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MU / Music / MUSIC 10001 / When was the sonata allegro form introduced?

When was the sonata allegro form introduced?

When was the sonata allegro form introduced?


School: Millersville University of Pennsylvania
Department: Music
Course: Music and Culture
Professor: Madeleine darmiento
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Music History
Cost: 50
Name: Music and Culture Final Study Guide
Description: These notes go over everything that will be on the final
Uploaded: 12/11/2017
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When was the sonata allegro form introduced?

Music periods

∙ Classical

∙ Romanticism

∙ Impressionism

∙ Others

o Ragtime

o Electronic  

o Dada

Classical Period Qualities

∙ 1700-1800

∙ Different than classical music

o Classical (uppercase “c”) was a time period, classical (lowercase  “c” ) was a style

∙ Architecture styles are borrowed from Ancient Greece and Rome ∙ Music of the time was based on melody with an accompaniment ∙ More academic, romantic, flowy, and emotional

∙ Introduced sonata allegro form

Whata re the different classical musical genres?

∙ Order, objectivity, proportion

∙ Clean, singable melodies

∙ Even textures, regular rhythms If you want to learn more check out How do authoritative parents differ from authoritarian parents?

∙ Classical music genres

o Opera

o Oratorio

o Concerto

o Sonata

∙ Composers were typically sponsored by aristocrats to write music ∙ Vienna was the place to be if you wanted to be a big artist ∙ Instruments

o Harpsichord

o Forte-piano: predecessor to the modern piano

Classical Period People

∙ Francis Bacon

o English scientist

o Instrumental in bringing on the Enlightenment

What makes francis bacon intrumental in bringing on the enlightenment?

∙ Rene Descartes

o Mathematician

∙ Diderot

o Made an encyclopedia of all of human knowledge

∙ Isaac Newton

o Most important scientist of his time

∙ Voltaire

o Prolific writer

o French philosopher

o Wrote ideas for the Enlightenment

o Wrote Candide

∙ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

o Wrote a lot of poetry that was later set to music

o Der Erlkönig: Franz Shubert, Phillippe Sly

∙ Jean-Jacques Rousseau

o French philosopher Don't forget about the age old question of What is the purpose of the ego defense mechanisms?

o Quote: “A man is born free”

o Quote: “Of this power of music no heart can be free”

 Meaning: it’s impossible not to be moved by this music

Classical Period Music

∙ Joseph Haydn

o Born in 1732

o Not a free artist

o Music was always bubbly and high energy

o Father of the string quartet

o Wrote 104 symphonies

o Wrote the first piece ever written for a keyed trumpet: Trumpet  Concerto

∙ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

o Born in 1756, died in 1791

o Wrote 100s of compositions

o Wrote 41 symphonies

o Started his career as a pit keyboard player, but moved to Vienna  to try to become a free artist

 He would have been a free artist if he had lived longer

o Wrote music in every genre

o Wrote operas with a specific format

 Overture (just orchestra)

 Recitative We also discuss several other topics like Why do people participate in criminal acts?
If you want to learn more check out What happens when these fragile ecosystems are effected by these types of issues?

∙ Fast, more text than song, gives background to the  


 Aria

∙ One character expressing their emotions

 Recitative and aria repeat for the whole show

∙ Ludwig van Beethoven

o Born in 1770, died in 1827

o One of the giants in music history

o Pianist, composer, and conductor

o When he died he was deaf, unhappy in romance, and outlived his entire family

o Responsible for the musical transition from Classical to Romantic o Moved to Vienna in 1787, returned home for 5 years, and went  back again in 1792 to become a free artist

 Unlike Mozart, he succeeded and was the first free artist  ever

o Expected by many to be continuing in the spirit of Mozart o Toured Europe until 1798

 1786 tour- abandoned concert due to his progressive  


 1798- last concert tour ever

o 1811: tried to perform ‘Emperor’ piano concerto but failed  Never played in public again

 Still composed pieces

o Heiligenstadt Testament We also discuss several other topics like Which structures hold gametangia?
Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to antipredator strategy used by prey to signal danger?

