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YSU - Env 22036 - Class Notes - Week 2

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YSU - Env 22036 - Class Notes - Week 2

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background image Ch. 2- Scientific Concepts 1. Science is… a. Democratic
b. Non-dogmatic
c. Reliance on senses
d. Hypothesis must be tested 
e. Anecdote vs Experiment
f. Peer review vs pseudo-science
2. Atoms a. Protons; weight= 1
b. Neutrons; neutral charge; weight= 1
c. Electrons; negative charge
i. /= 1/1836 th  of a proton  d. Weight of atoms= sum of protons and neutrons
e. Ions (gain or loss of electrons)
f. Atoms combine to form molecules
i. Inert elements do not combine with other elements g. Number of protons in an atom change the element
h. Isotopes- atoms with the same number of protons, but different 
number of neutrons 3. Periodic Table of Elements (google “Periodic Table” or see textbook) 
4. Three meanings of Organic
a. Chemistry: chemical containing carbon (excluding carbon dioxide
b. Env. Science: bad chemicals (PCB, dioxins, chlorinated hydrocarbons, 
pesticides) c. Store: certified grown without artificial chemicals, radiation, or  genetic engineering for growth and insect avoidance 5. Biology a. Study of life
b. Humans are organic compounds: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic
acids 6. From Cell to the Biosphere a. Organic chemicals form cellstissuesorgansorganisms
b. alike organisms= species
c. group of the same species= population
d. group of populations (different species) = community
e. community + environment= ecosystem
f. ecosystems w/ similar climate zones= biomes
g. all biomes on Earth= biosphere
7. Astronomy a. Planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus,  and planetoid Pluto b. Our solar system is a star cluster
c. Comprise all matter in the universe
8. The Big Bang (see textbook chapter) 
9. Evolution
a. Evolution: slow change and Revolution: quick change
b. Change occurs because the Earth is dynamic
c. Biologic evolution:
background image i. Accounts for life forms and explains their interactions and  history ii. Acts at the populations level; not organism level 10.Slides about Species Diversity (see slides and/or book) 
11.Nature Heals Itself
a. Ecosystem always adjusts to change after a catastrophic event
b. Repairs can create intermediate environments; can be replaced until a 
dynamic equilibrium is reached i. Complete destruction: primary successions ii. Partial destruction: secondary successions Ch. 3- Earth Spheres 1. Earth Spheres a. Different types of Earth Spheres: i. Geosphere- solid and molten rocks ii. Hydrosphere- water and glaciers iii. Atmosphere- air and wind currents iv. Biosphere- life forms v. Exosphere- space and planets b. Subatomic particles and distant galaxies are studied by quantum  physicists  2. Geosphere a. Molten rock, sediment, and soil i. Can be shown by layers ii. Least dense, outer layer- crust 1. Lower-density rock (granitic) under the continents
2. Higher-density rock (basaltic) underneath the oceans
b. Granitic crust floats higher and raises the crust above sea level
c. Three parts of the Geosphere: Crust, Mantle and Core
i. Mantle: The crust is underlain by rocks having a greater density than the densest  crustal material  ii. Core: The mantle is underlain by a two-layer core of extremely  dense material. The outer core is liquid and the inner core is 
solid
1. Outer core is responsible for the Earth’s magnetic field iii. Sediment and soil on the upper crust; derived from crustal rock iv. Crust and upper mantel are combined and called the  lithosphere v. They move in unison over the asthenosphere  3. Hydrosphere a. Comprises of all water on Earth i. Oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, aquifers…and waters of  hydration in minerals b. Closed system i. No water enters or leaves the planet; except for ice from  comets

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School: Youngstown State University
Department: Environmental Studies Department
Course: Intro to Environmental Science
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Science and enviornmentalscience
Name: Evnironmental Science Notes- Week 2
Description: Chapters 2 and 3 only
Uploaded: 01/19/2018
3 Pages 20 Views 16 Unlocks
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