Unformatted text preview: ADAPTATIONS TO VARIABLE ENVIRONMENTS ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND P OLES ES VALY IN TIME AND SPACE The environment Changes over time and space at different rates. TEMPORAL VARIATION Some temporal Variation isn't predictable P WERTHER Variation in temperature and precipitation wer small period of time. P CUMATE The typical mapherit conditions that meer over long period of time. Dome types of temporal variation can cause huge impacts on the contem but don't our otten * Droughes Fires Tsunamis Tornadoes Some temporal variation outure frequently In pine woodlande, twigs odeumulate and care fires. SPATIAL VARIATION ceurs from plane to place Variations are duet Climats, topography, and Soil type. Generated by Strutturer of plante, animal ativitySoil Composition, and human attivity, CopaTION OF SPATIAL > Spate affected by an event is positivelg Carrelated to trent'e duration -Hurricant vs. rain Topography and gealogy slowly thange ar a result, ENVIRONMENTAL VAUTIONE FAVORS THE EVOLUTION OF VARIABLE PHENOTYPES Phenotypes are a reult of genotype with the erwironment, > The erwironment that caused this can change at varying rares. PHENOTYPIE TEADEOFFSA pletype that wones in one environment may not work in another PPHENOTYPIR TIL DEOFF When a given pherotipe hat higher first in one tihvironment while other phenotypes experience fitness in other environments - Neither phenotype does well in both environments > PHENOTYPIC PLAFTICITY: Ability of a single genotype to have multiple phenotyper. - Through metation - Can Survive Gveral environment Favored by natural selection. Outurs mortly when temporal and Spatial variations Oteur often. ENVIRONMENTAL To properly change their phenotype, an organiem meer firot ang its environment. This can inelude smells, Sigher, Sound, and abiotic changer. -P Using a reliable Cut is important to develop the proper phenotype. RESPONSE SPEED AND ZEVEBNIBILITY The fastest phenotypit responder are behavioral and hot physical ACCLIMATION: Physiological Change Cavece by the erwironment >Can be fast - Humans getting used to the dark. - Can also be rapidly reverse - Makes it more favorable. MANY ORGANISMS HAVE EVOLVED ADAPTATIONS TO VARIATION IN ENEMIES, COMPETITORS AND MATES ENEMIES Over time, a spesies may evolve to best escape their predator >> Eheir physical or behavioral bly. - The changes cost energy and may take time Oway from growth However, predators can evolve ar wel. >> Usually as a result to the preys change. Needed for Survival. COMPETITION FOL Searce resources lead to competition. Rate of Competition Varle.High Competition favore phenotypically planse traits, es foows on how to gut more here Animals respond to competition differently. Instead of spending time, lonting for stare food, animale Sometimes Gam from the food they have. Puthor's intestines ad quit tither Loting patterns. MATES Finding mates can also be a Challenge HELMAPHRODITES Organisms that produce male and female gametes. - They can use their own sperm te fertilize their own egg. -INBLEEDING DEPLESSION when an offspring experience fiers by inheriting bed genes from both egg and parm. * Berter than no fertilization. - MANY ORGANISMS HAVE EVOLVED ADAPTATIONS TO VARIABLE ABIOTI& CONDITIONS TEMPERATURE Isozymes are a form of phenotypie plastiuitg > Fast response time Many organisme Move to habitats with more pleasant temperaturer, P MICRO HABITAT: A habitat that contains more favorable abioti tenditions WATER AVAILABILITY Most animals tend to have when water is unavailable -However, plants must use of methods Closing the stomata to retain water. -Can focus to grow roots or shoot to fit the situation P Sintl Water availability changes frequently, phenotypie plastility is often beneficial. SALINITY Some aquatit, environment change salinity to rapidly P When Salt Concentration an high, organisme retain amino atlar to match the environment's Concentration. - Requires energy P When Salt Concentrations are low, organisms can get rid of Cress solutes through their urine.