 Moved to Heiligenstadt to lift his spirits, but it made him  more depressed

 Wrote a letter to his brother while he was there

 Supposed to be his will but he didn’t finish it

 When he moved back to Vienna, he became a changed  man and expressed it all in his letter

o Symphony No. 3

 Dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte

 Erased the dedication when Napoleon crowned himself  emperor

 Renamed to ‘Eroica’ symphony

 Had 4 movements that reflected life

∙ 1: about life, youth, hope

∙ 2: about death, both public and personal implications

∙ 3: about how to move on from those tragedies

∙ 4: happy ending (also a show off piece against  

Steibelt, his rival)

o Sonata No. 8 “Pathetique”

 Started the turn towards Romanticism

 Has Beethoven’s beating heart

 Has a whole conversation/argument

o Fur Elise

 Written for a woman he loved, as was Moonlight Sonata o “After this, what is left for us to write?” –Franz Shubert, of string  quartet #14

Romantic Period Qualities

∙ ~1780-~1850

o Romantic music was 1800-1900

∙ Age of emotions and feelings, not reason

∙ Individuality

∙ Emotions, reactions, and your thoughts, not the truth ∙ Introduced higher melody and longer pieces

∙ Movement in literature and art as well

∙ Wider range

∙ Added a lot of harp and saxophone

∙ More programmatic than absolute

o Programmatic- idea outside of music

o Absolute- more academic style

o There is no in between  

∙ Nationalist composers became very popular

o Strongest were in Russia- called the Mighty Five

∙ New genres

o Tone poem: programmatic, one movement

o Fantasia: free form, not programmatic or absolute

o Concert overture: programmatic, image explored musically o Lied: German song

Romantic Period People

∙ Schiller

o German poet, philosopher, historian, playwright

o Wrote the words for Ode to Joy that Beethoven set to music ∙ Other writers

o German: Goethe and Schiller

o American: Edgar Allen Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorns o British: Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe, Mary Shelley, John Keats o French: Victor Hugo

o Russian: Pushkin, Lermontov, Dostoevsky

∙ Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann

o Born 1776

o One of the central figures of German Romanticism

o Wrote a lot of dark works, and mostly short stories

o Wrote “The Nutcracker and the Mouse King”

 Later set to music by Tchaikovsky

∙ Nikolai Tsiskaridze

o Amazing German ballet dancer

o Danced in The Nutcracker as the Nutcracker Prince

Romantic Period Music

∙ Composers

o German: Beethoven, Shubert, Brahms, Robert and Clara  Schumann, Wagner, Strauss

o French: George Bizet, Hector Berlioz

o Hungarian: Franz Liszt

o Italian: Niccolo Paganini

o Russian: Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky ∙ Hector Berlioz

o Born 1803

o Expands the norm of all music

o Wrote pieced for huge orchestras: 1,000+ musicians on stage o Used a lot of opium

o Married an alcoholic named Harriet Smithson

 Spoke different languages and had very busy schedules  Ended up getting divorced

o Wrote Symphonie fantastique

 Wrote it while on opium

 Harriet Smithson appears in all 5 movements

∙ 1: Reveries (daydreams)

∙ 2: Un ball (waltz)

∙ 3: Scene aux champs (in the country)

∙ 4: March au supplice (to the scaffold)

∙ 5: Songe d’une nuit de sabbat (dream of a witches’  Sabbath)

