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BYU-I - CHEM 101 - Class Notes - Week 2

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BYU-I - CHEM 101 - Class Notes - Week 2

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background image Matter Matter-everything seen, touched, smell, or tasted. It occupies space and has mass. 
Matter is composed of molecules and atoms. 
Atom-smallest building block of matter. Made of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Element- An atom with a specific combination of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 
Organized you’re our favorite table, the PERIODIC TABLE. Some Elements are 
molecules -
Molecule- two or more atoms bound together
Compound-two or more elements bound together
Phases of Matter- 
-solid- holds shape, fixed volume, particles move slowly, close together, 
Crystalline solid- repeating atomic order   Amorphous- non repeating atomic order Liquid- Shape of container, free surface, and fixed volume, particles are close but 
mobile, move slowly, incompressible. Surface tension. 
Gas- Shape of container, volume of container, particles move very fast and far 
apart, compressible. 
Only difference in phases of matter is temperature.  Substances Pure Substance- made from one type of matter - Elements are pure substances made from one kind of atom.  - Compound, a pure substance from one kind of molecule Mixtures- physical combination of two+ substances Homogeneous- composition is uniform - Different parts are not visible, composition is uniform Heterogeneous Mixture- composition is not uniform - Composition varies from one part of the mixture to another, different parts of 
the mixture are visible
Physical Properties- describes how a substance behaves, by observation and 
- Characteristics observed or measured without changing the identity - Shape, state, odor, boiling and freezing points, density, and color of the 
- Physucak change occurs if there is a change in state, ie. Gas to solid, solid to 
liquid, but the identity and composition of the substance does not change.
background image Chemical Properties- describes the ability of a substance  - To interact with substances - To change to a new substance   - Chemical change occurs when a new substance forms that has a new 
composition an
- 2d properties Law of CONSERVATION of MASS - Matter is neither created nor destroyed, and nochange in total mass in 
- Mass of products=mass of reactants What are Atoms made of!?!? - Protons- positive charge, give their elements identity.  - Electrons- negative charge, give attraction and reaction forces to elements - Neutrons- neutral charge, basically are atomic freeloaders that add mass to 
Structure of an Atom - Nucleus- contains protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of an 
- Electron cloud- swirl in a large empty space around the nucleus in 
unpredictable patterns 
ELEMENTS How to Identify an Element - Atomic numbers are specific to each element, and is the same for all atoms 
of an element. Appears above the symbol in the periodic table. 
- Atomic symbols represent the name of an element, consists of one or two 
letters, starting with a capital letter. Ex. Ni, H, He, O, Uuq, Mg, Co
Element Organization - Groups contain elements with similar properties in vertical columns, groups 
are lettered. 
- Periods are horizontal rows of elements, numbered 1-7 Element groupings-  - Alkali metals- Soft, shiny metals that are good heat conductors and electricity
with low melting points. React viciously with water, and turn white when 
mixed with oxygen. Includes sodium, lithium, potassium. 
- Alkali Earth Metals- similar to Alkali metals, also reactive at neutral 
temperatures and pressures. Occur naturally in nature. The last potential 
element in this group, undiscovered Unbinilium, has been theorized to exist in
an island of stability. (some cool deep stuf there)

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School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Chemistry
Course: Introduction to General Chemistry
Professor: Robert Willis
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: General Chemistry
Name: Chem 101 Week 2
Description: Elements and Matter.
Uploaded: 01/12/2018
3 Pages 23 Views 18 Unlocks
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