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SJSU / Engineering / PSYC 001 / Define science.

Define science.

Define science.


School: San Jose State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Susan snycerski
Term: Spring 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Final Study Guide
Description: This includes both cumulative and non cumulative tests
Uploaded: 12/17/2017
15 Pages 55 Views 7 Unlocks


Define science.

Chapter 1: Introduction

● Psychology Defined: the scientific study of human thought and behavior ○ What is behavior?

■ Actively breathing? Brain still working?

○ What is mind?

■ Stream of consciousness? To make sense?

● Philosophy and medicine as parent disciplines to psychology

○ Phil: How do we create knowledge, learned or innate?

○ Medicine: mind is part of the body, especially diseases

● Psychophysics: the study of how psychologically perceive physical stimuli such as light, sound waves, and touch

● Natural selection: a feedback process where nature favors one design over another because it has an impact on reproduction

What is the scientific method(optic)?

Chapter 2: Research Methods

● What is science?

○ Physical, biological, and social

● Scientific Method(OPTIC)

○ Observe

○ Predict

○ Test

○ Interpret

○ Communicate If you want to learn more check out What drug works in the pituitary gland to decrease adh release?

● Three major kinds of research methods

○ Naturalistic: field design

■ Main function: describe

○ Correlational Designs

■ Main function: determine relationships

○ Experimental designs

■ Main function: determine cause and effect

What is the study of how psychologically perceive physical stimuli such as light, sound waves, and touch?

● Psychometrics: field of study concerned with theory

Chapter 3: Genes and the Brain and Behavior

● Single and Multiple Gene Transmission

○ Single: discrete # of categories

■ Qualitative: mendelian; not much variability

○ Polygenic: dozens of (maybe a hundred or more) genes

■ Quantitative and on a continuum

■ Great variability

■ Weight, height, all psychological traits

● Epigenetics: the study of changes in the way genes are turned on or off without a change in the sequence of DNA

● Neuron: nerve cells; receive, integrate

● Structure of Neuron:

We also discuss several other topics like What is ecosystem ecology?

● Overview of how Action Potential gets started (depolarization)

○ Resting potential > action potential > refractory potential

○ Once the charges become sufficiently positive (reaches threshold; depolarization) ● Synaptic Transmission

○ Action potential weakens (electrically) the vesicles to release neurotransmitter into synapse

○ Neurotransmission is chemical (not electrical)

○ Each neuron release only one combination of neurotransmitter

○ Transmitters bind to receptors

● Central Nervous System: Brain

○ Frontal Lobe: motor, attention and planning, abstract thought, impulse control, social behavior (front)

○ Parietal Lobe: tactile and spatial (top middle) Don't forget about the age old question of Who is daniel elazar?

○ Temporal Lobe: auditory cortex (bottom middle)

○ Occipital lobe: visual cortex (back)

○ Thalamus: relay of sensory information

○ Hypothalamus: motivation and pleasure

■ Eating, drinking, consciousness, bodily functioning, etc.

○ Amygdala: emotion, fear

○ Hippocampus: learning and memory

○ Basal ganglia: crucial for planning and initiating movement

● Principle of Brain Plasticity

○ Brain structures change due to input and experience from the environment Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

● Sensation: a physical process, the stimulation of our sense organs by features of the outer worldWe also discuss several other topics like What refers to the study of the distribution and determinants of health and diseases?

● Perception: a psychological process, the act of organizing and interpreting sensory experience

● Basics of what happens in eye and brain once light hits the retina

○ Light enters the eye at the cornea: a clear hard covering that protects the lens ○ It then passes through liquid until it reaches a hole called the pupil; the opening in the iris through which light enters the eye If you want to learn more check out Who are fritz haber & norman borlaug?

○ Light enters the interior of the eye through the pupil. The colored part of the eye, the iris; adjusts the pupil to control the amount of light entering

○ The light passes through the lens; bends light rays

○ Finally hits the retina; a thin layer of nerve tissue that lines the back of the eye ● Rods; photoreceptors that function in low illumination and play a key role in night vision; they are responsive to dark and light contrast

● Cones; photoreceptors that are responsible for color vision and are most functional in conditions of bright light

● Hearing

○ Frequency-pitch: # of times the pressure wave moves from peak to peak per second (measured in Hertz)

■ Humans hear 20-20,000 hz

○ Complexity-timbre: extent of which each sound wave is made up of multiple frequencies

○ Amplitude-loudness: amplitude measured in decibels If you want to learn more check out What are the contents of the digestive tract?

