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FAU / Biology / BIOL 3002 / What are the four causes of behavior?

What are the four causes of behavior?

What are the four causes of behavior?

Description

ul.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-3}ul.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-0}.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-7}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-6 0}.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-4 0}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-5 0}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-7 0}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-5}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-0 0}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-4}ul.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qx59xan2kkrb-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-0}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-1 0}ul.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-3 0}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-8}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-0 0}.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-0 0}.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-8 0}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-6}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-4}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-5}.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ycduvabfz72k-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-2 0}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-7}ul.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-5}.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-1}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-2}.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-1}ul.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-3 0}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-3}.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-0}.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_3kom84knrlgm-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-7 0}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-1 0}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-2 0}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-6}.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-6}.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-8 0}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-1 0}ul.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-6 0}.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ul.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_89gpeuedf4hp-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-7 0}.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_zicw696dakv6-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_zicw696dakv6-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_5cglf8i8jpo2-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-2 0}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-3}ul.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-7}ol.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-5 0}ul.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_i7wuldu7zqt-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-2}ul.lst-kix_4mx2xehzt63t-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-3 0}.lst-kix_vdxf9fwsb25i-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-6 0}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fur6owmtyjxq-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rqw11shpzsl5-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_887zt4d15ilp-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_887zt4d15ilp-2,lower-roman) ". 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Biological Bases of BehaviorDon't forget about the age old question of What is dissection?

IntroductionDon't forget about the age old question of What is another word for obligate parasite?

How do we form ideas about the world?

  1. Religion -- major
  2. Learn from others

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the natural order of politics according to burke?

Structure of thought: set of rules that help us make sense of the world

Senses

  • Environment
  • Earth, air, fire, water
  • Observation
  • Intuition

If you want to learn more check out Who will be the recepient of the goods and services?

How do we permit ourselves to think

What causes behavior?

  • Animism: structure of thought which states that the spirit within the organism causes it to move

  • Structure of thought: set of rules for thinking
  • Constricting because they limit alternative explanations

  • Knowledge: information acquired via experience
  • Based on agreement of the majority
  • The agreement based on experience and on experimentation
  • Provides confidence in our knowledge

  • Dualism: belief that body and mind are separate
  • Mind-body problem -- how are they connected
  • material-body , structures in environment
  • Able to touch, smell, see

  • Spiritual: mind, soul
  • Cannot interest with this realm
  • Controls behavior and enable self-awareness
  • Exclusive to humans        

  • Dualism allowed for advancement
  • Industrial age

  • Rene Descastes
  • Published “Treatise of man”

  • Bodies of humans are “machine-like”.
  • Controlled by environmental stimuli

  • Reflexes: an automatic stereotyped movement that is produced as a direct result of stimulus

Don't forget about the age old question of What id descartes' madness argument?

Humans and animals are similar.

  • First to equate the bodies of humans and animals

We also discuss several other topics like What is used to modify molecule?

Descartes’ theory of brain and behavior

  • Mind resides in pineal body near ventricles
  • Movement produced when CSF (cerebral spinal muscles causing them to inflate)
  • Was first serious explanation for the role of the brain in intelligent behavior
  • Stimulated ideas regarding causes of behavior and facilitated move towards empirical testing

What about animas?

  • To determine whether an organism has a “mind”

2 tests are devised

  1. Language test: required on organism to describe and reason about things not physically present
  2. Action test: required organism to display behavior based on reasoning in response to a particular situation (not reflex response)

Consequences of Descartes Dualism Theory

  1. Argument that young children and the mentally insane must lack a human mind because they are often unable to reason appropriately
  1. Example, “He lost his mind” -- mentally

  1. If one lacks a mind, that person is just a machine and not due respect or kindness

  1. Dualism holds that there can be no real change in behavior
  1. Does not promote psychotherapy or medicine

  1. Result: monism

  1. Monism: the idea of one realm, everything is composed of matter and energy
  1. No soul
  2. Behavior occurs because of physical properties
  3. Self-awareness or consciousness is generated by the brain
  4. Brought world under complete control
  1. Allows study of behavior

Luigi Galvani: 18th century physiologist, tested Descastes theories

  • Invitro frog experiments
  • Removed leg muscle including attached nerve
  • Used electrical wire to connect neve with electrical generator
  • Muscle contracted when current turned on.

Muscle movement is not hydraulic, it is electrical.

  • Nevers carry an electrical impulse,

Galvani concluded that muscular contraction is produced when the nerve and muscle are connected by conducting arcs.

Galvanic Reanimation

Giovanni Aldini: Andrew Ure, continued galvanic experiments with human corpses

  • 1867 Ures experiment with Matthew Clydesdale’s body: body was made to breathe by attaching battery charged rods to diaphragm and phrenic nerves
  • Also attached to face --- facial expressions

Duchenne De Boulogne, an electrophysiologist who used electrically charged rods to produce emotional facial expressions on the faces of living participants

Johannes Muller (1801-1858)

  • Asked the question “Do nerves carry the same message from different parts of the body?” (nose, eyes, ears)

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