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UIUC / RHET 105 M1 / RHE 115 / What are indigenous people?

What are indigenous people?

What are indigenous people?


Baroque and Beyond in Mexico City

What is indigenous people?

Tenochtitlan(7000 ft high altitude): Aztec people

Spanish take it over and change things

Tries to fill the canal streets: to make it on land

Now is sinking again

Plaza and Cathedral put near the Templo Mayor(great temple)

35-3: Founding of Tenochtitlan folio

Eagle landing is part of myth of location

Navigate location by boat

35-4: Reconstruction drawings of the Great Temple

Stepped pyramid

Religious building

Laid out axially

35-6: Coatlicue(goddess)

High degree of symmetry

Images inside the images

Skirt made of serpents


Templo Mayor(big temple)(center of Mexico City)

What are the other models of patronage to the arts?

Serpents built into the structure

Serpent to travel across realms

Irregular masonry: different from Inka(full of mortar)

Museum to fund the excavation: Modern building near old ancient one Inside you see excavated materials Don't forget about the age old question of Are hyperpolarizing and depolarizing photos the same?

Double-headed snake pectoral ornament

Would sit on chest: pectoral

Would be worn by king or high priest

Powerful image: double headed snake

Snakes can travel across realms: land and water

Spiritual ability to move between this world and the next

Mosaic: made of trade good

Turquoise: American southwest(Arizona and New Mexico)

Grated down to the right side

Small parts put together to represent a strong powerful figure

What is the coatlicue?

We also discuss several other topics like Who is thomas jefferson?

Mexico City

Cortes began building the capital and dubbed it the New Splain

Build a colonial square: open place for people to gather(center of town) Transform city that is aquatic to one that is based on land: draining Bringing horses: not indigenous to Mexico city

Codex Diego Duran

Metropolitan Cathedral


Added onto over the yearsDon't forget about the age old question of What is the role of amino acid in transcription?

Baroque style: curves

Usually build buildings at 90 degree angles

Takes more money and skill shows power

Serpentine line next to right angles

Articulation on facade:

Squares on top of squares with domes

Many arches We also discuss several other topics like How do we assign a value to a variable?

Many depths in the surface of the building

Recesses and patterning: effort, budget, design

Goes beyond the functional: work of art

Baroque--departure from Renaissance order

1910 Revolution: modern Mexico

Palacio Nacional Mexico: Palace


Indigenismo: celebration of indigenous

How do we define ourselves?

What is indigenous(native people)?

What is a Mexican?

Mixing pot where we come out the new race(cosmic people: superbeings) Diego Rivera:

Huge representations

In colonial era: spanish building

Layering of images


Vision of Aztec city in its past

Aztec capital:

Crowd foreground with images of everyday life If you want to learn more check out What are the kinds of psycho therapies for mental disorders?

Impressive layout of city

Major road leading to a huge massive temple

Urban planning design

Palacio: Palace of Mexico

Layering of past, making history before Spanish has arrived

On Baroque palace walls: fantasy scenes that display Aztec life before Embrace of pre colonial past: before Spanish Don't forget about the age old question of Carbonic anhydrase is a protein that takes what?

Juan O’Gorman:

Casa O’Gorman, 1929

House for himself


Two entries: front porch, Back stairwell for family

Thinking about where he wants bands of windows

Floating even though reinforced concrete(heavy)

Feeling of lightness

Modern materials in expressive way

Exposes plumbing: functional

Fence of Grandfather cactus

Blending modern with scenery and indigenous past

Color: not white like normal houses

Gorman, Museo Diego Rivera Anahuacalli, Mexico City, 1964

Houses his collection

Not looking to european styles

Bring fully modern building that references Aztec past


Fortress of art

Modernist windows on the second floor

Modern stonework that emulates visual masonry of Aztec people

Picks up rock from all over Mexico and makes mosaics with them around the building

Build a vault and treasury of mexican art and history

Doorway is very compressed

Heavy ancient resonance

Artworks are put into holes in the walls


Multiple choice, multiple answer

Goes from the beginning of class: cumulative


La Raza Cosmica:

Joy and love triumphs over the technological rationalism

Utopian spirit

Giving birth to a fully mixed race, a “cosmic race” in which all the better qualities of each race would persist by natural selection of love