● Gestalt principles

○ Similarity: a Gestalt law that says we tend to group like objects together in visual perception

○ Continuity: a Gestalt law that says we see points or lines in such a way that they follow a continuous path

○ Proximity: a Gestalt law that says we tend to group objects together that are near one another

● Auditory transmission path

○ Soundwaves hit the outer ear and travel down the auditory canal where they hit the eardrum and cause vibrations, setting in motion the bones of the middle ear (hammer, anvil, and stirrup).

○ The bones vibrate and amplify the waves where they vibrate the oval window. ○ The vibrations cause fluid in the cochlea to bend the hair cells

○ Stimulation of the hair cells transduces sound vibrations into electrical impulses, which can generate an action potential in the auditory nerves

Chapter 5: Development

● Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 yo)

○ Knowledge through senser (especially hands and mouth) and motor movement

○ No innate knowledge of perceptual biases (blank slate)

○ Manipulation of objects

○ Object permanence until ~9 months

■ Infant won’t look or reach for or get upset over object hidden from view ○ Early on all behavior is unintentional and then becomes increasingly intentional/willful

● Preoperational Stage (2-6 yo)

○ No operations possible

■ Has no way of operating (manipulating) on mental ideas

■ Immediate appearance over logic

○ Thinking is egocentric

○ Inability to reverse or converse

■ Realize they stay the same amount after changing appearance

■ Appearance is reality

● Concrete Operational Stage (6-11 yo)

○ Mental operations now possible

■ System of internal actions (reasoning)

■ Can do mentally what previously could only be done physically

○ Conservation now possible

○ Logical reasoning forms but only concrete

● Formal Operational Stage (11+)

○ Abstract reasoning and formal logic now possible

○ Idealism (what is possible, not just what is)

■ Interest in philosophy and politics begin

○ Reflection and metacognition

○ Can consider many different solutions before acting

○ Systematic thinking

○ Not all people advance to formal operations to the same extent

● Attachment

○ Secure

■ 65% of children

■ Distressed on departure, but warm hugs on return; child settles

○ Anxious-Ambivalent

■ 10-15% of children

■ Distressed all the time, held on return but also pushes away

○ Avoidant

■ 20-25% of children

■ Not distressed on departure; no reunion; ignores attachment figure

Chapter 6: Consciousness

● REM: rapid eye movement

○ Much activity during this stage

○ Bursts of eye movement

○ Sexual arousal

○ Each REM stage lasts 10 minutes

● Non-REM

○ With each cycle, amount of time in NREM decreases, amount of time in REM increases

○ Overall NREM 75-80%

● Freudian View of Dreams

○ Dreams are unconscious wishes, impulse

○ Interpret through free association

● Biological View of Dreams

○ Dreams are not that different from everyday thinking

○ Standard process used

● Psychoactive Drugs and Consciousness

○ Depressants: work to decrease CNS and ANS activity

■ Create physical and psychological dependence

■ Both cause numbing and reduce pain

■ Stimulates endorphins and dopamine

■ Sedatives, valium, xanax, alcohol, opioids, opiates

○ Stimulants: drugs that increase alertness and ANS reactivity

■ Create physical and psychological dependence

■ Increase dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine

■ Nicotine, caffeine, amphetamines, cocaine

○ Hallucinogens: create hallucinations, sensations and perceptions that occur in the absence of external stimulation

■ Appear to stimulate serotonin and dopamine

■ Create no physical dependence, but do create psychological dependence ■ Most dramatic effects on consciousness

■ Marijuana, LSD, Psilocybin (mushrooms)

Chapter 7: Memory

● Memory: the ability to store and use information; also the store of what has been learned and remembered

● Encoding: the process by which the brain attends to, takes in, and integrates new information; the first stage of long term memory formation

● Storage: the retention of memory over time; the third stage of long term memory formation

● Retrieval: the recovery of information stored in memory; the fourth stage of long term memory formation

● Sensory memory: a part of memory that holds information in its original sensory form for a very brief amount of time; usually about half a second or less

● Short term memory: the part of the memory that temporarily (2-30 seconds) stores a limited amount of information before it is either transferred to long term storage or forgotten

