In the beginning: 23 pairs of chromosomesDon't forget about the age old question of Why is cell called the smallest unit of life?
Chromosomes: thread-like structures in the nuclei of cells that contain genetic material.
If you want to learn more check out What is the form of memory we use to hold onto information temporarily, usually of manipulation?
Autosomes: first 22 pairs of chromosomes
Sex chromosomes: 23rd pair of chromosomes. These determine the sex of the child.We also discuss several other topics like What are the functions of the nervous system?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - molecules composed of four nucleotide bases that is the biochemical basis in heredity.
Gene: group of nucleotide bases that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions.Don't forget about the age old question of What are the fields of science related to the physical world and its phenomena and processes?
Genotype: a person’s hereditary makeup
Phenotype: physical behavioral and psychological features that result from the interaction between one’s genes and the environment.We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of variation or dispersion?
Alleles: variations of genes
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Homozygous: when the alleles in a pair of chromosome are the same
Heterozygous: when the alleles in a pair of chromosomes differ from each other
Dominant: form of an allele whose chemical instructions are followed
Recessive: allele whose instructions are ignored in the presence of a dominant allele
Incomplete dominance: situation in which one allele does not dominate another completely
Sickle-cell trait: disorder in which individuals show signs of mild anemia only when they are seriously deprived of oxygen. It occurs in individuals who have a one dominant allele for normal blood cells and one recessive sickle-cell allele
Niche-picking: process of deliberating seeking environments that compatible with one’s genetic makeup
Non-shared environment influences: force within a family that makes siblings different from one another.
From Conception to Birth
Prenatal development: many changed that turn a fertilized egg into a newborn human
Zygote: fertilized egg
In vitro fertilization: process by which sperm and egg are mixed in a petri dish to create a zygote, which is then placed in the woman's uterus.
Eugenics: effort to improve the human species by letting only people whose characteristics are valued by society mate and pass along their genes
Vernix: substance that protects the fetus’s skin during development
Age of viability: age at which a fetus can survive outside the womb because most of its bodily systems funnell adequately: typically at 7 months after conception
Influence on Prenatal Development
Spina bifida: disorder in which the embryo’s neural tube does not close properly
Teratogen: an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
Stress: physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging conditions
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: disorder affecting babies whose mother consumes large amounts of alcohol while they are pregnant.
C-section: surgical removal of an infant from the uterus through an incision made in the mother’s abdomen
Premature-babies born before the 36thth week
Low birth weight: newborns who weigh less than 2,600 grams (5.5 lbs)
Very low birth weight: newborns who weigh less than 3.3 lbs
Extremely low birth weight: newborns who weigh less than 2.2 kbs
Infant mortality: number of babies who die out of 1000 before first birthday
Ultrasound: prenatal diagnostic techniques that uses sound waves to generate an image of the fetus
Amniocentesis: prenatal diagnosis technique that uses a syringe to withdraw a sample of amniotic fluid through the mother’s abdomen
Chorionic villus sampling: prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the placenta.
Fetal medicine: field of medicine concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth.