• Issac Harris and Max Blanck (1911)

• Leo Frank (1913)

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• Father Charles Coughlin (1920’s)

• Sacco and Vanzetti (1927)

• Ruby Bates (1931)

• Clarence Norris (1931)

• Samuel Leibowitz (1931)

• Louis Adamic (1934)

• Pauli Murray (1940)

• Ho Chi Minh (1940)

• Harry Ueno (1942)

• Wendell Willke (1943)

• Wilhelmia Jakes and Carrie Patterson (1956)

• Rev. C.K. Steele (1956)

• Tessie Prevost (1960)

• Yolanda Gabriella (1960)

• Priscilla and Patricia Stephens (1960)

• Louis Rabinowitz (1960)

• Louise Day Hicks (1965)

• Michael Faith (1965)

• Jesse Jackson (1970’s)

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