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FAU / Biology / BIOL 3002 / What neural impulse is the basis for psychological thought and behavio

What neural impulse is the basis for psychological thought and behavio

What neural impulse is the basis for psychological thought and behavio

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Ch 2. Structure & Function of cells!If you want to learn more check out What are atoms according to rutherford atomic model?

If you want to learn more check out What are the 5 factors that affect the rate of reaction?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the focus of metaphysics?

Cell CharacteristicsIf you want to learn more check out What is the purpose of a 5 number summary?

  • membrane - border of cell, keeps contents in
  • nuclues - ovoid, contains info for making proteins
  • Nucleolus - produces ribosomes
  • Ribosomes - string of amino acids

*sight of protein synthesis (generation of new proteins)

  • sequence of amino acids determines type of protein
  • Chromosomes - strands of DNA that carry out genetic information
  • Genes - portions of Chromosome that produce MRNA

*Messenger ribonucleic acid - contains copy of blueprint for protein & carries it to ribosomes

  • Cytoplasm - gelatinous substance located within cell membrane that contains organelles
  • Cytoskeleton - within cytoplasm & gives cell shape
  • Intermediate Filaments (determine where everything goes) - Organize internal structure of cell & control location of proteins.

*In neurons = neurofilaments

  • Microfilaments - cell skeleton
  • Microtubules - transportation proteins / extend from body of cell, down axon to terminals

Don't forget about the age old question of Why use the international classification of diseases -10 code?
We also discuss several other topics like Explain the different developmental domains.

        ↱ Powerhouse / Battery of cell

                ↱ Have their own D. N. A & can produce

  • Mitochondria - break down nutrients (glucose) with enzymes to produce Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is used as energy by the cell
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Rough ER.- protein production
  • Smooth E.R. - complete finishing touches for proteins, produce lipids (fatty acids)
  •  Golgi apparatus (type of smooth E.R.) - packages proteins for transport. Produces Lysosomes
  • Lysosomes - packages of enzymes for break up cell waste

Transportation

  • Axoplasmic Transport - users microtubules to transport substances from the Soma (cell body) to terminals
  • microtubules - long, hollow proteins located along axons.
  • Anterograde - movement from the cell body to the terminal buttons (uses the protein Kinesin)

½ as fast as Anterograde ← Retrograde - carrying a substance from the terminal buttons to the soma. (uses the protein dynein)

*ATP needed for all of this

Neurons & Glia

  • Neurons - information processing cell with connections for communicating with other neurons.
  • Sensory neurons (located in P. N. S.) - detects changes in the external or internal environment & send info about these changes to C. N. S.
  • Motor neurons (Begin in brain; extend to P. N. S.) - controls the contraction of a muscle or the secretion or a gland, voluntary movement
  • Interneuron - neuron located entirely within the C. N. S.

*Local interneurons - for circuits with nearby neurons & analyze small pieces of info.

*Relay interneurons - Connect Circuits of local interneurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions.

  • Glia (Glia) Cell - support cell
  • provide nutrition, insulate neurons, clean up debris, form scar tissue, mediate neural communication.

                *Astrocytes - (“star” cell) looks like a star, many extensions

  • separate neurons & hold them in place.

                    *- provide nutrients (oxygen glucose) which they get (the glucose) from capillaries, break it down to surrounding neurons

  • Phagocytosis (New production of Astrocytes during injury) - injest foreign material & excrete through venous system.
  • upregulation during injury to create scar tissue

        * Oligodendrocytes - produces myelin sheath segments in C. N. S. Can provide myelin sheath for several neurons.

  • Myelin Sheath (Speeds up messages) - a sheath that surrounds axons & insulates them, preventing messages from spreading between adjacent axons.
  • Microglia - smallest of the glial cells;
  • act as phagocytes, engulfing & breaking down dead & dying neurons.
  • (primary responsible for) Inflammatory response to brain damage
  • Come from vascular system

Structural Classes of Neurons

  • Multipolar : most common neuron
  • specialized to receive info from many sources & combine it (integration)
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