● Long term memory: part of memory that has the capacity to store a vast amount of information for as little as 30 seconds and as long as a lifetime

● Anterograde amnesia: an inability to remember events and experiences that occur after an injury or the onset of disease

● Retrograde amnesia: an inability to to recall events or experiences that happened before an injury or the onset of disease

● False memory: belief in an event that did not happen

○ Mall study

Chapter 8: Learning

● Learning defined: an enduring change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience ○ The way we adapt to our changing environment

● Classical Conditioning

○ Unconditioned: unlearned

○ Conditioned: learned

○ Real world example: Jacob had a car crash when someone driving a red corvette ran a stop sign. Two months later he sees another red corvette on the road and immediately becomes anxious and afraid

■ Unconditioned stimulus: getting in crash

■ Conditioned stimulus: red corvette

■ Unconditioned response: fear

■ Conditioned response: fear

● Operant Conditioning: learning in which responses come to be defined by their consequences

○ Your own actions (rather than events) produce outcomes

○ Different from classical conditioning because the behavior precedes the environmental event that condition future behavior

○ Behavior > Consequence > outcome

○ Shaping: the experimenter, or the environment, first rewards gross

approximations of the behavior, then closer approximations, and finally the desired behavior itself

○ Reinforcement: anything that strengthens a behavior

■ Positive reinforcement vs negative reinforcement

● Social Learning

○ Rewards to shape behavior

○ Different people react differently to the same reward

○ People learn not only from own behavior but from observing others behavior Chapter 9: Language and Thought

● Visual and Verbal mental representations

○ Visually: we store thoughts as images in our “mind’s eye”

○ Verbally: propositionally and semantically, based on facts about the world not images

● Sensitivity period and language learning

○ If children not exposed to language by a certain age, their language abilities never develop

○ The case of Genie

○ Learning 2nd language becomes more difficult by age 7

■ Brain more “plastic” earlier in life

● Heuristics: mental shortcuts; method for making complex and uncertain decisions and judgements

● Availability heuristic: judgements based on the ease to which we cn bring examples to mind

● Representativeness Heuristic: when people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case

● Inductive Reasoning: reasoning from specific observations to general conclusions ○ Bottom up

○ Making an inference based on an inference

● Deductive Reasoning: reasoning from general propositions to specific conclusions ○ Goes down to hierarchy

● Critical thinking: the process by which one analyzes, evaluates, and forms ideas


Ch 10: Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity

Intelligence: one of the most widely studied topics in all of psychology; a set of cognitive skills that include abstract thinking, reasoning, problem solving, and the ability to acquire knowledge ● IQ vs Intelligence

○ IQ as Mental age/Chronological Age

● IQ measures

○ All focus on verbal, mathematical and spatial intelligence

○ Binet, early 1900s with french school children

○ Stanford-binet, (Lewis Terman, in 1920s and 1930s made a US version of Binet’s test)

○ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS)

● Intelligence as One General Ability

○ G factor models: single number reflects person’s intelligence

○ How intelligent are you?

● Intelligence as Many abilities

○ Matrix reasoning is fluid reasoning

○ Crystallized reasoning involves using skills, experience, and knowledge to solve problems

○ Multiple factors not always related; accounts for why there is genius in math but not language

○ Gardner’s Multiple intelligences

■ linguistic/verbal: to use language to express what’s on your mind and to understand other people

■ logical/mathematical: capacity to understand the underlying principles of some kind of causal system

■ Spatial: ability to represent the spatial world internally in your mind

■ Musical: capacity to think in music; to be able to hear patterns, recognize them, and perhaps manipulate them

■ Bodily-kinesthetic: capacity to use your whole body or parts of your body to solve a problem, make something or put on some kind of production

■ Intrapersonal (within): having an understanding of yourself; knowing who you are, what you can do, what you want to do, how you react to things

■ Interpersonal (between): the ability to understand other people-their

thoughts, feelings, and motives

■ Naturalist: ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) and sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock


○ Triarchic theory of intelligence: three part model of intelligence, including analytic, creative, and practical intelligence

● Extremes of Intelligence

○ Giftedness and savant syndrome

■ Islands of profound giftedness in a sea of learning disabilities

■ Kim Peak: exceptional memory-photographic

○ Intellectual disability: significant limitations of intellectual functioning as well as in everyday adaptive behavior, which start before age 18