Mercator projection: developed by europeans for use in ocean navigation World from a specific perspective

Impossible to flatten the 3d sphere onto a 2 dimensional plate


Europe was placed in the center of the world: choice

They only give a conception of the world: what is on top and what is in the center Joaquin Torres Garcia, 1943

Making south the top of the map

Only showing South America

Artists are reimagining the shape of the world: decolonization

Map of the World, Varietes 1929

Magnified places that they were interested in

Compressed Europe, United States

Artistic representation: surrealists(driven by fantasy, exploring possibilities) Attempt to reorient our sense of what is important

By enlarging some territories where you can find indigenous art

Artists are reimagining the shape of the world: decolonization


Saw itself: Rational, empirical, standardized

Was: irrational, idiosyncratic, haunted by superstition

Modern: coined in the 5th century: describing a Christian present(modernus) Tarsila do Amaral(1886-1973)

European descendants

European education

Was in Paris(cubism in the 20s)

Wealthy, privilege on a coffee plantation in Sao Paulo

One crop, required many slaves(descendants from Africa)

Raised by a wet nurse who taught her embroidering and piano

Learning how to be a wife

Three F’s: arranged, done, out

Managed by married off: husband's concern

Married her cousin: keep money in family

Family gives her money to leave her husband: bad relations

Became an artist: her style changes significantly

Becomes more Brazilian

Tarsila, Negress, 1923



Large breast and encircling arms and large feet

Large lips

Tarsila, The Negress, 1924 vs. Frida Kahlo, My Nurse and I, 1937

Both Frida and Tarsila are using their painting to present a glamorous version of themselves but over time they are trying to find themselves

Started as generic images even though they were very different from each other Later they use their art to probe beneath the surface to find otu what nourishes them

Imagine their identity as nourished by African figure

Tarsila do Amaral, Abaporu, 1928 vs. Frida Kahlo, The Broken Column, 1944 Start to use the female body in expressive ways

Range of experiences


Qing Dynasty

Manchus are in power but maintain Chinese institutions and rituals to ensure authority Artistic workshops are kept open

Rebuilt kilns/central institution of past dynasties(Jindezhen kilns)

Open to new ideas in the arts, sciences and technology

Listen to the subjects(people they take over)


First Mission(1552-1773)

Second Mission(1842-1949)

In 1843 there were about 1300 Protestant missionaries and about 700 Jesuits Starting to send European missionaries to China

To convert people to Christianity

Valignano Ricci: based on principles

Adapt to local customs: including style of clothing

Focus on elites: required missionaries to study Confucian classics

Assumed elites would help to conversion of others

Indirect evangelization: Western science was introduced in China

Let me tell you about how we control water

Indicate that other ideas might be helpful

Supervised translations from Chinese to Manchu and back

Knowledge exchange

Openness of Chinese values

*Didn’t have a populist appeal

Qing Ceramics

Too Perfect

Guiseppi Castiglione

Born in Milan

Trained by a Jesuit

Travels to Beijing in 1715 and dies there

Really good at painting scrolls

Giuseppe Castiglione, Auspicious Objects, Qing Dynasty, 1724, (33-16) Huge hanging scroll: silk(traditional material)

Mixing between Chinese arts and Western arts


Outdoors, nature, rushing stream, trees and vegetation

Hazy perspective, mountains disappear into background


More saturated colors that are more intense

More detail than usual(bark, needles)

Lang Shining, One Hundred Horses, 1735

Huge scroll

Western Perspective

Renderings of horses: naturalistic and very detailed

Silk is unforgiving(mapped every detail before he started)

** Pressure from foreign powers(how can we get a piece of China’s trade)(silk, porcelain, tea) **1757: enough incidents with foreign traders → China shut ports down to foreigners except Guangzhou: and build district for them to live(spatial segregation of foreigners into factories) Thomas and William Daniell, View of the Canton Factories, 1805

**No warships or foreign weapons or foreign women(don’t live here… come and please go) Foreign powers do not like this

King George 3 sends emissary → brings gifts to get relationship with England fixed Emperor doesn’t want to expand trade still because you do not have what I want Took providence in India → turns it into Poppy Fields(opium trade)

