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ASU / Engineering / PSY 1101 / How is threshold related to signal?

How is threshold related to signal?

How is threshold related to signal?

Description

School: Augusta State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Intro to General Psychology
Professor: Jane hodges
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Psychology and Intro to Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Biological - Psych (week 2)
Description: Notes over chapter 2 of the textbook will be beneficial to completing the first application paper.
Uploaded: 01/15/2018
6 Pages 52 Views 2 Unlocks
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PSYCH 1101 – C Jessica C. Goodwin Prof. Jane Hodges


How is threshold related to signal?



The Biology of Behavior - Ch. 2  

Note to reader: For all terms, go to the end of the chapter and you will find the page  number of each textbook definition 

Neural Communication  

• Dendrites receive information  

• Axons pass information through terminal branches to neurons, muscles, or  glands

• The myelin sheath is a fatty tissue that increases the speed of the axon’s impulse o Sheathes are being added to grow neural efficiency, judgment, and self control until a person turns 25

o If the sheathes break down, a person may suffer from multiple sclerosis  • Glial cells give neurons nutrients and myelin sheathes, manage connections, and  take part in memory and information passing  


Which neurotransmitter deteriorate during alzheimer's?



• Between one neuron’s dendrite and another neuron’s axon is a synapse o In the gap,  

neurotransmitters are  

released to the next  

dendrite

o Reuptake - The excess  

neurotransmitters will be  

reabsorbed by sending  

axon


Which part of the brain is also called as the "little brain"?



More on Neurotransmitters

• Certain neurotransmitters can  If you want to learn more check out What forces are most significant to the evolutionary process?

influence hunger, thinking,  

depression, euphoria, addiction,  

therapy, movement, and  

emotions

• Candace Pert and Solomon  

Synder (1973) - found that the  

body produces its own  

morphine (endorphins) like that  

of the opiate drug that helps  

with pain and mood.

PSYCH 1101 – C Jessica C. Goodwin Prof. Jane Hodges

Other Neurotransmitters  

• Acetylcholine (ACh) – muscle action, learning, memory

o Deteriorate during Alzheimer’s

• Dopamine – movement, learning, attention, memory

o Oversupply – schizophrenia

o Undersupply – tremors in Parkinson’s disease

• Serotonin – mood, hunger, sleep, arousal

o Undersupply – depression

• Norepinephrine – alertness and arousal

o Undersupply - depression

• Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) – inhibitory neurotransmitter o Undersupply – seizures, tremors, insomnia

• Glutamate – excitatory neurotransmitter; memory

o Oversupply – overstimulates brain and causes migraines and seizures Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three foundations of finance?

Impulses

An impulse occurs towards the terminal of the axon when signaled; called the action  potential 

In an axon…  

• Resting state – negative ions in the interior; positive ions are pumped to exterior  • Impulse state – positive ions move from the exterior to the interior and  depolarizes the neuron; this causes a domino effect with other neurons

Signals  

• Excitatory signals start a reaction

o Can overpower an inhibitory signal and still cause the action potential;  known as a threshold 

• Inhibitory signals stop a reaction  

• Strong stimuluses trigger more neurons to impulse but will NOT increase the  intensity or speed of the impulse

PSYCH 1101 – C Jessica C. Goodwin Prof. Jane Hodges

The Nervous System  

Main Divisions  

• Central Nervous System (CNS) – brain and spinal cord

o Neural networks – clusters of brain neurons  We also discuss several other topics like How are vectors defined in a coordinate system?
We also discuss several other topics like How does steinbock respond to the disability critique?

o Spinal cord – connects PNS to the brain

▪ Reflexes can cause a reaction through the sensory neurons and  interneurons without communication to the brain  

▪ Sends up sensory info

▪ Sends down motor info

• Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – sensory and motor neurons connect CNS to  the body  

o Somatic/Skeletal – voluntary movement  

o Autonomic (ANS)– controls glands and internal organ muscles

▪ Sympathetic – arouses and uses energy in alarming or challenging  situations We also discuss several other topics like Which principle refers to the assumption that nothing else is changing?

