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BYU - PHY S 100 - Study Guide - Final

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BYU - PHY S 100 - Study Guide - Final

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background image Exam 4 Study Guide  Compositional Layers of the Earth  •  The crust  •  The mantle  •  The inner and outer core  Mechanical Layers of the Earth  •  Lithosphere: uppermost mechanical layer of Earth, brittle  •  Asthenosphere: soft, partially molten   o  Continental plates float atop this layer  •  Mesosphere: solid but able to flow  •  Outer core: liquid  •  Inner core: solid    Seismology  •  Earthquakes create P waves (compressional waves) and S waves (shear waves)  o  P waves refract while travelling through core 
o  S doesn't travel through core 
•  Speed of these waves change as the rock they are traveling through changes density  •  Create shadow zones    Plate Tectonics  •  Continents fit like a puzzle  •  Continental structure: mountain ranges that start on one continent continue on a different one  •  Paleontological (fossil) evidence: the same type of fossil is found on multiple continents  •  Paleoclimatic evidence: both marks left by continental glaciers exist on different continents   •  Paleomagnetic: when a rock solidifies, magnetic fields are recorded (orientation of magnetic  fields all point same direction when we line them up like Pangaea)   •  Seafloor spreading: magma squeezes up through fractures created by rifting  •  Ridge push: as plate lifts up from volcanoes, gravity also slides plate down and across  •  Slab pull: plate being pulled under another into the asthenosphere 
*Greatest force on tectonic plates: GRAVITY* 
 
 
 
Plate Boundaries 
•  Divergent: moving apart  o  Oceanic-oceanic divergent  ▪  Ex: Iceland is a growing island  o  Continental-continental divergent  ▪  Ex: rift valley in Eastern Africa  •  Convergent: colliding  o  Continental-continental: mountain ranges 
o  Oceanic-continental: ocean plate sinks, melts and forms volcanoes 
o  Oceanic-oceanic: trench, volcanoes, etc. (old sinks under new) 
•  Transform: two plates sliding past each other  o  Neither sinks; bad earthquakes 
background image o  Ex: Haiti  •  Hot spots: magma comes up and makes an island chain 
 
Relative Dating  •  Unconformity: a break or gap in the geological record  o  Rock layers that aren't a smooth line; erosion (we don't know how much, but time is  missing)  •  Relative time: the determination of sequence in which events occurred, relative to each other  •  Horizontality: everything starts out flat  •  Superposition: oldest layer will be on the BOTTOM and youngest on the TOP  •  Inclusions: solid materials in another solid rock are OLDER than rock inclosing it  •  Crosscutting relationships: rocks are older than the faults or rocks that crosscut them  •  Faunal succession: fossils in rocks help us determine the relative age       Absolute/Radioactive Dating  •  A quantitative measure of something’s age (found out through fission-track dating)  •  Fission-track dating: uses trails created by uranium fission decay to determine age of events  •  Radioactive decay: spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus accompanied by emission  of ionizing radiation (alpha or beta particles or gamma rays)  •  Half-life: time required for half the nuclei in a sample to undergo radioactive decay  •  Parent and daughter isotopes  •  The age we get from radioactive dating of a rock is the age when it cooled completely   
Rock Cycle 
•  Igneous rocks: melted material solidifies  o  Intrusive: formed IN the earth, large crystals and no air bubbles (cooled slowly) 
o  Extrusive: formed ABOVE the earth, small crystals and air bubbles (cooled quickly) 
•  Sedimentary: type of rock created from sediments weathered from other pre-existing rocks; has  visible fossils and sand grains  •  Metamorphic rocks: produced when pre-existing rocks are altered without melting by pressure  and heat; lines, layers   
 
 
Melting Zones  •  The higher the temperature, the more likely rock will melt  •  The higher the pressure, the higher the temperature needs to be for rock to melt  o  Rock needs to go to a lower pressure or to a higher temperature in order to melt  •  Water lowers the melting points of rocks  o  Rocks melt into magma and rise to surface, forming volcanoes    Climate  •  A region’s weather conditions throughout the year when AVERAGED over SEVERAL YEARS. While  weather changes rapidly (day to day, hour by hour, week by week), climate changes over time   •  Scales usually measured in decades  •  How do we measure ancient climates?  o  Tree Rings 

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School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Plate Tectonics, star, nebular theory, and Radioactive Dating
Name: Exam 4 Study Guide
Description: Tectonic Plates; life cycle of a star; nebular hypothesis and big bang theory; radioactive and relative dating
Uploaded: 12/21/2017
6 Pages 22 Views 17 Unlocks
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