Starts importing this illegal substance into China

Indirect trading: bring product in on little ships

Start at 200 chests per year to 60,000 chests per year(massive)

OPIOID CRISIS: how do we get rid of this Opium

Lin confiscated 20,000 crates of opium and throwing it into a pit → dump into Harbor

Started a war: 3.5 years long (Opium Wars)(just wants to survive)

British win

Sails vs. steam boat(destroys Chinese Navy)

Treaty of Nanjing, 1842

British gets an island off China(Hong Kong)

Opened up treaty ports(everyone gets to trade)

Boxers(society of righteous and harmonious fists)

Driven by an anti-foreign sentiment

Revival of folk religion

Boxers Revolution(opposite of Jesuit approach)

Use of plays and traditional arts to approach people

1850s-1930s Comics began as a light funny unrealistic comics(escapist vs. Persepolis) 1940s Seduction of the innocent(psychologist believed that comics were seducing innocent) Are these the values we want to present in mass media 

Protect adolescents from media 

Bruce Nauman, The True Artist, 1967 

“The true artist helps the world by revealing mystic truths” 

Using a popular → commercial/advertising medium (neon lights) 

Xu Bing, Book from the Sky, 1987 

Books when they say things simply and you do not understand 

Invents 1000 characters and display them in weird ways 

Looks like Chinese characters but they are not legible(don’t communicate at all) Xu Bing, Square Word Calligraphy, 1994 

Teaches you how to use the brush correctly: letters that reimagine chinese script Enabling process of communication 

1980 cerealizing comic that becomes the novel Maus 

Not serious or fine art but it is 

Looks like a comic book and is one 

Serious subject poking at Parents that are Holocaust survivors 

Using medium in a self reflecting way 

Clear visual tradition: comic strip/comic tradition 

Choice of black and white, narrative carries across, 

Belong here but belong everywhere else

1. Power to the people salute(iconicized form: seen in other places) 

Liberty Leading the People: Delacroix (1830) 