▪ Parasympathetic – conserves energy and calms the body in relaxed situations

3 Main Types of Neurons  

• Motor – carries incoming info from the CNS to muscles and glands • Sensory – carries outgoing information from sensory receptors to the CNS • Interneurons – manages information coming in and out of the CNS

The Endocrine System

Secretes hormones into the bloodstream slower than the nervous system, but the  effects last longer

• Adrenal glands - releases epinephrine/adrenaline and  

norepinephrine/noradrenaline when in danger

• Pituitary gland – can trigger other glands; controlled by the hypothalamus o Oxytocin – birth contraction, breast feeding, orgasms, trust, bonding,  cohesionIf you want to learn more check out Do return strategies truly make consumers happy?

PSYCH 1101 – C Jessica C. Goodwin Prof. Jane Hodges

The Brain

• The left side of the brain is linked to the right side of the brain and vice versa • Information is often processed outside of our awareness

Old Brain  

• Brainstem: oldest part of the brain at the base of the skull

o Medulla: bottom part of the  

brainstem; controls heartbeat and  

breathing

o Pons: top part of the brainstem;  

movement

o Thalamus: gives information  

concerning seeing, hearing, tasting,  

and touching (NOT smelling) to  

higher brain regions

o Reticular Formation: inside the  

brainstem; filters stimuli, controls  

arousal, gives information to other parts of the brain

▪ Giuseppe Moruzzi and Horace Magoun (1949) – stimulated a  

sleeping cat’s RF and the car was instantly alert. When they cut off  the RF, the cat went into a coma.  

• Cerebellum: “little brain”; nonverbal learning and memory; sense of time;  emotions, discern sounds and textures; voluntary movement  

o Alcohol affects the cerebellum’s ability to enact voluntary movement (e.g.  it would be difficult to play a sport)

New Brain (Higher Regions)  

• Limbic System: between the old and new brain

o Amygdala: aggression and fear

▪ Heinrich Kluver and Paul Bucy (1939) – removed the amygdala of a  monkey and found that it turned it more calm than the others in its  species

o Hypothalamus: homeostasis of the body; manages the endocrine system;  contains reward centers

▪ Blum, et al. (1996) – malfunctions in the brain’s pleasure center  (reward deficiency syndrome) can link to addictive disorders;  

o Hippocampus: process conscious, new memories

• Cerebral Cortex: ultimate control and information-processing center; covers the  cerebral hemispheres; 20-23 billion nerve cells

PSYCH 1101 – C Jessica C. Goodwin Prof. Jane Hodges

o Structure

▪ Frontal lobe: speaking, muscle movements, making plans,  

judgment

▪ Parietal lobe: sensory input for touch and body position

▪ Occipital lobe: vision

▪ Temporal lobe: hearing; received from opposite ear

o Function

▪ Motor cortex: rear of frontal lobe; sends messages out of the brain to affect motion reactions

▪ Sensory cortex: front of parietal lobe; gives the sense of touch  ▪ Association areas: all other areas except for those mentioned  

above; learning, remembering, thinking, speaking

• Plasticity: ability to change after being damaged

o The brain will enhance some part of the brain in order to make up for a  disability. (e.g. a deaf person will have better peripheral vision)

o Neurogenesis: formation of new neurons

• Split Brain: separation of the corpus callosum (connects brain hemispheres) during surgery  

o Philip Vogel and Joseph Bogen (1961) – attempted and failed to stop  epileptic seizures by cutting the corpus callosum; people are left with two  hemispheres that operate independent of the other

Ways to view the brain  

• Electroencephalogram (EEG) 

• Positron emission tomography (PET) scan 

• Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 

• Functional MRI (fMRI) 

Behavior Genetics

• Study of effects on behavior caused by our genes and our environment  • Structure of cells:

o Genes: code of nucleotides that take part in protein synthesis; leads to  physical traits

o Chromosomes: collection of DNA; humans have 23 pairs

o Nucleus: contains chromosomes

• Studies have been done to determine genetic influence and environment  influence between identical twins, fraternal twins, and adopted children • Epigenetics: study of how environmental interactions lead to change in gene  expression

PSYCH 1101 – C Jessica C. Goodwin Prof. Jane Hodges

o Prenatal: drugs, toxins, nutrition, stress

o Postnatal: neglect, abuse, variations of care

o Juvenile: social contact, environment complexity  

Evolutionary Psychology  

• Finds the commonalities in our traits and behaviors

• Natural Selection 

o Organisms compete to survive

o Adaptations, survival traits, get passed down to offspring and other  generations

o Certain adaptations will not always be desired due to changes in  environment

o Population characteristics will change over time

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