● Nature and Nurture of intelligence

○ Reaction range: for a given trait, like IQ, the genetically determined range of responses by an individual to his or her environment

○ Genetics play a large role in IQ

○ Few differences between men and women in cognitive abilities

Problem Solving:

● Mental set: a tendency to continue to use problem solving strategies that have worked in the past, even if better solutions are available

● Algorithms: a step by step procedure or formula for solving a problem ● Functional fixedness: a mindset which one is blind to unusual uses of common, everyday things or procedures

Creativity: thinking or behavior that is both novel and meaningful

● Intelligence vs Creativity

○ Intelligence: convergent thinking

■ Convergence on known (single) solution

○ Creativity: divergent thinking

■ Divergence on heretofore unknown (out of many) solution

● 2 criteria of creativity:

○ Any thought or behavior that is both original and meaningful (adaptive, useful) to some group of people

● Genius (IQ) does not equal creative genius

○ Intelligence is necessary but not sufficient for genius

● Creativity and the Brain

○ Creative insight increases frontal lobe activity, insights occur in right hemisphere rather than left, creative people solving creative problems show more balanced activity between their right and left frontal lobes

● Ideational fluency: the ability to produce many ideas

● Flexibility: the ability to come up with many different categories of ideas and think of other responses beside the obvious ones

● Originality: the ability to come up with unusual and novel ideas

Chapter 11: Emotion and Motivation

● What is motivation?

○ Motivation: the urge to move toward one’s goals to accomplish tasks

○ Homeostasis: the process by which all organisms work to maintain physiological equilibrium, or balance, around an optimal set point

○ Set point: the ideal fixed setting of a particular physiological system such as internal body temperature

○ Need: a state of cellular or bodily deficiency that compels drive

○ Drive: a perceived psychological state of tension that arises when our bodies are deficient of some need

● Theories of Motivation:

○ Evolutionary model

■ Motivation to survive and perpetrate itself

○ Optimal arousal model

■ Moderate level of arousal lead to optimal performance

○ Hierarchy of needs

● Eating

○ External: environment signals: food cues

■ Sight

■ Smell

○ Internal: biological signals

■ Stomach: gastric secretions (rumbling), contractions (contract when


■ Blood: role of glucose (sugars)> Low glucose levels=hungry, high blood sugar=full, glucose is released into blood upon eating and produces insulin ■ Brain: role of hypothalamus- dual center theory

○ Eating disorders

■ Anorexia nervosa: irrational fear of being overweight, distorted body

image; lack of awareness

● Sexual Motivation

○ Role of testosterone

■ Testosterone: plays a role for both men and women in arousal desire

○ Role of limbic system

■ Hypothalamus and pituitary gland

○ Gender and casual sex

■ Women are more varied in sexual response than men

■ Women are capable of multiple orgasms; men are not

● Sexual Orientation

○ Who you are attracted to

● Emotion

○ Emotion vs mood

■ Emotion: involve subjective feelings, psychological changes (heart rate, skin), cognitive belief, short term

■ Mood: are longer lasting and more diffuse (vague)

○ Adaptive Function of Emotions

■ Capture and focus our attention

■ Benefits to well being are experienced as ‘positive emotions’

■ Harms to well being are experienced as ‘negative emotions’

■ Tell us what we should keep doing and what we should avoid or stop doing

○ Duchenne smile

■ Lip corners diagonal as well as contract the band of muscles encircling eyes

■ Genuine smile

○ Display rules: learned norms or rules, often taught very early, about when it is appropriate to express certain emotions and to whom one should show them ○ Deception and its cues

■ Reliable cues: eye flutter, vocal changes, lots of hesitation in speech, incongruous behavior

Chapter 13: Personality

● What is personality?

○ What makes us unique?