Though he is triumphant and optimistic 

He is arrested and murdered 

~~~~~~~~(choose more than one answer)


West Indies(sugar)(chain of islands in Caribbean)

Sugarcane+slaves+plantation = massive profits

Sainte Domingue(Haiti)

Sugar plantations, slavery, zombie

Europe Supported by Africa and America, William Blake, 1796


European conqueror's created this image

Relationship looks mutual and affectionate: propaganda

Europe exploiting the resources of these two continents

Not a positive relationship

Armbands: are shown as humane but are not humane

Map of Barbados, London, 1647

Show reasons to go to these places

Needed it to mark places of resources

Monoculture: farming only one crop on property

Need diversity in ecosystem → causes destruction to other species

Destroyed the natural habitat


Enslaved africans

Windmill to process crop

Poor labor conditions for the enslaved

Exhausted workers: zombie

No day and night: fireplaces to provide light after sunset

Sugar to Europeans

Silver gilt sugar box: 17th century

Sugar was not cheap

Sugar prices dropped later

Industrial Revolution: workers were giving sugar to be energized to work Vik Muniz-Sugar Children Series 1996

Brazilian artist

Created portraits of children with sugar

These children had family in sugar plantations

Post colonial project: looking at past through medium of sugar(enslavement) Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan(Mexico City), Baroque and Beyond

Spanish destruction of temple

Built during Aztec empire, Spaniards came and destroyed to colonize

Destroyed and built on ruins


Is about native people and their situation in Latin America

National identity: focusing on “the indian”

Voiced by non-indigenous people(Europeans)

Brazilian citizen with European descent: western education

Mixed race

Form of activism

To think critically about European colonization

What might have happened instead if Europeans never conquered?

Presidential Palace with Diego Rivera murals

National identity through this voice

Mexican medium: murals

Tenochtitlan: city state of Aztec Empire

Shows their past but with a reimagined present

Juan O’ Gorman, Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera House, 1931

Modernity in Mexico: blending of modern and indigenous elements

Cactus, colors

International modernism: levitating building

Mercator Projection

Distores land mass sizes and places

Created by Europeans for use in oceans

Critiqued by cartographers

Europe was put in the center of the globe

Peters Projection

Elongated continents to minimize distortion

More precise

Equal size on globe is equal size on map

Joaquin Torres-Garcia, 1943

Surrealist Map of the World, 1929

Attempts to reorient our sense of what's important by enlarging some territories where you can find indigenous art

European modernism(surrealism) was defined by interest in art forms of non-european cultures

Civilization vs. Uncivilized

Progress vs. static/traditional

Amelioration of human life through science, technology, medicine vs. not improving European vs. Europe’s Other

Tarsila do Amaral, Red Coat, 1923 , Negress, 1923

Divorced husband, family supported her to study art

European self portrait: more realistic

Negress: distorted(lips, breast) exaggerated

Tarsila do Amaral, Abaporu, 1928

Portray Brazilianness through European painting

Brazilian people are embracing European painting

Figure is eating european figure(cannibalism)

Embracing european concepts through native means

Anonymous, Toussaint LOuverture, leader of insurgents of Santo Domingo, 1808 Leader of Santo Domingo: hero of end of slavery

Haitian Independence and end of slavery

Correlates to David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps, 1805

Tried to end slavery that European colonization caused

Led a revolution

1854 Japan reopened trades with foreign powers: westernization of Japan, Bunmei Kaika “Civilization and enlightenment”: Bunmei Kaika

Emperor Meiji

Wanted to display himself as a westernized person

Western dress

Elaborate process to create westernized image: drawn, photographed, drawn Ukiyo-e(japanese woodblock print): Edo period

Why did westerners want to see them?

Looking far in space but close in space

Wanted to embrace Asian Art

Yoga(Western style painting)

Takahashi, Courtesan, 1872

Westernization was not forced onto the Japanese people, the Emperor embraced it By appearing in Westernized clothes


Toulouse Lautrec in a Kimono with a fan and Japanese Doll, 1892

Dressed in drag, impersonate a japanese figure

Mutual influence from Japan and Western cultures

Why? Each place is imitating the ways of the other.

Not just happening in the elite society, everybody is trying to

Yoshu Chikanobu, Concert of European Music, 1889

Not just western instruments but also westernized fashion/setting

Usually no setting just props, no interior present

Western fashions: not practical

Can’t sit on the mat

Instead of wearing western outfit, just wear hair

Embracing western culture

Triptych format: three woodblock prints

Still a westernized art form even though it is woodblock

Westerners make fun of Japanese people wearing the westernized fashion wrong However Japanese people do not make fun of westerners wearing fashion wrong Might be racist but it might be sexist instead: westerners mocked own fashion

Venus Demilo sculpture: this bustle made her look worse not better! Caricature Shop

Paintings on the wall: poke fun of everything and anyone

More and more caricatures

Crinoline for domestic use

Example of limits of these outfits, mocked

Yinka Shonibare: How to Blow Up Two Heads at Once

Beautiful textile use


Barbe, Jules, Enameled Vase in the Japanese style, 1880

West following Japanese trends

For english market

James McNeill Whistler, Peacock Room, 1876

In Washington DC

Peacocks that are eccentric painted on walls

Covers all of the walls in gilded decoration

