This preview shows pages 1 - 6 of a 40 page document.
to view the rest of the content
What Government Does1. Make policies about how stuff should work 2. Implement policies to enforce the law3. Structure ways people get into office to make and implement policies 4. Manifest the system of checks and balances, for good and badPolicy: it all starts with an idea…Somebody somewhere decides government ought to do something…Pick an issue any issueWant government to deal with it, call it a “policy”Then have to get it passed and implemented…Let’s start in CongressLots of people run for Congress specifically to fix problems they’re having in their communities…Let’s assume you're one of them…What to do?Where do policy ideas come from?oLife experiencesoProblems to be solvedoInterest group demandoBureaucracies oPresidents oIdeologiesoAll of the aboveHow a Bill becomes a law… (the long version)Let’s assume you get electedDiscover several things about CongressoLots of rulesoPolitical parties matteroHave to make coalitions to get anything passedoCommittees are really, really powerfuloInterests groups and money matterI’ve got this great idea… what do I do?Step 1: Give it to the Speaker of the House for assignment to a committeeOffice designated in ConstitutionLeader of the majority party in the housePublic symbol of the HouseWhat committee(s) will the bill be assigned to?The short answer: it depends…
oTopicoPartyoWhether the Speaker likes bill/you oUsually to a “standing” committee:Standing Committee: Permanent committee dealing with specific policy areaAre other types of committees:Subcommittees: osubunits of regular committeesJoint Committees: oshared membership House and SenateSelect Committees: ofocused on specific issueConference Committee: otemporary committee designated to resolve differences between the House and the Senate on a bill (tbd)So how do I get a seat on a committee?Parties matter!oSeats on committees divided by partyoYou ask your party leaders for a seat on one committee or the otheroParty leaders decide what you do or don’t get onSo the bill comes to a committee… now what?Where the major analysis and consideration work goes on (and in subcommittees)oHearings oTestimony/evidence oDebate on details(Above are roles for lobbyists, presidents, bureaucrats TBD)A lot depends on what the committee chair wants to doSo how do you become a committee or subcommittee chair?oAmended seniority rule…The longest serving member of the majority party on the committee or subcommittee is chair…So long as the person’s party approves the appointmentAnd then… (usually)The “markup”:oprivate session where members amend the bill to their preferences…Logrolling:
omaking deals with others in Congressvote for each otherKey role(s) of lobbyists,money“Law makingand sausages”Usually followed by a voteoRecommend passageoRecommend not to be passedo“Table”: basically kill bill by doing nothing.Note: two of three are dead ends…Most bills introduced to Congress go nowhere… Or, put more formally:Why are things so different in the senate?Filibuster: oright to control floor so long as you can stand and talk…Hold: odon’t have to stand and talk; just threaten a filibuster and debate shuts downCloture: oprocess to end filibuster or hold; takes 60 votesUnanimous consent agreement:o agreement between majority and minority leader to avoid filibusters… Majority leader Minority leaderYouConferen ce committeSenateHouseSubcommitte esCommittee s“Floor”Rules committeeCommitteesSubcommitte esSpeak er“Floor ”UCA/filibust er cloture2/32/3Preside ntcourtsvetoe ssigns
Has turned out to be a huge deal in the Obama administration… what happenswhen everything has to be over 60 votes?And that’s just to get a law through Congress!Process guarantees whatever idea or plan you have it cannot get through congress in its pure, unbroken form.Hard to get ANYTHING passedImpossible to get “your” idea through “perfectly”Haven’t even begun to explain how presidents, interest groups, courts, elections, voters, bureaucracies can shape laws and policiesAnd then implementedA final pm question … for CongressWhy do members vote for or against a bill?(Gun Control)They all interact with eachotherConstituent pressureParty pressureReelectionDonorsIdeologyLogrollingInterest group pressureGuess what? Presidents get a say, too…But it’s actually less than you might think.How do presidents influence domestic policymaking? 2 basic paths A. Influence policies to be made B. Shape how those policies are implementedWe’re focusing on (a) right now…President shave two paths to shape policymakingConstitutional powers: ospecifically listed powers in the ConstitutionExtra constitutional powers:opowers that derive from social and political changes in the US, 1787todayConstitutional powers quite weakSuggest laws to congressCall congress into session under extraordinary circumstances
Make treaties with consent of SenateHe has the power of the vetoThe action is in the “extra” powers…US much more powerful than when the Constitution was writtenFederal government much larger; president’s “reach” much longerHead of state: oSymbol of unity, claims to represent nation; to oppose is “unpatriotic” Head of government: oleader of political party, was bureaucracy to get what wantsLots of countries separate these two.Examples:Going public:oUsing speeches to promote the president’s messageExecutive orders:oInstructions to an agency to do somethingSigning statements:oInterpretive statements amending bills as president signs them into lawThink about as tools in a tool chest…Pull out what you need as you need itGo public: lobby the American peopleSend staff to lobby congress directShape implementation (tbd) with executive orders and signing statementsHow effective is this (for the Prez)?Really depends on the issueDomestic/ Economic policyoTaxes, welfare, immigration, budget, etc….Presidents have a hard time getting what they wantRegulatory policy (tbd)oSetting rules for how policies are implementedPresidents tend to have a low more success, but not 100%Foreign policyoRelations with foreign nations/groupso“diplomacy” and “national security” Presidents tend to be much more successfulWhy do presidents struggle with domestic/economic policymaking?Makes sense when you think about it…Limited power
Lots of competition Have “bigger hands” than anyone else, but the issues are too complex/ difficult to really handle.Why are presidents “better” at foreign policy?1. They have more powerCommander in chiefVast militaryVast spy systemEconomic relations with foreign countries2. They have less competitionCongressional deferenceNo other “experts”Public trust/focusEmergency powersForeign policy powers IA. Traditional diplomacyMaking treaties (senate approval)Special case: “executive agreement”:oAgreement between president and other leader to follow certain rules, even without a treatyAppointing ambassadors (senate approval)Recognition power:oAccepting credentials letter from foreign person claiming to be ambassador = recognizing that person’s government as the legitimate government of the country.Foreign policy powers IIB. National security/ emergency powersCommander in chief (big since WWII)oMilitary based all over worldoNeed for instant responseoCongress turned over most authority to use military to president “rally ‘round the flag’”oPopular support early days of warRise of the socalled “presidential wars”Korea, Vietnam, Haiti, Lebanon, Grenada, SomaliaCongress did try to reduce such presidential warmaking…War powers act (1973):oPresident has to get Congress’ permission if putting troops in harm’s way for more than 60 days
This is the end of the preview. Please
to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Illinois State University who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Illinois State University
Course: US Government and Civic Practices
Professor: Olukayode Ajayi
Term: Summer 2015
Name: Notes for Exam 1 & 2
Description: These notes cover the lectures in class and will be key for your exams.
Password Reset Request Sent
An email has been sent to the email address associated to your account.
Follow the link in the email to reset your password.
If you're having trouble finding our email please check your spam folder