∙ Niccolo Paganini

o Born 1782

o Really liked string instruments, especially violin

o Wrote 24 Caprices for violin

o Expanded the violins possibilities

o Had really long fingers so he was more skilled

 Could play notes that were farther apart consecutively o Very animated performer

o Wrote pieces that basically only he could play

∙ Hilary Hahn

o Famous violinist

o Played Paganini’s Caprice 24

∙ Franz Shubert

o Born in 1791, died in 1828

o Studied piano and organ

o Wrote 9 symphonies

o “Truly, the spark of divine genius is in Schubert” –Beethoven   Both musicians thought highly of each other

o Set Goethe’s ‘Erlking’ to music

o Great at writing pieces for voice

∙ Felix Mendelssohn

o Born in 1809

o Compared to Mozart as a child prodigy

o Traditional, conservative composer

 Disliked Berlioz and Liszt

o Poor health

o Wrote 5 Classical symphonies written in the Romantic style o Wrote incidental music for Midsummer Night’s Dream  Incidental music- music that is written to be played during  the reading of the play

∙ Frederic Chopin

o Born in 1810

o 230+ works

o Patriotic about Poland, but not a nationalist composer o Only had a few public concerts

o Everything he wrote contains piano

o Taught most works for piano solo

o Wrote different lyric pieces

 Nocturnes- night piece

 Mazurkas- Polish dance

 Polonaises

 Impromptus- improvisatory

∙ Giuseppe Verdi

o Born in 1813

o Mostly an opera composer

o His name was the slogan for an important Italism political  movement

 Vittorio Emanuele Re D’Italia

 Means “Victor Emmanuel King of Italy”

o It was a common beliefe that he was a Risorgimento composer o Conservative style

o Operas sounded almost Classical, but less dramatic

o Rigoletto

 Based on Victor Hugo’s play

 Premiered in Venice

o La traviata

 Based on Duma’s The Lady of the Camellias

 Anna Netrebko and Rolando Villazón acted in it

o Aida and Otello

 Based on Shakespeare’s works

o Requiem

 Wagner paraphrased quote: “It would be best to not write  anyting rather than write the Requiem”

 Extremely disrespectful

∙ Richard Wagner

o Born in 1813

o Bad person

 Self-indulgent, stole from his friends, felt he was entitled to everything because of his talent, anti-Semitic, imprisoned  for several years

 Many conductors refuse to play his pieces

o Built opers house Bayreuth Festspielhaus

 Credited to be the first to have a pit and dimmed lights o Wrote his own librettos

Impressionist Period Qualities

∙ 1890-1915

∙ Got its name from the Claude Monet painting ‘Impressionist Sunrise’ ∙ “When I feel the urge to compose, I begin by appealing directly to my  Maker and I first ask him the three most important questions that  pertain to our life here in this world- whence, wherefore, whither” – Johannes Brahms

∙ Floating harmony

∙ Vague pulse

∙ Less significant melody

∙ Shimmering color

∙ Mostly used harp and other high register instruments

∙ Less use of major and minor scales in melodies, more chromatic scales ∙ Tried to avoid drama

∙ Obscure and asymmetrical meter

∙ Genres: symphonic poem, preludes, short forms

o Preludes- short, free standing pieces

Impressionist Period People

∙ Edouard Manet

o Earliest French impressionist artist

∙ Claude Monet

o Born 1840

o Impressionist artist

∙ Pierre-Auguste Renoir

o Born 1841

o Mostly did nudes and outdoor celebrations

∙ Edgar Degas

o Impressionist artist

o Mostly did dancers and bathers

Impressionist Period Music

∙ L’apres-midi d’un faune

o English title: Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun

o Monologue

o Piece is only 10 minutes

o Improvisational

o Meant to be a 3-movement piece

o Turning point in Western music

∙ Bolero

o Written by Maurice Ravel

o Most famously conducted by Valery Gergiey

o Based on Spanish dance

o Maya Plisetskaya danced to this piece better than anyone else  Her ballet career lasted longer than almost any other  dancer