Shelves are for blue and white porcelain

Princess from Land of Porcelain

English artists used japanese culture in own work

James McNeill Whistler, Princess from Land of Porcelain, 1864 Women who is Irish, in many of his artworks

Painted hair darker, wearing Kimono(not wearing it right), fan in hand Giving her a oriental look

Wearing Kimono like a nightgown → emphasizes sexuality not formality More fans in background, painted screen, blue and white vase, oriental rug Overabundance of clues → see her as Japanese

Not authentic

Chase, WIlliam Merritt, Kimono, 1895

Painting fashionable paintings not realistic/ethnographically correct Impressionist painting, no concern for correctness

Looking at props: chairs, screen in background, outfit

Hair up on top of her head, not authentic

Fascinated by props, but don’t have knowledge over use

William Merritt Chase, THe Blue Kimono, 1888

Aristocratic looking woman

She is a decorated prop in this interior

Childe Hassam,The White Kimono, 1915

Objects are very american: wooden mantel, brass andirons, candlesticks Lady is adapting a vaguely Japanese style

34-14, Ando Hiroshige, Plum Estate, 1857

Doesn’t just use props to use them

Explores the culture more in depth

Gogh, Japonaiserie: Trees in Bloom, 1887

Subtle gradient doesn’t exist, not a good atmospheric background Attempt to do branches: look more clumsy

Invents panels of characters: look really weird because not accurate Hiroshige, Sudden Shower over Shin Ohashi bridge. 1857 Depicting space differently than European artists

Unconventional points of view

Use of space is very different from European artists

**Europeans see Japanese prints at the world’s fairs

Gogh, Ando Hiroshige Sudden Shower over Shin Ohashi bridge, Colors are more saturated

Trying to get it but still not

He was very interested in the Japanese visual art techniques Flowers, Japanese

They are alive in the ground

Europeans paint cut flowers in vases

Gogh, Flowers

Not a European genre or Japanese

They are alive

Western art tends to display cut flowers right before death He took influence from Japanese art showing alive flowers Vibrant colors

More unrealistic but alive

Planted Peonys, Japanese

Flowers being tumbled by air current

Flatness, and decorative patterning(leafs vs. flower petals) Alive and in motion

Monet, Twig of White Peonies, 1864

Already cut with shears in picture

End of the peonies life that looks beautiful in vase`

There are no visual media:

You can’t just see, you also touch and hear and smell

Any media is multi sensory

Text and Image combined:

Has been combined for years

Islamic art in books/pottery/doorframe

Not just for reading but also visual pleasure

Decorative calligraphy: not just meant to be read but be seen Comics, characters (Origins)(newspaper column art)

History repeats itself

Comment on history

Jenny Holzer, Spectacolor Board in Times Square, NYC, 1982 Advertisment


Christopher Wool, Fuckem, 1992

Xu Bing, Book from the Sky

Can’t read it

Fake alphabet

Doesn’t mean anything

Even if we speak the same language, language doesn’t completely transfer between people

What people mean might not be completely understood

Boxers and Saints:

Mild approach when christians tried to convert Chinese

Calignano Ricci method

They adapted the art of the culture that they tried to convert


British Greed: wanted to get more from the Chinese

Exporting Opium into China

Opium war became comedic and political comics in French News

Chinese Emperor had to give up Hong Kong to Britain

Boxer Rebellion: anti foreign sentiment


Biennials, fairs, and the international art circuit

Oldest Biennial

La Biennale di Venezia

Founded in 1895

Changes in structure and policy over the years

30 national pavilions in the Giardini → every two years exhibition

Exhibits of manufactured goods: Biennial

Biennials have become more global

More and more cities in more locations holding biennial

To promote themselves as an art destination

New Years but the same faces are always invited back

Overlap occurs because it is hard for that not to

Same art stars fly from Biennial to Biennial

High end fashion companies hold parties and events

Fashion and modern art meet

Becomes a luxury shopping activity rather than a statement

Also debuts collections by blending it into the theme of the fair

Concern: Art turning into spectaculars, artwork was a dud(malfunctioned) I better see something fabulous if i travel all the way to Venice

Expectation that the audience has, that it should be successful

Anish Kapoor, Ascension, 2011 (made the bean)

Producing steam that is getting sucked up

Idea of Ascension in a material form

Didn’t seem finished(didn’t have time to work in the church)

Didn’t work consistently

Reveles how pieces like this are created: constraints are

Chin-Tao Wu, Biennials without Borders, 2009

Talks about the constraints of Biennials

Very specific borders of who is included or not

What would it look like if the west were decentered in global culture?

Hard not to be. We might know in the future.

Massimiliano Gioni, In Defense of Biennials, 2013

Value of inclusion into Biennials

Was the curator of the Venice Biennial

Other Models of Patronage to the arts:

Tate Modern art gallery

Turbine Hall: There was time to put up this exhibition

Ostergaard, Shibboleth, 2008

Fracturing of the concrete floor: audience is interacting with it

Direct hit to the structure: permanent scar to the building

Mesh holding the earth up

Earth falling apart but still contained


Lives in photography and in the museum today: freeing

Usually when buying art it is a rush… to beat others

Clement Greenberg

Art critic: thumbs up or thumbs down

“Only two kinds of art, the good and the bad”

“No matter how exotic… we recognize the difference between the good and the bad” Appreciate all works in similar terms

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