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Final Exam Study Guide History of Ancient Israel: See Final Study guide posted on blackboard for information about what we will need to know, refer to the class notes I have posted for more detailed content. This answers several of the items on the final study guide posted on blackboard. The Highlighted terms are ID’s on the final exam study guide. See the list of Israelite Kings list posted on blackboard, below are some things we have talked about in connection with these kings (there are more, see weekly class notes for more information). These are the kings bolded on the Kings list that we need to know. Heavier focus in the exam on material since last quiz: Beginning Wisdom literature: 11/15 Judah: (Southern Kingdom, capitol: Jerusalem) • Reheboam- 922-915 Solomon’s son. Solomon is said to have worked (maybe enslaved!) the people of Israel very hard—when Reheboam becomes king, the advisors approach him and say that if you are gracious to the people they will serve you faithfully. Reheboam’s friends tell him this is a bad idea, and he tells everyone he will work them even harder than his father. This leads to a rebellion by the people, led by Jereboam. Yahweh sides with the Rebels, and tells (via prophets) Reheboam that he will take 10 tribes away from him, he can keep Judah + Levites only because he is David’s grandson. o Jereboam (also a terrible king) the “sin of Jereboam” is in reference to him saying that it’s okay not to worship in Jerusalem (since it effectively another country right now.) The Deuteronomistic historian doesn’t accept this excuse. • Jehoshaphat – 873-849 King of Judah who approached king Ahab of Israel about going into battle together against Aram. He tells Ahab to seek the Lord’s word about it. Ahab and his court prophets are all for it, saying the Lord supports it, but then there is this one prophet, Micaiah ben Imlah who describes a vision he had with God where he was told that Ahab would die in battle and that all the other prophets were hearing a “lying spirit” supposedly sent by Yahweh. This is important to note because it raises the
very odd question of why Yahweh would lie to his own prophets. Ahab imprisons Micaiah, goes to battle, and dies. • Uzziah – 783-742 King during the reign of Jereboam II in the North, during the time of the north’s brief prosperity. At this time Judah was also experiencing political and economic prosperity and recognized as a pretty powerful nation. o Amos was FROM the south (Judah) but prophesied to the North (Israel) during this time. Lots of Judahite imagery, like the lion and language of Zion/Jerusalem, Davidic bias. o Isaiah Begins his prophetic career in Uzziah’s reign, continues through Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. Remarkable poetry, major themes are the Davidic monarchy and the temple in Jerusalem. He functioned as a court prophet/advisor to the king. Advised against Ahaz joining the Syro-Ephramite alliance. Second Isaiah, (likely not the same author deals with the fall of the northern kingdom) • Ahaz – (the one who didn’t want to join in on the Syro-Ephraimite Alliance, Isaiah was an advisor to Ahaz) Ahaz thought he was being helpful by calling up Assyria to stop Israel and Aram from besieging them, but ends up locking Judah into a vassal relationship with Assyria. • Hezekiah ~727-687 Assyria besieges Jerusalem during the reign of Hezekiah. Major problem for Israel is water, Hezekiah built a tunnel to a spring to get water, the Siloam tunnel. Probably the only reason why the city did not fall, although there was horrible starvation (even cannibalism) going on. The fact that the city withstood the siege was interpreted as a great miracle, showing that YES, when a Davidic king is on the throne, and when the temple is working properly, and the king listens to God via the prophet, there can be victory. o Isaiah talks a lot about an ideal king that would someday bring economic prosperity and peace. For Isaiah, the monarchy is the conduit of God’s blessing, the king ensures that there will be justice in the land. • Josiah – When Josiah is king, Assyria and Babylon were both trying to assert their dominance as empires in the fertile crescent. Egypt doesn’t want to let Babylon gain control of the fertile crescent and so goes against Babylon, surprisingly, Josiah takes Babylon’s’ side. Caught in the middle of all this
conflict, Josiah + some priests attempt to figure out how they can avoid destruction, and think maybe it’s time to really hard core start following Yahweh—they write out Deuteronomy, heavy language of covenant and Deuteronomistic thinking (IF you follow the laws THEN you will be blessed) 587 *1st time Jerusalem is captured by Babylon, first deportation* • Jehoiachin – 598-597 (Jehoiachin’s father, Jehoikim staged an uprising against Babylon, and the Babylonians come in and take away everyone that has power or potential to be leaders, like prophets, royals, and priests. Jehoiakin is put on the throne instead. o The people are asking how/why does this happen? • Zedekiah – 597-587 *Destruction of Jerusalem (and temple) in 586 by the Babylonians, begins Babylonian exile* o Under pressure from the Babylonians to Assimilate, the Israelite begin writing down their history and defining what it means to be an Israelite, now that they are away from the promise land, the temple is destroyed, and the kingship is lost. o Jeremiah was a priest left behind in Jerusalem in the first deportation to Babylon. His prophecies urge surrender to Babylon. This gets him in prison for treason. He laments for Israel, for his own fate, and for the fate of his people. Laments a lot. Suggests that God is perhaps not as reliable as they thought, though still powerful. Talks about a new generation that would understand the covenant in a deep way, written upon their hearts, a moral covenant not dependent on a Davidic king. Ezekiel was likely a more prominent priest and was taken captive in the deportation. Reconceptualizes the temple, perhaps God can be wherever the people are. ▪ Personal prayer becomes more important, during this time for the exiles, fasting on holy days, rituals that could be done at home without priests and a temple, dietary laws becoming important, ways of distinguishing themselves from the Babylonians 539- Persians defeat Babylon.
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School: The College of William & Mary
Course: History/Relg Ancient Israel
Professor: Robin McCall
Term: Fall 2017
Name: Final Exam Study Guide History of Ancient Israel
Description: Final Exam Study Guide History of Ancient Israel:
See Final Study guide posted on blackboard for information about what we will need to know, refer to the class notes I have posted for more detailed content. This study guide provides information of each of the kings that we will need to know and answers several of the items on the final study guide posted on blackboard.
The Highlighted terms ar