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FSU - CLP 4143 - Abnormal Psych, Week 2 Notes - Class Notes

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FSU - CLP 4143 - Abnormal Psych, Week 2 Notes - Class Notes

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background image Part 2: Casey 
Causes of Abnormality part 2! 
 
Psychological Causes of Abnormalities 
➢  Psychodynamic – Freud  ➢  Behavioral - reinforcements  ➢  Cognitive – thoughts and beliefs  ➢  Humanistic  ❖  Psychodynamic Theories  Developed by Freud  ID  Pleasure principle, primary 
process – wants what it 
wants and wants it now. 
Concerned with sexual 
behaviors/desires. Doesn’t 
care about society or 
anything 
EGO  Reality principle – what can 
I get and how can I fit it 
into society. More 
controllable 
SUPEREGO  Society’s desires for us.  Conscience and ego ideal.   Id: “I want this” superego: “no you can’t because it’s not what a good person 
does” 
Focuses on what’s beneath the surface; unconscious thinking  ❖  Behavioral Theories of Abnormality  Learning theories  ▪  Classical Conditioning – Pavlov’s study.  •  Automatic, natural responses. Stimuli paired with a conditioned  stimulus in order to get the same response.   ▪  Operant conditioning  •  Behaviors shaped by rewards and punishments (Skinner &  Thorndike)  Negative reinforcement: taking something away or a 
unpleasant stimuli is used to increase the likelihood of 
happening 
▪  Modeling – Bandura   •  Learning behaviors by imitating other people  •  I see you do this so I’ll do it to see what I get from it  ▪  Observational Learning – Bandura   •  Individual observes rewards and punishments received by others  ❖  Cognitive Theories of Abnormality  Thoughts and beliefs  The way we think influences the way we feel and act 
background image ▪  Causal attributions – explaining why something happened. Traffic 
because it’s raining 
▪  Locus of control – circumstances of my life have to with external things of 
my life or have to do with me.  
▪  Assumptions about the future  ❖  Humanistic & Existential Theories of Abnormality  All humans strive to fulfill their potential for good and to self-actualize  Pressures of society to conform to others’ expectations and values, and from 
existential anxiety -> inability to fulfill one’s potential 
Client-Centered Therapy (“Rogerian” Therapy)  ▪  Carl Rogers  ▪  Relies to genuinely understand and giving empathy for the other person. 
Accepting them for who they are to help them grow towards a more 
positive self 
•  Some cases, Rogerian therapy helps psychological problems and  for others, not so much.   •  Not “how can we fix your problems” but rather “how can we help  you grow”  Social and Interpersonal Approaches  ➢  Interpersonal Theories = long-standing patterns of negative relationships that 
have roots in early caregiving – the most specific.  
➢  Family systems theories = view abnormality as a result of family 
dynamics/relationships that can create and maintain mental disorders in 
individuals to maintain homeostasis – focuses of faily unit 
➢  Social structural theories = societies put individuals under stress and sanction 
abnormal behavior – more broad – looks at society 
❖  Interpersonal Theories  Relationships, important life transitions impact our behavior  ▪  Relationship conflict (between parents, spouse, or someone important to 
the person). 
•  Ex: insecure attachment – starts out early and plays out later in  life  ▪  Big changes in life circumstances (living with family to living 
independently)  
▪  Complicated grief (that persists for a long time like 5 years – deviant from 
the norm) – though, grief is part of being human and not abnormal, just 
depends how long it persists for  
▪  Social isolation or problems with picking up social cues  ▪  Patterns in the way you relate with others and the therapy focuses on 
changing in the patterns within the individual and the patterns you treat 
others 
❖  Family Systems Theory  The family is a complex system that works to maintain the status quo  Roots of disorder are within the family 
background image ▪  Often use family system therapy to treat children with psychological 
disorders because the family is where all the growth occurs and possible 
problems that occur – it’s a place where they can’t escape their problems 
Especially applicable to treatment of children  ▪  Ex: if in your family, expressing negative emotions was the norm or not at 
all. If it was okay to cry/be angry with one another or it wouldn’t be okay 
at all.  
❖  Social Structural Theories  Deal with stressors and how they are distributed in society – stressors are 
distributed unequally across society 
▪  Being raised in Low SES, higher risk of mental disorders (schools have less 
access to good education, more police officers keeping an high on the 
children, and fewer resources for everyday living – impact ability to pay 
attention and more likely to experience substance abuse or prison or 
depression/anxiety) 
Psychopathology influenced by social standing, stigma (create risk factors or 
unequal stress – sexual or racial minorities, disabilities, etc.) – people deal with 
these restraints in society but also the negative association of these 
minority/disabilities society has towards them.  
▪  Race  ▪  Socioeconomic status  ▪  Gender  ▪  Sexual identity/sexual orientation  •  If 2 kids, same age, shoplift but one is white and the other is black  – consequences are greater for the black child which creates more 
of a stressor which can lead to depression/anxiety/substance 
abuse, etc.  
This can also contribute to psychopathology in the sense 
that the white kid, if he gets away with it, then it teaches 
him that it’s not that bad if he breaks the law and will 
probably continue to do it – reinforcement.  
Diathesis-Stress Model  You need both!!! 
 
Vulnerability + Stress -> Abnormal Behavior       Vulnerability – someone susceptible to develop mental disorders such as biological 
(genetic makeup), sociological/psychological (low SES). Not everyone who lives in these 
situation do not develop these disorders.  
  Stress  For psychological disorders to develop, you need both a vulnerability and a 
stressor 
The more vulnerability the individual has, the less serious the stressor has to be 

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School: Florida State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Natalie Sachs-Ericsson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: abnormal and Psychology
Name: Abnormal Psych, Week 2 Notes
Description: Causes of Abnormality, the theories and therapies used to treat mental disorders & the Diathesis-Stress Model
Uploaded: 01/21/2018
8 Pages 30 Views 24 Unlocks
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