○ characteristics in which people vary

○ Three characteristics

■ Uniqueness of behavior (individual differences)

■ Consistency of behavior over time

■ Consistency of behavior over situations

○ Behavior genetics and personality

■ Individual's genetic makeup goes about halfway toward explaining his or her traits

○ Temperament Dimensions

■ Activity level

■ Reactivity level

■ Emotionality

■ Regularity

■ inhibition/sociability

○ Easy vs Difficult Child

■ “Easy” 40% > regular cycles, positive affect, approach novel


■ “Difficult” 10% > irregular cycles, negative affect, withdraw from novel situations/people

■ Another 10% are “slow to warm up” > start difficult then become easy ● Explaining Personality

○ Psychoanalytic theory

■ Power of unconscious

■ Importance of childhood experiences

■ Neurosis

■ Psychotherapy

■ ID (impulse) , EGO (reality), SUPEREGO (control)

○ Humanistic approach

■ Humans are naturally interested in reaching their full potential

○ Trait Approach

■ Traits are dispositions to behave consistently

■ Big five: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness,


○ Biological approach

■ Extroversion

■ Neuroticism

■ Psychositism

○ Evidence for personality in animals

■ horses

Chapter 14: Social Thought and Behavior

● Attitudes and Behavior

○ Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to explain others behavior in dispositional rather than situational terms

● Stereotypes are cognitive schemas

○ Stereotype is a relatively neutral cognitive categorization

○ Prejudice is the effective (emotional) or attitudinal response associated with stereotypes

○ Discrimination is inappropriate and differentiated treatment of people (behavior) based solely on group membership

● Milgram’s Obedience to authority study

○ Task was to have a ‘student’ learn a word pair list and teacher gives feedback in terms of electrical shock

● Asch study

○ 6 confederates and 1 participant

○ Confederates gave intentionally wrong answers

● Aggression

○ Any behavior whose intentions to harm others

○ Influence of serotonin

■ Low levels of serotonin associated with higher levels of aggression ○ Frustration

■ Being in a hurry

■ Crowded

● Prosocial behavior: action that is beneficial to others

● Bystander intervention

○ Kitty Genovese

■ The more people there are, the less likely someone will help

■ Perception of danger

● Attraction and Liking

○ Proximity, familiarity, similarity

■ The more in common and same views the more attracted to

○ Beauty

■ Symmetrical face=attractive

■ Each feature is average size

Chapter 15: Disorders of the Mind

● Disorder: 3 D’s

○ Devient

○ Dysfunctional (Maladaptive)

○ Distressing to self or others

● Modern Conceptualization of Mental Illness

○ DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual)

○ More than 350 disorders altogether

○ 46% of adults suffer from at least one disorder during their lifetime ● Schizophrenia

○ Symptoms

■ Irrational thought

■ Deterioration of thought

■ Distorted perception (hallucinations)

■ Disturbed emotion

■ DOES NOT mean ‘split personality’

○ Nature-Nurture Factors of Schizophrenia

■ Biological vulnerability and environmental stress

■ Neurochemical- excess of dopamine

■ Genetic- higher concordance rate to MZ twins than for D2 twins

■ Epigenetic- if mother gets a virus while pregnant

● Mood disorders

○ Unipolar depression criteria

■ Depressed mood most of day, everyday, for 2 weeks straight

■ Marked disinterest and lack of pleasure

■ Significant weight loss or gain

■ Insomnia

■ Loss of energy

■ Feelings of worthlessness

■ Inability to concentrate

■ Recurring thoughts of death/suicide

○ Bipolar

■ Distractibility

■ Indiscretion-excessively pleasure oriented

■ Grandiosity

■ Flight of ideas

■ Activity increases

■ Sleep decreases

■ Talkativeness

● Anxiety disorders

○ Generalized anxiety: excessive anxiety without true danger or cause ○ Phobic disorder: fear of object of situation

○ Panic disorder: discrete intense periods of panic and intense fear

○ Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): checking and cleaning are most common (and universal) compulsions

■ Obsession: thought

■ Compulsion: behavior

○ Post traumatic stress disorder

● Personality Disorders

○ Stable, ingrained, inflexible and maladaptive ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving- its always there with them

○ Schizotypal

■ Peculiar patterns of thinking and behavior

■ Perceptual and cognitive disturbances

■ Not psychotic

○ Anti social

■ Manipulative, exploitative, dishonest, no guilt or fear, punishment does not deter them, lack of attachment

○ Childhood Disorders

■ Autism Spectrum Disorder

■ Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Chapter 16 Treating Disorders of the Mind and Body

● Three Major Areas of Therapy

○ Biological Treatments: drug, psych surgery, electric and magnetic therapy ○ Psychological therapy: psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral, cognitive behavioral, group

○ Combined: drugs+psychotherapy, integrative therapies,


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