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BYU - PHY S 100 - Physical Science 100: Week 1 Textbook Notes (Ch

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BYU - PHY S 100 - Physical Science 100: Week 1 Textbook Notes (Ch

School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Physics, scientific method, newton's laws, gravity, and motion
Name: Physical Science 100: Week 1 Textbook Notes (Ch. 1-3)
Description: These notes will cover part of the first exam. They include detailed information concerning how scientific knowledge is obtained, the laws of motion, and the laws of gravity.
Uploaded: 01/20/2018
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background image Physical Science 100 
 
Ch. 1: Knowledge, Science, and the Universe 
Science proves ideas right or wrong by discovering whether or not predictions match experience 
  
1.1 How We Gain Knowledge 
● Each of us weighs differently the validity and value of the information we receive ​; each  person is a philosopher and creates his or her own view of the world from 4 shared 
sources of knowledge 
● Authority  ○ Trusting another source of knowledge, even though you have not done the  experiment yourself  ○ Accepted source of expert information or advice 
○ Validated by the greatest number of witnesses 
○ Strength: we accept and learn from the experiences of others 
○ Weakness: sources of authority may conflict with each other 
● Intuition  ○ Knowledge imparted to us through methods other than the physical senses 
○ Inspiration, hunches, feelings, beliefs, revelation 
○ Inner experiences of intuition cannot be articulated scientifically 
○ Strength: knowledge from God who knows all things 
○ Weakness: hard to interpret correctly and everyone has different feelings and 
experiences  ● Reason  ○ Knowledge derived from assumptions and conclusions 
○ i.e. the mathematical proof 
○ Strength: you write the conclusions down, describe the process of obtaining them, 
and subject the argument to public scrutiny  ○ Weakness: set of assumptions that are the base for the argument may be  unreliable (limited knowledge)  ● Sensory data  ○ experience obtained through the 5 physical senses ​: sight, touch, hearing, smell,  taste  ○ Knowledge of our immediate surroundings necessary to function in everyday life 
○ Strength: ability to portray the world accurately 
○ Weakness: senses can be tricked or fooled 
1.2 The Scientific Method  ● Sciences uses all 4 shared sources of knowledge, but the method focuses on reason and  sensory data 
background image ● Hypothesis: tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem  that can be tested through experimentation  ○ A first guess; a set of assumptions 
○ Hypothesis, experiment, sensory data, reasoning, repeat 
● Theory: a well-tested and refined hypothesis  ○ Repeatedly tested and widely accepted 
○ Mature detail 
● Law: theories that have been proven accurate; generalized principles 
● Models: schematic descriptions of physical systems 
○ If successful models can't be built upon theories, then the theories are questioned  ● Scientific research is always a test of a hypothesis, theory, law, or model against the  behavior of nature  1.3 6 Self-Evident Truths  ● Science and reasoning rests on a set of logical and basic assumptions 
1. Existence 
1. A physical world that is separate and distinct from our minds ​, comprehensible  through our senses  2. Governed by the laws of nature  2. Causality  1. Events in the universe have natural causes 
2. Cause must always precede the effect 
3. Position symmetry  1. The laws of nature are the same everywhere in the universe  4. Time symmetry  1. The laws of the universe do not change over time  5. Principle of non-contradiction  1. Of 2 contradictory propositions, both cannot be true 
2. At least one conclusion will be wrong 
3. Contradictions=lack of understanding 
6. Occam's razor  1. When 2 or more explanations exist for the same physical phenomenon, we choose  the simplest one that satisfies all the observations  2. i.e. the Ptolemaic model of the solar system vs. the Copernican model of the solar  system  1.4 The Universe Around Us  ● Interactions and force  ○ Everything is made of matter and energy organized differently and uniquely 
○ Interaction
​: any of 4 fundamental ways (strong nuclear, electromagnetic, weak  nuclear, gravity) in which particles and bodies can influence each other 
background image ○ Force ​: a push or pull on an object  ○ Interactions give rise to forces 
○ The relative strengths of these forces are diverse 
● The four interactions in nature: 
1. Strong nuclear 
1. Interactions between nucleons that gives rise to the strong force 
2. Most powerful force known, but its range is very short (atomic level) 
3. Atomic nuclei: positively charged central region of an atom, composed of protons 
(positively charged, 3 quarks) and neurons (uncharged, 3 quarks), nucleons: either 
a proton or neutron 
4. Quark: fundamental building blocks of protons and neurons  2. Electromagnetic  1. Interaction between charged objects that gives rise to the electromagnetic force 
2. Dominates the world in which we live 
3. Present in atomic nuclei as a repulsion between protons 
4. Atoms
​: electrons and nuclei bound together; mostly empty space; makes up all  matter as we know it  5. Elements ​: substance composed entirely of atoms having the same number of  protons in their nuclei  6. Molecules ​: tiniest particles of a substance that retain all the physical properties of  that substance (usually made of more than 1 atom)  7. Mixture ​: objects made of large numbers of atoms and molecules mixed together  3. Weak nuclear  1. Interaction between nucleons that gives rise to the weak force 
2. Does not dominate at any scale length 
3. Attempts to break nuclei apart (
​radioactive​)  4. Gravity  1. Interaction between anything with mass that gives rise to the gravitational force 
2. Becomes the dominant force when the sizes we are considering are larger (> or = 
planets)  3. As molecular assemblies increase in mass, they are held together by gravity  instead of electromagnetism  4. Gravity pulls matter inward…objects tend to have a round shape 
5. Solar system is mostly empty space, similar to an atom 
 
 
 
 
 
background image Ch. 2: Laws Governing Motion 
 
Change and motion are intertwined
​; motion is fundamental to the world around us  Forces are always necessary to create or change motion, but force is not necessary to sustain 
motion 
 
Newton's Laws of Motion 
  
2.1 
​The First Law of Motion​ (qualitative)  Every object at rest, or in uniform motion, will remain in that state of motion unless compelled to 
do otherwise by forces acting upon it 
● Uniform motion ​: motion at a constant speed in a straight line  ● State of motion ​: speed and direction  ● Force ​: a push or pull on an object  ● Speed depends on what you measure the object against 
● The objects we deal with in everyday life experience multiple forces (friction, gravity, 
etc.)    
2.2 Velocity and Acceleration 
● Velocity ​: speed and direction combined together; distance in a particular direction  ● Acceleration ​: a change in an object's velocity; the rate at which speed or direction  changes  ○ Centripetal acceleration: acceleration at a right angle to an object's velocity that  changes the object's direction without changing its speed    
2.3 Force: Introduction to the Second Law of Motion 
● Forces have direction 
● Net force
​: the total force acting on an object  ○ Forces pushing in the same direction add together to increase net force, and forces  pushing in opposing directions add against each other and decrease force  ○ Acceleration is caused by force 
○ However, force does not have to cause acceleration 
● Accelerations are caused by unbalanced forces ​: portion of the total force that is  unopposed by other forces and so will cause an acceleration. The net force is not zero.  ○ Will always point in the same direction 
○ Acting whenever an object moves faster, slower, changes direction, or 
experiences any combination of speed and direction change  ○ The kind of acceleration caused by a force depends on the direction of the force    

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School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Physics, scientific method, newton's laws, gravity, and motion
Name: Physical Science 100: Week 1 Textbook Notes (Ch. 1-3)
Description: These notes will cover part of the first exam. They include detailed information concerning how scientific knowledge is obtained, the laws of motion, and the laws of gravity.
Uploaded: 01/20/2018
16 Pages 52 Views 41 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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