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BYU - PHY S 100 - Chapter 30, Week 12 Notes - Class Notes

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BYU - PHY S 100 - Chapter 30, Week 12 Notes - Class Notes

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background image Chapter 30: Surface Processes   Hydrological Cycle  •  The movement of water through the various reservoirs on or near Earth's surface  •  Ocean --(evaporation)--> clouds --- (precipitation)--> falls over and under ground, travels to oceans 
again 
•  Tilting of earth's axis and solar heating affects hydrological cycle  Water transported from equator falls on continents because of Hadley cells (air circulation 
pattern) 
•  Residence time: how long water remains in a reservoir      Streams  •  Any system of flowing surface water   •  Stream gradient: slope of earth over which stream flows  •  Base level: the elevation at the endpoint (stream turns into a lake or the ocean)  •  The faster the stream, the more it can erode (more sediment it can carry)     Erosion  •  Contact force between sediment and the river bed erodes the channel     Deposition  •  If the velocity of the water is too slow, sediment is deposited instead of carried  •  Creates alluvial fans, deltas, and floodplains     Ice  •  Zone of accumulation: more snow falling than ice is melting  •  Zone of ablation: snow and ice decrease through evaporation, melting, etc.   •  Responds elastically to forces  •  While streams carry different-sized sediments different distances (the smaller, the farther), ice 
carries everything the same distance 
•  Alpine glaciers: glaciers in mountain valleys  •  Moraine: all materials that glaciers transport  Till: moraine left over after snow melts     Continental Glaciers  •  Huge glaciers --> weight of ice pushes the earth underneath it   •  At higher, colder latitudes, soil is poorer. Ice flowing from high to low strips the soil and upper 
layers of bedrock, leaving rocky tills behind 
   Groundwater  •  Water underneath the surface, residing in empty spaces between rock grains, loose sediment and 
rock fractures 
Porosity: amount of "pores" or holes in a rock for water to occupy  Permeability: how well water can flow through rock (what's its porosity? Do those holes and 
cracks connect?) 
•  Recharge: any water not evaporated or drained into other reservoirs sinks into the ground 

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School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Name: Chapter 30, Week 12 Notes
Description: The Hydrological Cycle; oceans, streams, lakes, and other reservoirs
Uploaded: 12/10/2017
2 Pages 16 Views 12 Unlocks
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