∙ Claude Debussy

o Born 1862

o French composer

o Wrote a lot of piano music and orchestral sketches

o Used many exotic instruments in his pieces

o Music was rooted in simplicity and understatement

o Nationalist, but no patriotic music

o Music was about nature

o Conducted his own music

∙ Eric Satie

o Born 1866

o French composer

o Doesn’t really fit into impressionism

o Led Les Six

 French group inspired by the Russian Mighty Five

 Not as nationalist as they were

o Flunked out of Paris Conservatoire

o Stopped using bar lines

o Thought Liszt and Wagner were pretentious

o Mostly only wrote for piano

o Pieces were very short, more like children’s music than  professional

Ragtime Qualities

∙ European military music

∙ African inspired symcopation

∙ Left hand stays on the melody, right hand moves a lot o Right hand doesn’t stay with the melody

∙ Started as improvisation in St. Louis and New Orleans o It was so good that they had to write it down

∙ Popular from 1897-1918, as well as 40’s, 50’s, and 60’s

Ragtime Musicians

∙ Scott Joplin

o King of Ragtime

o Wrote 44 ragtime pieces and 2 operas

 Operas were not nearly as popular

Electronic Qualities

∙ Combined live music with tapes

∙ Later becomes chance music

∙ Written down as scribbles

∙ Unable to be replicated

∙ Rejection of art

Electronic Musicians

∙ Edgar Varese

o Born in 1883

o Father of electronic music

o First to combine live music and tape sounds

Dada Qualities

∙ 1916-1920

∙ Anti-art movement in visual art, literature, and poetry

∙ Made up of random things that weren’t supposed to be seen as art ∙ Ridiculed and opposed traditional art

∙ “We began by shocking common sense, public opinion, education,  institutions, museums, good taste… the whole prevailing order” –Eric  Satie

Listening pieces

Test 1

∙ Hildegard: Alleluia  

∙ Josquin: Ave Maria  

∙ Handel: Aria “Rejoice Greatly” from The Messiah

∙ Puccini Un Bel Di  

∙ Bach: Cantata No 80 Mov 1 Choral Fugue  

∙ Bch: Cantata No 80 Mov 8 Chorale “Mighty Fortress is Our G-d  ∙ Tchaikovsky: “Dance of the Sugarplum Fairy”- Nutcracker  ∙ Tchaikovsky: Symphony No 4, Mov 1

∙ Stravinsky: “Sacrificial Dance” from The Rite of Spring  ∙ Vivaldi: Spring Concerto Mov 1  

Test 2

∙ Anonymous: Sumer Ist Icummen

∙ Josquin: Ave Maria

∙ William Byrd: Sing Joyfully

∙ John Farmer: Fair Phyllis

∙ Handel: Messiah “Hallelujah”

∙ Handel: Water music “Hornpipe”

∙ Purcell: Dido’s Lament

∙ Bach: Art of Fugue “Contrapunctus I”

∙ Bach: Prelude from Suite No 1 for cello

∙ Vivaldi: Spring Concerto 1st movement


∙ Mozart "Rondo Alla Turca" from Piano Sonata No. 11 in A Major ∙ Mozart "Non Piu Andrai Farfalone Amoroso" from Marriage of Figaro  (Figaro's aria)

∙ Mozart "Non so più cosa son" from Marriage of Figaro (Cherubino's aria) ∙ Mozart Symphony No. 40 in G Min, movement 1

∙ Haydn Symphony No. 45 "Farewell", movement 1 (Sturm und Drang) ∙ Haydn Trumpet Concerto, mov. 1


∙ Schubert: Erlking 1815; Ave Maria

∙ Paganini: Caprice #24

∙ Chopin: Nocturne op 9 #1; Mazurka in Bb Min op. 24 no. 4 ∙ Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique March to the Scaffold

∙ C. Schumann: Soirees musicale ‘Nocturne’

∙ Mendelssohn: Midsummer Night’s Dream

∙ Bizet: Carmen (Habanera, Seguidilla)

∙ Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker ‘March’ and ‘Trepak’

∙ Verdi: Rigoletto “La donna e mobile”

∙ Wagner: Die Walkure “Ride of the Valkyries”

∙ Dvorak: Sym. No. 9 “From the New World”

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